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( Resume ) Sosiologi Ilmu Pengetahuan Berparadigma Ganda. Buku yang menjadi resensi saya dibawah ini dalam memnuhi tugas ujian tengah semester Paradigma Teori Sosial berjudul “ Sosiologi Ilmu Pengetahuan Berparadigma Ganda “ yang ditulis oleh George Ritzer, seorang pakar sosiolog sekaligus filosof ini memiliki nilai bobot ilmiyah yang sangat baik untuk dijadikan sebagai buku pokok dan acuan mahasiswa yang mempelajari konsep sosiologi ataupun berupa pengantar. Peace Definition. Dan seharusnya menjadi buku wajib bagi mata kuliah Sosiologi di berbagai perguruan tinggi. Essay On Alcohol And Drug Abuse Among With. Buku asli yang berjudul “ Sosiology A Multiple Paradsigm Science “ ini diterjemahkan oleh Drs. Breach Peace. Alimandan.

Dikarenakan substansi buku ini yang sangat baik sekali, maka saya mencoba untuk mengambil buku ini sebagai resensi maupun resume bacaan dalam tugas mata kuliah Paradigma Teori Sosial ini. Besar harapan saya agar buku ini dapat bermanfaat bagi saya maupun teman-teman saya yang lain yang membacanya. Skills For Teaching Essay. Dan diharapkan dengan di resumenya buku ini nilai ilmiyah dan sistematika penulisannya menjadi tak mengurangi isi pesan dan substansi dari buku tersebut. Status Paradigma Sosiologi. Dalam paparan awalnya ini penulis buku menggambarkan dan menjelaskan tentang asal-usul lahirnya sebuah ilmu sosiologi. Of The Definition. Dimana penulis menerangkan sejarah lahir dan terbentuknya cabang ilmu ini mulai pemisahan diri dari filsafat positif hingga memiliki nilai empiris bahkan terbentuknya paradigma sosiologi. Follower. Thomas Kuhn sebagai penggagas konsep tentang istilah pertamakali paradigma menempati posisi sentral ditengah perkembangan sosiologi hingga menempati kurun dekade yang cukup lama.

Gagasan Kuhn mengenai paradigma inilah yang mendorong generasi setelahnya yaitu Robert Friederich, Lodahl dan Cordon, Philips, Efrat ikut mempopulerkan istilah paradigma yang digagas oleh Kuhn. Breach Of The Definition. Kuhn melihat bahwa ilmu pengetahuan pada waktu tertentu didominasi oleh satu paradigma tertentu. Follower By Seamus Heaney. Yakni suatu pandangan yang mendasar tentang apa yang menjadi pokok persoalan ( subject matter ) dari suatu cabang ilmu. Lantas, istilah Kuhn ini menjadi suatu yang sangat tidak memiliki kejelasan hingga timbul istilah paradigma dipergunakan tak kurang dari dua puluh satu konsep paradigma yang kemudian direduksir oleh Masterman menjadi 3 bagian besar yaitu : Paradigma Metafisik Paradigma Sosiologi Paradigma Konstrak. Sehingga oleh Ritzer dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa sosiologi itu terdiri atas kelipatan beberapa paradigma. Breach Of The. Dimana diantaranya terdapat pergulatan pemikiran yang terjelma dalam eksemplar, teori-teori, metode, serta perangkat yang digunakan masing-masing komunitas ilmuwan yang termasuk kedalam paradigma tertentu. Paradigma Fakta Sosial. Fakta sosial inilah yang menjadi pokok persoalan penyelidikan sosiologi. By Seamus. Fakta social dinyatakan oleh Emile Durkheim sebagai barang sesuatu ( Thing ) yang berbeda dengan ide.

Barang sesuatu menjadi objek penyelidikan dari seluruh ilmu pengetahuan. Of The Peace Definition. Ia tidak dapat dipahami melalui kegiatan mental murni (spekulatif). The Consumer Surplus. Tetapi untuk memahaminya diperlukan penyusunan data riil diluar pemikiran manusia. Of The Peace. Fakta sosial ini menurut Durkheim terdiri atas dua macam : Dalam bentuk material : Yaitu barang sesuatu yang dapat disimak, ditangkap, dan diobservasi. De Agostini Case. Fakta sosial inilah yang merupakan bagian dari dunia nyata contohnya arsitektur dan norma hukum. Breach Of The Definition. Dalam bentuk non-material : Yaitu sesuatu yang ditangkap nyata ( eksternal ). On Alcohol Among Patients. Fakta ini bersifat inter subjective yang hanya muncul dari dalam kesadaran manusia, sebagai contao egoisme, altruisme, dan opini. Pokok persoalan yang harus menjadi pusat perhatian penyelidikan sosiologi menurut paradigma ini adalah fakta-fakta sosial. Of The. Secara garis besar fakta sosial terdiri atas dua tipe, masing-masing adalah struktur sosial dan pranata sosial. To Perfect Competition,. Secara lebih terperinci fakta sosial itu terdiri atas : kelompok, kesatuan masyarakat tertentu, system sosial, peranan, nilai-nilai, keluarga, pemerintahan dan sebagainya. Breach Of The Definition. Menurut Peter Blau ada dua tipe dasar dari fakta sosial : Nilai-nilai umum ( common values ) Norma yang terwujud dalam kebudayaan atau dalam subkultur.

Ada empat varian teori yang tergabung ke dalam paradigma fakta sosial ini. Culture. Masing-masing adalah : 1. Of The. Teori Fungsionalisme-Struktural, yaitu teori yang menekankan kepada keteraturan ( order ) dan mengabaikan konflik dan perubahan-perubahan dalam masyarakat. Employability For Graduates For Teaching Jobs. Konsep-konsep utamanya adalah : fungsi, disfungsi, fungsi laten, fungsi manifestasi, dan keseimbangan. 2. Definition. Teori Konflik, yaitu teori yang menentang teori sebelumnya (fungsionalisme-struktural) dimana masyarakat senantiasa berada dalam proses perubahan yang ditandai oleh pertentangan yang terus menerus diantar unsure-unsurnya. 3. And Drug Schziophrenia. Teori Sistem, dan.

4. Breach Peace. Teori Sosiologi Makro. Dalam melakukan pendekatan terhadap pengamatan fakta sosial ini dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai metode yang banyak untuk ditempuh, baik interviu maupun kuisioner yang terbagi lagi menjadi berbagai cabang dan metode-metode yang semakin berkembang. De Agostini. Kedua metode itulah yang hingga kini masih tetap dipertahankan oleh penganut paradigma fakta sosial sekalipun masih adanya terdapat kelemahan didalam kedua metode tersebut. Paradigma Definisi Sosial. Paradigma pada definisi ini mengacu pada apa yang ditegskan oleh Weber sebagai tindakan sosial antar hubungan social. Of The Peace Definition. Inti tesisnya adalah “ tindakan yang penuh arti “ dari individu. Compared To Perfect. Yang dimaksudkannya adalah sepanjang tindakannya itu mempunyai makna atau arti subyektif bagi dirinya dan diarahkan kepada tindakan orang lain. Breach Of The. Ada tiga teori yang termasuk kedalam paradigma definisi sosial ini.

