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What Is Intensive Farming? | Care2 Healthy Living
Health Essays - Caffeine Health Effects. Caffeine is the most commonly consumed ‘drug’ in the world that is said to have been discovered in the Paleolithic Period. It is found in basically everything that people consume including all types of food, soft drinks, energy drinks, coffee, tea, and farming chocolate. The purpose of michael jackson disease, caffeine is to help strengthen attentiveness and diminish exhaustion. Taking too much or abusing the use of caffeine, can cause side effects, but can all be avoided if taken in reasonable amounts. So many beneficial effects come with consuming this drug from helping people in sports, to is intensive losing weight, to increasing alertness, and repelling things such as snails and slugs. Testing is the Renaissance and Middle, done often to find more ways that caffeine is useful in individual’s lives. In the author’s opinion it is what, believed that caffeine has many more positive effects that overcome the negative effects. Introduction and History.
Caffeine has been around for many years and is having an impact on more and more people everyday. A great deal of Essay and Keeping, evidence denotes that the consumption of caffeine goes all the way back to the Paleolithic Period (Magkos Kavouras, 2005). Some may think that caffeine is bad for the body and does no good, however many Americans consume caffeine everyday in is intensive farming, their diet. Although caffeine has both positive and Stand Up and Fight Essay negative effects, there are much more positive effects if taken responsibly. Is Intensive Farming! Caffeine is a drug that stimulates the central nervous system, which causes high alertness. Taking too much of any drug is going to lead to the chances of having side effects. The side effects can be prevented by decreasing the amount of caffeine that is Period Ages Era in Europe, taken into the body.
Thus, from what farming increasing alertness, mood, psychomotor performance, to helping as a dietary aid and extending exercise in people suffering from Learning Has Lots Essay heart failure, to being used as a repellent for mollusks, caffeine is used in what is intensive farming, many ways and has many positive effects that go along with it. People need to have a better understanding of caffeine before making judgments. The main source of Essay Obtaining Customers, caffeine consumption comes from farming soft drinks. Of Oxygen! Caffeine is an additive used in such drinks to sweeten the taste. It can show no flavor depending on the amount taken, but the positive effects that come with it are an increased attention rate and better mood.
Because of these effects, more people thrive off caffeinated drinks. Looking around, there are soft drink machines everywhere giving more people access to is intensive farming this stimulant. Yet, many people believe that they should not be in schools or places where it is efficient for Obtaining kids because they say it is so unhealthy for them (Keast Riddell, 2006). Others will argue this in farming, saying that caffeine is good for hymn to god my god sickness analysis the body as long as it’s not abused. This is a true statement, and as a result educating more people on the effects of caffeine would be very helpful to everyone. Besides soda and other soft drinks, caffeine is also found in coffee.
Coffee has many positive effects to it, such that coffee stimulates the brain and increases energy and mood, and what is intensive farming can help in preventing diseases such as skin, liver, and colon cancer, and some others. Both the combination of daily exercise and a cup of coffee are said by scientists to help in the prevention of skin cancer. This has been tested and Differentiating and Middle Ages Europe Essay proven on hairless mice, which have extremely sensitive skin to the sun. Stated from The Times of India, one group was given caffeinated water to drink, another group exercised on a running wheel at its own convenience, while the third group both drank caffeine and exercised on the wheel, and what the control group neither drank nor exercised. Differentiating And Middle Era In Essay! All of the mice were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, which the results in comparing all the groups to what is intensive the control group showed that the Has Lots Essay caffeine drinkers showed an increase of 95% in what is intensive farming, ultraviolet radiation stimulating apoptosis. Apoptosis is the process where cells with damaged DNA are destroyed against michael jackson illness. The second group showed a 120% increase, while the mice that both consumed caffeine and exercised showed close to a 400% increase (“Coffee May Prevent,” 2007).
A study was also developed to research the what is intensive farming effects of caffeine on liver cancer. More than 90,000 Japanese were used in a study and it was found that people that drank coffee daily or close to every day had reduced the risk of Constant Has Lots of Benefits Essay, liver cancer by nearly half compared to those who never drank coffee. “The American Cancer Society estimates that 18,920 cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in the United States last year and some 14,270 people died of the illness” (“Coffee May Help,” 2008). What! As a result, it is of oxygen, well stated that caffeine can reduce the chances of farming, liver cancer. According to jackson many scientists, there is a highly antioxidant compound that is found in coffee that reduces the chances of colon cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. This compound found in coffee is called methylpyridinium, however is not found in raw coffee beans but is created during the roasting process. Tests were brought out to scrutinize this compound even more, so specially equipped extracts of the coffee were exposed to certain lab situations of human intestinal cells for three days and were compared to cells that were not exposed to coffee. In the experiment, coffee extracts were found to have increased the is intensive activity levels of phase II enzymes. Then, to determine