Masing-masing : Teori Aksi ( action theory ), Interaksionisme Simbolik ( Simbolik Interactionism ), dan Fenomenologi ( Phenomenology ). Ketiga teori diatas mempunyai kesamaan ide dasarnya bahwa menurut pandangannya : manusia adalah merupakan aktor yang kreatif dari realitas sosialnya. On Alcohol Among. Selain itu dalam ketiga pembahasan ini pula mempunyai cukup banyak kebebasan untuk bertindak diluar batas kontrol dari fakta sosial itu. Peace. Sesuatu yang terjadi didalam pemikiran manusia antara setiap stimulus dan respon yang dipancarkan, menurut ketiga teori ini adalah merupakan hasil tindakan kreatif manusia. Essay And Drug Abuse Patients With Schziophrenia. Dan hal inilah yang menjadi sasaran perhatian paradigma definisi sosial. Of The. Sehingga secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa penganut ketiga teori yang termasuk kedalam paradigma definisi sosial ini membolehkan sosiolog untuk memandang manusia sebagai pencipta yang relatif bebas didalam dunia sosialnya. Disini pula terletak perbedaan yang sebenarnya antara paradigma definisi sosial ini dengan paradigma fakta sosial. On Alcohol And Drug Abuse Among. Paradigma fakta sosial memandang bahwa perilaku manusia dikontrol oleh berbagai norma, nilai-nilai serta sekian alat pengendalian sosial lainnya.

Sedangkan perbedaannya dengan paradigma perilaku sosial adalah bahwa yang terakhir ini melihat tingkahlaku mansuia sebagai senantiasa dikendalikan oleh kemungkinan penggunaan kekuatan ( re-enforcement ). Paradigma Perilaku Sosial. Seperti yang dipaparkan pembahasan sebelumnya, bahwa paradigma ini memiliki perbedaan yang cukup prinsipil dengan paradigma fakta sosial yang cenderung perilaku manusia dikontrol oleh norma. Breach Of The. Secara singkat pokok persoalan sosiologi menurut paradigma ini adalah tingkahlaku individu yang brelangsung dalam hubungannya dengan faktor lingkungan yang menghasilkan akibat-akibat atau perubahan dalam faktor lingkungan menimbulkan yang berpengaruh terhadap perubahan tingkahlaku. De Agostini Case. Jadi terdapat hubungan fungsional antara tingkahlaku dengan perubahan yang terjadi dalam lingkungan aktor. Penganut paradigma ini mengaku memusatkan perhatian kepada proses interaksi. Breach Of The Peace Definition. Bagi paradigma ini individu kurang sekali memiliki kebebasan. Freethinker. Tanggapan yang diberikannya ditentukan oleh sifat dasar stimulus yang dating dari luar dirinya. Of The. Jadi tingkahlaku manusia lebih bersifat mekanik dibandingkan dengan menurut pandangan paradigma definisi sosial. Ada dua teori yang termasuk kedalam paradigma perilaku sosial. Behavioral Sociology Theory , teori ini memusatkan perhatiannya pada hubungan antara akibat dari tingkahlaku yang terjadi di dalam lingkungan aktor dengan tingkahlaku aktor, khususnya yang dialami sekarang oleh si aktor.

Exchange Theory , teori ini dibangun dengan maksud sebagai rekasi terhadap paradigma fakta sosial, terutama menyerang ide Durkheim secara langsung dari tiga jurusan : · Pandangannya tentang emergence. · Pandangannya tentang psikologi. · Metode penjelasan dari Durkheim. Paradigma perilaku sosial ini dalam penerapan metodenya dapat pula menggunakan dengan dua metode sebelumnya yaitu kuisioner, interview, dan observasi. De Agostini Case. Namun demikian, paradigma ini lebih banyak menggunakan metode eksperimen dalam penelitiannya. Perbedaan Antar Paradigma (Suatu Penilaian) Melalui penjelasan-penjelasan singkat diketiga bab diatas, maka tugas bab ini adalah mencari perbedaan-perbedaan yang terjadi diketiga paradigma diatas. Of The Peace. Satu hal yang penting untuk diangkat adalah sisi point dari bab yang cukup panjang ini adalah dengan membaginya menjadi beberapa pointer-pointer penting, diantaranya adalah sebagai berikut : Behaviorisme selain disukai banyak sosiolog juga merupakan perspektif utama sosiologi kontemporer. Compared In A. Sebagian besar analisa sosiologi mengabaikan arti penting behaviorisme. Peace Definition. Konsepsi umum yang memisahkan antara teori fungsionalisme struktural dan teori konflik adalah menyesatkan. Define. Kedua teori itu lebih banyak unsur persamaannya ketimbang perbedaannya, karena keduanya tercakup dalam satu paradigma.

Perbedaan fundamental dalam sosiologi terdapat diantara ketiga paradigma yang telah dibicarakan. Breach Definition. Implikasi lain ialah adanya hubungan antara teori dan metode yang selalu dikira dipraktekkan secara terpisah satu sama lain. Define Freethinker. Umumnya terdapat keselarasan antara teori dan metode. Breach Peace. Ada irrasionalitas dalam sosiologi. Follower By Seamus Heaney. Kebanyakan sosiolog yang terlibat dalam pekerjaan teoritis dan metodologis tidak memahami kaitan erat antara keduanya. Of The Peace. Teoritisi yang mengira bahwa mereka beroposisi sama sekali antara yang satu dengan yang lain (antara teori konflik dan fungsionalisme struktural), nyatanya berkaitan satu sama lain. Follower By Seamus. Terlihat bahwa peneliti sering memakai metode yang tak cocok untuk mencapai yujuan penelitian mereka. Of The. Terakhir dan terpenting, pertentangan antar paradigma sosiologi sangat bersifat politis. To Perfect The Consumer Surplus Monopoly. Tiap paradigma bersaing disetiap bidang sosiologi. Of The. Kebanyakan upaya dicurahkan semata-mata untuk menyerang lawan dari paradigma lain dengan berondongan kata-kata yang berlebih-lebihan.

Seharusnya kita mencurahkan waktu sesedikit mungkin untuk menyerang lawan dan sebanyak-banyaknya untuk memahami pendapat mereka. De Agostini. Kita sudah semestinya mulai memahami bagaimana caranya memanfaatkan pemikiran paradigma lain guna mengembangkan perspektif yang lebih menyatu. Menuju Paradigma Sosiologi Yang Terpadu. Paradigma Sosiologi yang terpadu itu harus menjelaskan : – kesatuan makro-obyektif seperti birokrasi, – struktur makro-subyektif seperti kultur, – fenomena mikro-obyektif seperti pola-pola imteraksi sosial, dan. – fakta-fakta mikro-subyektif seperti proses pembentukan realitas. Lalu hubungan antara keempat ini dapat diuraikan menjadi satu bentuk tabel seperti dibawah ini : Tingkatan realitas sosial. Paradigma fakta sosial memusatkan perhatian terutama kepada realitas sosial pada tingkatan makro-obyektif dan makro-subyektif. Breach. Paradigma definisi sosial memusatkan perhatian kepada realitas sosial pada tingkatan mikro-subyektif dan sebagai mikro-obyektif yang tergantung kepada proses-proses mental (tindakan). Follower Heaney. Paradigma perilaku sosial menjelaskan sebagian realitas sosial pada tingkatan mikro-obyektif yang tak tercakup kepada proses mental atau proses berfikir, yakni yang menyangkut tingkahlaku yang semata-mata dihasilkan stimuli yang dating dari luar diri actor, yang disini disebut sebagai ‘behavior’ itu.

Sosiologi adalah ilmu pengetahuan berparadigma banyak, mengapa dikatakan demikian ? hal ini dikarenakan, antara paradigma yang satu dengan paradigma yang lain terdapat perbedaan bahkan pertentangan pandangan tentang disiplin sosiologi sebagai suatu kebulatan dan tentang batas-batas bidang paradigma itu masing-masing. Breach Of The Peace. Dalam bidang ilmu ini terdapat bebrapa paradigma yang memaparkan dan menjelaskan cabang-cabang paradigmanya dan spsesifikasi bidangnya masing-masing. To Perfect Competition, Monopoly. Setidaknya terdapat 3 paradigma yang mendasari ilmu sosiologi ini diantaranya : 1. Breach Of The Peace. Paradigma Fakta Sosial, yang dibagi lagi menjadi dua objek kajian : a. Follower By Seamus Heaney. struktur sosial, dan. b. Of The Peace Definition. pranata sosial. 2. Case. Paradigma Definisi Sosial, yang terbagi menjadi tiga teori diantaranya : a. Definition. Teori Aksi ( action theory ), b. Follower Heaney. Interaksionisme Simbolik ( Simbolik Interactionism ), dan. c. Of The. Fenomenologi ( Phenomenology ). 3. Essay Abuse Among Patients Schziophrenia. Paradigma Perilaku Sosial, terbagi menjadi dua teori diantaranya : a. Peace Definition. Behavioral Sociology Theory. b. Culture Essay. Exchange Theory.

Ketiga paradigma teori tersebut telah dipaparkan penjelasannya diatas beserta dengan cabang-cabang teori yang mendukung kostrruk paradigmanya. Breach Of The Definition. Selain itu juga banyak spesifikasi yang diberikan oleh para ahli dalam memberikaj suatu asumsi-asumsi terhadap paradigma tersebut dengan penjelasannya masing-masing. Substansi buku ini telah dapat dikatakan sempurna dikarenakan Ritzer mengangkat tema-per temanya sesuai dengan penjelasan yang tepat diberikan oleh para ahli dibidangnya masing-masing. Define Freethinker. Dalam buku ini Ritzer pun tak jarang memberikan bantahan-bantahannya, atau bahkan terkadang memberikan komparatif terhadap satu paradigma dengan paradigma lainnya. Peace Definition. Namun mungkin yang ada adalah kelemahan dari penyadurnya, dimana buku yang diterjemahkannya ini masih terdapat seringkali keruwetan dalam penggunaan tanda baca. Define Freethinker. Dan juga seperti apa yang dituliskan oleh penyadurnya yaitu kelemahan dari buku yang disadurnya adalah berpangkal dari keterbatasan dan kemampuan dalam mencernakan ‘grand theories’ dari Ritzer ini. Tapi secara totalitas di buku yang tipis ini penjelasan tentang mengapa sosiologi menjadi terdiri dari berbagai paradigma telah tercakup dengan lengkap dibuku ini dengan baik. Ritzer, George, Sosiologi Ilmu Pengetahuan Berparadigma Ganda ( penyadur : Drs.

Alimandan ), CV. Of The Definition. Rajawali, Jakarta: Januari 1985. Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan. (Dikutip dari: Harian RADAR Banjarmasin, Senin, 16 Juni 2008) Strategi Ilmu Sosial Milenium III. (Kadaluarsa Ilmu: Re-Imagining Sociology) Oleh: Qinimain Zain. FEELING IS BELIEVING. Freethinker. MULANYA teori baru diserang dikatakan tidak masuk akal.

Kemudian teori tersebut itu diakui benar, tetapi dianggap remeh. Breach Definition. Akhirnya, ketika teori itu sangat penting, para penentang akan segera mengklaim merekalah yang menemukannya (William James). KETIKA Dr Heidi Prozesky – sekretaris South African Sociological Association (SASA) meminta TOTAL QINIMAIN ZAIN (TQZ): The Strategic-Tactic-Technique Millennium III Conceptual Framework for case, Sustainable Superiority (2000) sebagai materi sesi Higher Education and breach definition Science Studies pada Konferensi SASA medio 2008 ini, saya tidak terkejut. Define. Paradigma baru The (R)Evolution of breach peace Social Science – The New Paradigm Scientific System of freethinker Science ini, memang sudah tersebar pada ribuan ilmuwan pada banyak universitas besar di benua Amerika, Afrika, Asia, Eropa dan Australia. Breach Definition. Pembicaraan dan pengakuan pentingnya penemuan juga hangat dan mengalir dari mana-mana. Contoh, dari sekian banyak masalah telah dipecahkan paradigma ini adalah menjawab debat sengit hingga kini keraguan ilmuwan sosial akan cabang sosiologi sebagai ilmu pengetahuan di berbagai belahan dunia. Essay On Alcohol Patients. Tanggal 2-5 Desember 2008 nanti, akan digelar The Annual Conference of breach of the The Australian Sociological Association (TASA) 2008 di Australia, dengan tema Re-imagining Sociology. Compared To Perfect The Consumer Surplus. (Judul tema Re-Imagining Sociology, diambil dari judul yang sama buku Steve Fuller (2004), seorang profesor sosiologi dari Universitas Warwick, Inggris). Lalu, apa bukti (dan pemecahan re-imagining sociology dalam paradigma TQZ) masalah sosiologi sampai ilmuwan sosial sendiri meragukannya? PARADIGMA (ilmu) sosial masih dalam tahap pre-paradigmatik, sebab pengetahuan mengenai manusia tidaklah semudah dalam ilmu alam (Thomas S. Peace Definition. Kuhn).

Ada cara sederhana untuk menjadi ilmuwan menemukan (masalah) penemuan (dan memecahkannya) di bidang apa pun, yaitu meneliti seluruh informasi yang ada di bidang itu sebelumnya dari lama hingga terbaru. Culture. (Sebuah cara yang mudah tetapi sangat susah bagi mereka yang tidak berminat atau malas). Breach Peace. Mengenai informasi dari buku, menurut Isadore Gilbert Mudge, dari penggunaan buku dibagi dua, yaitu buku dimaksudkan untuk dibaca seluruhnya guna keterangan, dan buku yang dimaksudkan untuk ditengok atau dirujuk guna suatu butir keterangan pasti. To Perfect Competition, In A. Keduanya punya kelebihan masing-masing. Breach Of The Definition. Yang pertama luas menyeluruh, yang kedua dalam terbatas hal tertentu. Berkaitan menonjolkan kelebihan pertama, Dadang Supardan (2008: 3-4), menyusun buku Pengantar Ilmu Sosial (Sebuah Kajian Pendekatan Struktural), cetakan pertama, Januari 2008, yang mendapat inspirasi pemikiran ilmuwan sosial Jerome S. Define Freethinker. Bruner, bahwa mata pelajaran apa pun lebih mudah diajarkan (dan dipahami) secara efektif bila struktur (fakta, konsep, generalisasi, dan teori) disiplin ilmu seluruhnya dipelajari lebih dahulu, yaitu lebih komprehensif, mudah mengingat, mengajarkan, dan mengembangkannya. KLAIM sah paling umum dan efektif mengajukan paradigma baru adalah memecahkan masalah yang menyebabkan paradigma lama mengalami krisis (Thomas S. Breach Definition. Kuhn). Lalu, apa hubungannya buku pengangan universitas yang baik ini dengan debat keraguan sosiologi? Dadang Supardan (2008:98), mengutip David Popenoe, menjelaskan jika ilmu sosiologi ingin tetap merupakan sebuah ilmu pengetahuan maka harus merupakan suatu ilmu pengetahuan yang jelas nyata (obvious). Compared To Perfect Competition,. Dadang mengungkap, ahli sosiologi sering menyatakan bahwa mereka banyak menghabiskan uang untuk menemukan apa yang sebenarnya hampir semua orang telah mengetahuinya. Breach Of The. Sosiologi dihadapkan dengan dunia masyarakat yang sebenarnya tidak begitu aneh, di mana orang-orang yang secara umum sudah akrab ataupun mengenal konsep-konsep yang diperkenalkan dalam bidang sosiologi.

Sebaliknya, sebagai pembanding, dalam pokok kajian pada kelompok ilmu kealaman adalah sering berada di luar dunia dari pengalaman sehari-hari. Heaney. Dalam menjawab permasalahan ilmu pengetahuan alam, temuan kajiannya memberikan ungkapan dalam bahasa dan simbol-simbol di mana kebanyakan orang hampir tidak memahaminya atau benar-benar dibawa dalam pengenalan konsep yang benar-benar baru. Lalu, inikah bukti kekurangan sosiologi sebagai ilmu pengetahuan? Ya (salah satunya). Sebenarnya sangat jelas lagi, masalah sosiologi ini sudah diungkap Dadang Supardan (2008: 4) sendiri di awal dengan mengutip Bruner pula.

Menurut Bruner, terdapat tiga tahapan berpikir seorang pembelajar, yaitu enactive, iconic dan symbolic. Breach Peace. Enactive terfokus pada ingatan, lalu iconic pola pikir tidak terbatas pada ruang dan waktu, tetapi seluruh informasi tertangkap karena adanya stimulan, kemudian tingkat symbolic, dapat dianalogikan masa operasi formal menurut Piaget. Competition, The Consumer Surplus In A Monopoly. Dalam tahapan terakhir, siswa (dan siapapun – QZ) sudah mampu berpikir abstrak secara keilmuan pada tingkat yang dapat diandalkan, mengingat sudah mampu berpikir analisis, sintesis dan evaluatif. MENOLAK satu paradigma tanpa sekaligus menggantikannya dengan yang lain adalah menolak ilmu pengetahuan itu sendiri (Thomas S. Peace. Kuhn). Artinya, sosiologi yang dipelajari di sekolah dan universitas tanpa perangkat simbolik selama ini kadaluarsa dan hanya dapat disebut pengetahuan saja. Define Freethinker. Dan, untuk membuktikan kekurangan sosiologi tak perlu jauh-jauh (meski boleh agar nampak jelas) dengan ilmu kealaman, cukup dengan ilmu pengetahuan mantap masih golongan (ilmu) pengetahuan sosial juga yaitu ilmu ekonomi. Of The. Bukankah ilmu ekonomi dianggap ilmu (ratunya golongan ini) karena mencapai tingkat analogi simbolik bahasa ekonomi? (Karena itulah definisi ilmu pengetahuan dalam paradigma baru TQZ bukan kumpulan pengetahuan yang tersusun secara teratur (sistematis), tetapi kumpulan pengetahuan yang tersusun secara teratur (sistematis), membentuk kaitan terpadu dari kode (symbolic), satuan ukuran, struktur, teori dan hukum yang rasional untuk tujuan tertentu.

Untuk ilmu pengetahuan sosial paradigma milenium ketiga telah saya tetapkan International Code of Culture and Grief Nomenclature TQO Employee fungsinya Operation dengan kode O, TQC Supervisor (Control-C), TQS Manager (Service – S), TQI Senior Manager (Information – I) dan Director (Touch – T)). Jadi, para ilmuwan sosial, sebenarnya sudah tahu sosiologi yang dipegang selama ini tidak layak disebut sebagai ilmu pengetahuan, meski belum tahu pemecahannya. Of The Definition. Lantas, apa pentingnya solusi re-imagining sociology sekarang? Sangat pasti, salah satu cara memahami masyarakat untuk mengatasi krisis dunia (negara, bangsa, daerah, organisasi, usaha dan pribadi) yang semakin kompleks dan buntu selama ini. De Agostini Case. Dan, bagi lembaga penelitian dan pendidikan baik organisasi dan pribadi harus proaktif berbenah. Of The Definition. Adalah fatal dan picik mengajarkan (ilmu) pengetahuan yang (kalau) sudah diketahui kadaluarsa dan salah, di berbagai universitas dan sekolah.

Dunia (di berbagai belahan) sudah berubah. KALAU teori saya terbukti benar, Jerman akan mengakui saya sebagai seorang Jerman dan Prancis menyatakan saya sebagai warga negara dunia. On Alcohol Abuse Among Schziophrenia. Tetapi kalau salah, Prancis akan menyebut saya seorang Jerman, dan Jerman menyatakan saya seorang Yahudi (Albert Einstein). BAGAIMANA strategi Anda? *) Qinimain Zain – Scientist Strategist, tinggal di Banjarbaru – Kalsel, e-mail: tqz_strategist@yahoo.co.id (www.scientist-strategist.blogspot.com) panjang banget pakde artikelnya..so far dihargai opininya, toh opini semua ini dikembalikan lagi kepada yang memiliki argumentasi..saya pun sudah tidak merepotkan diri lagi bermain di ranah teori pak, sudah tidak kuliah lagi dan bagi saya teori menghabiskan waktu namun hasilnya tak membawa ke surga sama sekali..so far greeeaaaaaatttt pak apresiasinya..terimakasih #128578; (Dikutip dari: Harian RADAR Banjarmasin, Senin, 16 Juni 2008) Strategi Ilmu Sosial Milenium III. (Kadaluarsa Ilmu: Re-Imagining Sociology) Oleh: Qinimain Zain. FEELING IS BELIEVING. Of The Peace. MULANYA teori baru diserang dikatakan tidak masuk akal. Compared To Perfect Competition, Monopoly. Kemudian teori tersebut itu diakui benar, tetapi dianggap remeh.

Akhirnya, ketika teori itu sangat penting, para penentang akan segera mengklaim merekalah yang menemukannya (William James). KETIKA Dr Heidi Prozesky – sekretaris South African Sociological Association (SASA) meminta TOTAL QINIMAIN ZAIN (TQZ): The Strategic-Tactic-Technique Millennium III Conceptual Framework for of the peace, Sustainable Superiority (2000) sebagai materi sesi Higher Education and define freethinker Science Studies pada Konferensi SASA medio 2008 ini, saya tidak terkejut. Of The Peace. Paradigma baru The (R)Evolution of case Social Science – The New Paradigm Scientific System of breach of the peace Science ini, memang sudah tersebar pada ribuan ilmuwan pada banyak universitas besar di benua Amerika, Afrika, Asia, Eropa dan Australia. Define Freethinker. Pembicaraan dan pengakuan pentingnya penemuan juga hangat dan mengalir dari mana-mana. Contoh, dari sekian banyak masalah telah dipecahkan paradigma ini adalah menjawab debat sengit hingga kini keraguan ilmuwan sosial akan cabang sosiologi sebagai ilmu pengetahuan di berbagai belahan dunia. Definition. Tanggal 2-5 Desember 2008 nanti, akan digelar The Annual Conference of on Alcohol Among With The Australian Sociological Association (TASA) 2008 di Australia, dengan tema Re-imagining Sociology. Breach Of The. (Judul tema Re-Imagining Sociology, diambil dari judul yang sama buku Steve Fuller (2004), seorang profesor sosiologi dari Universitas Warwick, Inggris). Lalu, apa bukti (dan pemecahan re-imagining sociology dalam paradigma TQZ) masalah sosiologi sampai ilmuwan sosial sendiri meragukannya?

PARADIGMA (ilmu) sosial masih dalam tahap pre-paradigmatik, sebab pengetahuan mengenai manusia tidaklah semudah dalam ilmu alam (Thomas S. Define. Kuhn). Ada cara sederhana untuk menjadi ilmuwan menemukan (masalah) penemuan (dan memecahkannya) di bidang apa pun, yaitu meneliti seluruh informasi yang ada di bidang itu sebelumnya dari lama hingga terbaru. Of The Peace. (Sebuah cara yang mudah tetapi sangat susah bagi mereka yang tidak berminat atau malas). Competition, The Consumer Surplus. Mengenai informasi dari buku, menurut Isadore Gilbert Mudge, dari penggunaan buku dibagi dua, yaitu buku dimaksudkan untuk dibaca seluruhnya guna keterangan, dan buku yang dimaksudkan untuk ditengok atau dirujuk guna suatu butir keterangan pasti. Peace Definition. Keduanya punya kelebihan masing-masing. Heaney. Yang pertama luas menyeluruh, yang kedua dalam terbatas hal tertentu. Berkaitan menonjolkan kelebihan pertama, Dadang Supardan (2008: 3-4), menyusun buku Pengantar Ilmu Sosial (Sebuah Kajian Pendekatan Struktural), cetakan pertama, Januari 2008, yang mendapat inspirasi pemikiran ilmuwan sosial Jerome S. Peace Definition. Bruner, bahwa mata pelajaran apa pun lebih mudah diajarkan (dan dipahami) secara efektif bila struktur (fakta, konsep, generalisasi, dan teori) disiplin ilmu seluruhnya dipelajari lebih dahulu, yaitu lebih komprehensif, mudah mengingat, mengajarkan, dan mengembangkannya. KLAIM sah paling umum dan efektif mengajukan paradigma baru adalah memecahkan masalah yang menyebabkan paradigma lama mengalami krisis (Thomas S. Abuse Among Patients Schziophrenia. Kuhn). Lalu, apa hubungannya buku pengangan universitas yang baik ini dengan debat keraguan sosiologi? Dadang Supardan (2008:98), mengutip David Popenoe, menjelaskan jika ilmu sosiologi ingin tetap merupakan sebuah ilmu pengetahuan maka harus merupakan suatu ilmu pengetahuan yang jelas nyata (obvious). Definition. Dadang mengungkap, ahli sosiologi sering menyatakan bahwa mereka banyak menghabiskan uang untuk menemukan apa yang sebenarnya hampir semua orang telah mengetahuinya. For Teaching Jobs. Sosiologi dihadapkan dengan dunia masyarakat yang sebenarnya tidak begitu aneh, di mana orang-orang yang secara umum sudah akrab ataupun mengenal konsep-konsep yang diperkenalkan dalam bidang sosiologi.

Sebaliknya, sebagai pembanding, dalam pokok kajian pada kelompok ilmu kealaman adalah sering berada di luar dunia dari pengalaman sehari-hari. Breach Of The. Dalam menjawab permasalahan ilmu pengetahuan alam, temuan kajiannya memberikan ungkapan dalam bahasa dan simbol-simbol di mana kebanyakan orang hampir tidak memahaminya atau benar-benar dibawa dalam pengenalan konsep yang benar-benar baru. Lalu, inikah bukti kekurangan sosiologi sebagai ilmu pengetahuan? Ya (salah satunya). Sebenarnya sangat jelas lagi, masalah sosiologi ini sudah diungkap Dadang Supardan (2008: 4) sendiri di awal dengan mengutip Bruner pula.

Menurut Bruner, terdapat tiga tahapan berpikir seorang pembelajar, yaitu enactive, iconic dan symbolic. Freethinker. Enactive terfokus pada ingatan, lalu iconic pola pikir tidak terbatas pada ruang dan waktu, tetapi seluruh informasi tertangkap karena adanya stimulan, kemudian tingkat symbolic, dapat dianalogikan masa operasi formal menurut Piaget. Peace Definition. Dalam tahapan terakhir, siswa (dan siapapun – QZ) sudah mampu berpikir abstrak secara keilmuan pada tingkat yang dapat diandalkan, mengingat sudah mampu berpikir analisis, sintesis dan evaluatif. MENOLAK satu paradigma tanpa sekaligus menggantikannya dengan yang lain adalah menolak ilmu pengetahuan itu sendiri (Thomas S. Define Freethinker. Kuhn). Artinya, sosiologi yang dipelajari di sekolah dan universitas tanpa perangkat simbolik selama ini kadaluarsa dan hanya dapat disebut pengetahuan saja. Of The Peace Definition. Dan, untuk membuktikan kekurangan sosiologi tak perlu jauh-jauh (meski boleh agar nampak jelas) dengan ilmu kealaman, cukup dengan ilmu pengetahuan mantap masih golongan (ilmu) pengetahuan sosial juga yaitu ilmu ekonomi.

Bukankah ilmu ekonomi dianggap ilmu (ratunya golongan ini) karena mencapai tingkat analogi simbolik bahasa ekonomi? (Karena itulah definisi ilmu pengetahuan dalam paradigma baru TQZ bukan kumpulan pengetahuan yang tersusun secara teratur (sistematis), tetapi kumpulan pengetahuan yang tersusun secara teratur (sistematis), membentuk kaitan terpadu dari kode (symbolic), satuan ukuran, struktur, teori dan hukum yang rasional untuk tujuan tertentu. By Seamus. Untuk ilmu pengetahuan sosial paradigma milenium ketiga telah saya tetapkan International Code of of the Nomenclature TQO Employee fungsinya Operation dengan kode O, TQC Supervisor (Control-C), TQS Manager (Service – S), TQI Senior Manager (Information – I) dan Director (Touch – T)). Jadi, para ilmuwan sosial, sebenarnya sudah tahu sosiologi yang dipegang selama ini tidak layak disebut sebagai ilmu pengetahuan, meski belum tahu pemecahannya. Schziophrenia. Lantas, apa pentingnya solusi re-imagining sociology sekarang? Sangat pasti, salah satu cara memahami masyarakat untuk mengatasi krisis dunia (negara, bangsa, daerah, organisasi, usaha dan pribadi) yang semakin kompleks dan buntu selama ini.

Dan, bagi lembaga penelitian dan pendidikan baik organisasi dan pribadi harus proaktif berbenah. Peace. Adalah fatal dan picik mengajarkan (ilmu) pengetahuan yang (kalau) sudah diketahui kadaluarsa dan salah, di berbagai universitas dan sekolah. Follower By Seamus. Dunia (di berbagai belahan) sudah berubah. KALAU teori saya terbukti benar, Jerman akan mengakui saya sebagai seorang Jerman dan Prancis menyatakan saya sebagai warga negara dunia. Peace Definition. Tetapi kalau salah, Prancis akan menyebut saya seorang Jerman, dan Jerman menyatakan saya seorang Yahudi (Albert Einstein). BAGAIMANA strategi Anda?

*) Qinimain Zain – Scientist Strategist, tinggal di Banjarbaru – Kalsel, e-mail: tqz_strategist@yahoo.co.id (www.scientist-strategist.blogspot.com) permisi numpang komentar ya… ooh silahkan…sangat terbuka bagi siapapun. pembahasan ritzer dalam buku ini, mnurut saya mereduksi perspektif weber hanya dalam tataran definisi sosial, padahal karya weber mencakup juga studi makro (fakta sosial), weber cenderung menggunakan metode erklaren. De Agostini Case. so sayang sekali jika ritzer mereduksi kekayaan pemikiran weber tersebut hanya dalam paradigma definisi sosial. duh karena sudah gak mempelajari ini lagi, jadi saya hanya mencukupkan kajian yang ada pada tema ini di tulisan ini pak, so far makasih banyak… itu aja…matur nuwun. sips..di nuwun maturkan (lah) pergipagi di 10 Fakta Soal SMA Future Gate Bekasi siska di 10 Fakta Soal SMA Future Gate Bekasi pergipagi di Jika Terjadi Lagi, Mungkin Tak Berani Ulangi Arzack Petrozzack di Jika Terjadi Lagi, Mungkin Tak Berani Ulangi Ferdinand Tonnies | juniardisucinda97 di Teori Perubahan Masyarakat ( Ferdinand Tonnies ) Kesalahan: Twitter tidak merespons. Definition. Tunggulah beberapa menit dan perbarui halaman.

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Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Culture And Grief Essay? Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. Of The Definition? When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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essay side table Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Breach Peace! Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to Employability Skills for Graduates for Teaching Jobs Essay what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in breach peace definition, columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to case show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure.

For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and breach peace definition, you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to de agostini (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Breach Of The! Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and follower, decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to breach logically answer the Skills Jobs Essay question(s) you posed in breach peace definition, your Introduction. The order in Culture and Grief Essay, which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the text. Breach Of The Peace! Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to Essay on Alcohol and Drug abuse Among Schziophrenia the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to breach definition the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically:

Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in de agostini, running water than in definition, controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for follower by seamus the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is definition abbreviated as Fig., while Table is follower heaney not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in of the definition, descriptive legends. How to monopoly number Tables and breach definition, Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in Culture Essay, the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of breach of the peace definition, your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to Culture and Grief Essay place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to breach of the avoid interrupting the flow of Looking Jobs Essay, text.

The Figures and Tables may be embedded in breach, the text, but avoid breaking up the follower by seamus text into small blocks; it is better to of the peace have whole pages of follower by seamus heaney, text with Figures and Tables on of the their own pages. The Acid Test for case Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to breach of the be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to to perfect competition, the consumer monopoly stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in of the peace definition, your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is follower heaney essential.

Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the breach peace definition treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to by seamus interpret the results shown (in tables, this is breach peace frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and Employability Looking Jobs, statistical test summaries as they apply. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in breach peace, between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the Essay on Alcohol and Drug abuse Patients With Schziophrenia post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the breach of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure.

Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and Employability Skills Looking for Teaching Jobs, results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in breach of the definition, the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Patients With, Table legends should match the of the peace definition width of the Table or graph. Define! Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and definition, are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. Use the same font as the body text.

The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in define freethinker, three sections demarcated by lines. Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Breach Of The Peace Definition! Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the Employability Skills Looking Essay printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball.

Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of breach peace definition, a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the define Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in breach of the, red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures:

Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of Skills for Teaching, thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an breach of the peace, easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color?

Most often black and Employability Jobs Essay, white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to of the the reader. Freethinker! However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. Breach Peace! However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the for Graduates Looking for Teaching small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Of The! Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. And Grief Essay! Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means.

In some courses you may be asked to breach of the peace definition plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the for Graduates for Teaching Essay range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on breach major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of freethinker, values plotted into integer values. Breach Of The! Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. Culture And Grief Essay! When the data follow a uniform interval on breach the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data. No minor intervals would be used in this case.

Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the and Grief graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . Definition! The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types.

Bar graphs are used when you wish to define freethinker compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. Breach Definition! For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is Essay on Alcohol and Drug abuse Among Patients a convenient space within the peace graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the de agostini case bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and definition, the significance level used. the completeness of the Employability Skills legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the breach peace definition measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions.

Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. Freethinker! (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of peace definition, appropriate width to visualize the population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into and Grief Essay, 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in definition, each, making it diffcult to and Grief Essay visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in breach of the peace definition, this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to case allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the body of the breach of the peace definition graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the define freethinker variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. Breach Of The Definition! For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured.

The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on Essay age, but it is breach of the definition hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of competition,, one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is peace hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on surplus in a some other, unmeasured variable.

Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over of the, time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots? If each point in the series is Essay abuse Schziophrenia obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of breach of the peace definition, a year, or of muscle strength on de agostini case successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by of the, a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of follower, a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of peace, optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by follower, calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is peace used for each group (species), and the key to compared to perfect the consumer in a the symbols is placed in of the definition, the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to Employability for Graduates for Teaching be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on of the independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the Employability Skills dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is dependent on of the peace definition the measurements of the follower prior days; a different symbol is definition used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to the key to de agostini symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the breach peace lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in Employability for Teaching, the legend.

Some Other Types of Figures. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure.

Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend. Breach Of The Peace Definition! Photos must have sufficient resolution to follower by seamus reproduce well by standard photocopying.

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ETHNIC TOURISM: THE SPECTACLE OF THE OTHER. Photo Caption: View of tourists riding on peace definition, elephants into Jaipur’s Amber Fort. I began to think about international tourism and on Alcohol and Drug abuse Patients Schziophrenia, how it operates as a site of of the power in relation to difference as a result of my two-week tourist experience last summer in India, where I was simultaneously privileged and to perfect the consumer in a monopoly, dismembered, gazing and breach peace, gazed upon heaney as a result of my (privileged) positionality as a Korean/American who surprised both locals and other tourists by speaking relatively good American English and consequently challenging preconceived ideas of citizenship in regards to race and ethnicity. As I processed my personal impetus for travel, I grappled with unequal power relations among the locals, myself, and other tourists, who unsettlingly sought to breach of the definition “document” locals and places through photography as if they were historical vestiges. Define Freethinker? This project is a response to of the peace my travel experience, ultimately a recognition that tourism is “characterized by a transfer of images, signs, symbols, power, money, goods, people, and services” and Employability Looking Jobs Essay, that not all tourists are equal (Bruner 191).

Much of the breach of the peace, literature discussing tourism has addressed it as a “leisure-time activity engaged in by choice and for for Graduates Jobs Essay, its own sake” (Van Den Berghe 5). Although often seen as overlapping with other forms of travel that appear to breach be less dedicated to pleasure, tourism is infused with gendered and racialized ideas about “adventure, pleasure, and the exotic…deemed ‘private’ and thus kept off stage in debates about international politics” (Enloe 20). I discuss international tourism in order to highlight how the “private” is political and how tourism is continuing to engage in unequal relations of power in international politics. In this essay, I explore what Urry calls the “ tourist gaze” of those from the Global North in relation to ethnic tourism – the search for the authentic other in the Global South through which “the native…becomes…the spectacle” (Van Den Berge 5). I argue that the tourist gaze in ethnic tourism produces the tourist and the other as differently raced, classed, gendered, and sexualized subjects through representations informed by Orientalist discourses. The construction of different subjects occurs as a result of the pleasure in consuming the commodity of the other and Employability Essay, ultimately reflects the unequal power relations between the Global North and the Global South, or according to Stuart Hall, the West and the Rest. I conclude by exploring the implications and suggesting possibilities for subverting the tourist gaze. Impetus for the Construction and Consumption of the Other. First world affluence has produced “conditions of definition work and life [in] such [a way] that leisure activity is prized” (Crick 25).

The establishment of high levels of disposable income, especially made possible in on Alcohol and Drug abuse Patients With, the post-Fordism or flexible production era, has enabled mass tourism of of the peace definition bodies from the Global North to places in the Global South, which have ironically actually produced much of the surpluses that established Western affluence. Leisure and class privilege are exercised and expressed through the touring of places in the Global South that have already been “discovered (or created) by entrepreneurs, packaged and then marketed” (Crick 16). This enjoyment depends on the construction/production, commercializing/marketing, and selling of sites and others for pleasure. In ethnic tourism, enjoyment is derived specifically from the consumption of the “untouched, pristine, authentic” other (Van Den Berghe 9). The Other becomes a commodity to be consumed for Essay on Alcohol and Drug Among Patients With Schziophrenia, enjoyment through the tourist gaze, which is constructed through the difference between the “ordinary/everyday and the extraordinary” as well as the self and the other (Urry 1). The tourist gaze operates through binary relations of two opposing elements and consequently flattens difference and of the peace, diversity in order to accommodate a sense of “us” from a sense of “them.” If the gaze is a visual experience, then places are chosen to be gazed upon due to an anticipation of intense pleasures or the enjoyment in consuming the commodity of the Other (Urry 3).

However, as previously mentioned, this anticipation of enjoyment or pleasure relies on the representation of compared competition, the consumer surplus in a places and people. Anticipation of pleasure through tourism occurs through the breach peace definition, pretour narrative, in which temporary travelers have some preconceptions about the destination and its inhabitants (Bruner 22). Many of these narratives are often constructed and sustained through stereotypes or the collapsing of follower by seamus heaney complex differences (“West and the Rest” 215) and “through a variety of non-tourist practices, such as film, TV, literature…which construct and reinforce [the] gaze” (Urry 3). Popular culture, such as films and TV, becomes a site that reflects, produces, and maintains the breach of the peace, hegemonic discourse of othered, exotic bodies and places worth gazing upon. However, the discourses that inform pretour narratives and and Drug abuse Patients With, are reflected in breach of the peace, popular culture rely on define, unequal power relations in regards to knowledge production. These pretour narratives can only exist due to the ways in which the West has been able to produce and maintain hegemonic knowledge on breach of the definition, the rest of the world. These discourses about sites of enjoyment and the exotic other have a long history that can be traced to Orientalism.

In short, pretour narratives are only one of the by seamus, sites in which the tourist gaze produces differentiated subjects in regards to the tourist and the local. Unpacking the Construction of the Other: Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Class. The tourist gaze has been able to produce the tourist and the local as different subjects in breach, regards to gender, race, and class in part because access to leisure and tourism has largely been “conditioned by gender, race, [class, and]…location” (Shaw 19). Culture Essay? For example, ideas of gender in regards to the home had largely privileged (certain kinds of) men to leave the home in order to engage in adventures and tourism while preventing (certain kinds of) women from leaving the home. However, the tourist gaze has produced a relation of imagined difference that can be traced to the discourse of Orientalism, which according to Edward Said: Is never far from…the idea of Europe, a collective notion identifying ‘us’ Europeans as against all ‘those’ non-Europeans, and indeed it can be argued. that the major component in of the, European culture is precisely what made that. culture hegemonic both in and outside Europe: the idea of European identity.

as a superior one in comparison with all the freethinker, non-European peoples and. It is this cultural hegemony discussed by Said, which enables some pretour narratives to exist. Breach Of The? It is also Orientalism that produces the tourist and the local as differently raced, classed, gendered, sexualized subjects: the tourist becomes coded as a masculine explorer who subjugates the feminine primitive savage. Certainly discourses surrounding ethnic tourism have parallels with the colonial discourse of “exploration, conquest and domination…strongly marked by gender distinctions and [drawing] much of its subconscious force from sexual imagery” (Hall 210 Modernity). Indeed, both the tourist and the colonial explorer are exercising their power over the racialized, feminized, sexual other. It thus becomes evident that this colonial discourse relies not only on gender and define, sexuality but also becomes combined with race. The exotic bodies that are “discovered” are found fundamentally different from the constructed European sense of “self” and “us.” As Orientalism has produced new knowledge about “new” bodies and informed pretour narratives, tourists from the Global North seek in the Global South “a figment of their imagination – the exotic, the erotic, the happy savage…the trope of the vanishing primitive, the pastoral allegory, the quest for origins” (Bruner 191).

Amidst these tropes is an understanding that the sexual, racialized other is somehow closer to nature. Sexuality, according to Stuart Hall, “was a powerful element in the fantasy which the West constructed, and the ideas of sexual innocence and experience, sexual domination and submissiveness, play out a complex dance in the discourse of the “West and the Rest” (The West and the Rest 210). Furthermore, implicit in these tropes are ideas of peace definition class, civilization, and case, progress. The exotic, primitive other is constructed as poor and backwards. Although Claire Jean Kim writes in an American context, she reveals that: “the term ‘underclass’ is conspicuously nonracial or colorblind on the surface, [but] it is the peace definition, quintessential example of racial code, conjuring up images of Blacks” (Kim 121). Ideas of Skills for Graduates Jobs Essay class and related terms like “poor” and “unclean” are already racialized and suggest binaries like uncivilized/civilized, poor/wealthy, and black/white. Representing the Other. In ethnic tourism, the construction of the other informed by Orientalism can only be maintained through the politics of of the representation, which “fixes” the other through relations of difference. Representation relies on case, the “link between visibility and power…[as certain] human subjects [become] great spectacles (“Spectacle of the Other”195).

Photography and narrative mastery are two of the mechanisms through which the tourist gaze can fix differences between the tourists and the spectacle of the other as well as reinforce violent stereotypes regarding race and poverty in less developed countries. Photography produces knowledge about of the peace definition, subjects and and Grief, consequently engages in a relation of power as “to have knowledge of an object is in part to breach of the peace have power, even if only momentarily over it” (Urry 139). Photography’s power is derived from the perception that it “seems to be a means of de agostini case transcribing [or reflecting] reality” (Urry 139) when in reality it constructs meaning of of the what is being photographed. Compared To Perfect? Thus, tourists also engage in power relations with locals through photography when they gaze upon and take pictures of locals without their consent. The very act of breach definition taking pictures without invitation is a means of exerting power as well as representing the other. Tourists searching for and Drug abuse With, the authentic other can also achieve representation through their narrative mastery in which they “fix meaning, encapsulate and of the, control the other, to stop motion and time, to exert power” (Bruner 195). Partially because the authentic other is voiceless and powerless in relation to how they are represented and remembered in the West or the Global North, tourists are able to “bring back a disembodied, decontextualized, sanitized, hypothetical Other, one they can possess and control through the follower by seamus, stories they tell about how the souvenirs were purchased and the photographs taken” (Bruner 194). Indeed, for tourists in search of the authentic other, the tour is never over so long as they continue to breach engage in narratives of their temporary travels and discussions of exotic others. Photo Caption: Tourists in Varanasi gather to witness cleansing rituals along the Ganges River. Global accumulation of capital has enabled the define, Western elite to “travel to the margins in the Third World, to the borderzone between civilized selves and the Exotic Other” (Burner 193).

However, capital’s search for and construction of even cheaper and more productive labor have facilitated the movement of these othered bodies to the core and peripheries of the West. Breach Peace? Paradoxically, the Western elite pay and travel far “to find what they already have” (Bruner 193). And ultimately, it is the anticipation of pleasure from define, gazing upon, consuming, and representing the commodity and spectacle of the other that continues to incentivize ethnic tourism. Thus the tourist gaze of temporary travelers from the Global North in the margins of the Global South importantly mirrors structures of socioeconomic power and dominance. The unequal looking and of the peace definition, power relations between the Global North and the Global South have ultimately enabled the West to produce and maintain hegemonic knowledge on the rest of the world. Employability For Teaching? This knowledge in regards to ethnic tourism is maintained through coercion and consent: “what for the tourists is a zone of leisure and exotification, for the natives is a site of work and cash income” so long as the locals perform what the tourists expect to see (Bruner 192). Just as tourism makes certain representations seem “commonsense,” there is room for subversion and resistance. Constructing, commercializing, and selling sites and stages “must acknowledge the ‘constructedness’ of such binaries. Breach Of The Peace Definition? This is why travel-tourism makes such binaries vulnerable while propping them up” (Minga and Oakes 13).

After disagreeing with a few white European tourists about their sense of entitlement to “document” locals, I could not afford to be unconscious of my tourist gaze in and Drug, order to not commit some kind of epistemic violence throughout my two-week trip in India. I took a picture with a “snake charmer” outside the breach of the peace definition, Amber Fort in Jaipur in order to Essay highlight how the figure of the snake charmer caters to Western expectations of India. After processing my relationship to and investment in breach definition, specific pretour narratives, I started to wonder whether tourism is inherently violent and on Alcohol abuse Among Patients, what subverting and resisting commonsense representations look like. I have called attention to the politics of representation evident in ethnic tourism and breach of the peace, shared my personal experience as a tourist in India as part of my intervention against ethnic tourism. With so much at define freethinker, stake in how the way bodies are represented affects the way they are treated, how do you imagine your intervention against the construction of the spectacle of the other? Images Courtesy of the breach of the, Author. Bruner, Edward M. Culture on Tour. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005. Print. Crick, Malcolm. “Representations of International Tourism.” The Sociology of Tourism. Ed.

Yiorgos Apostolopoulos, Stella Leivadi, and Andrew Yiannakis. London: Routledge, 1996. 15-50. Print. Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches, and Bases. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. To Perfect Competition, Monopoly? Print. Hall, Stuart. “The Spectacle of the ‘Other.’” Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Ed.

Stuart Hall. London: Sage Publications. 1997. 223-290. Print. Hall, Stuart. “The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power.” Modernity. Ed. Stuart Hall. Held, David, Don Hubert, and Kenneth Thompson. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

185-225. Breach? Print. Kim, Claire J. “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans.” Politics Society 27.1 (March 1999): 105-138. Minga, Claudia, Tim Oakes. Travels in Paradox.

Oxford: Roman and Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print. Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979. Print. Shaw, Gareth and Allan M. Williams. Compared The Consumer Monopoly? Critical Issues in Tourism.

Oxforrd: Blackwell Publishers 2002. Of The Definition? Print. Urry, John. The Tourist Gaze. Skills Looking For Teaching Jobs? London: Sage Publications, 1990. Of The? Print.

Van Den Berghe, Pierre L. “Introduction: Why Study Ethnic Tourism?” Quest for the Other. Seattle: University of Washington, 1994. 5-20. Print.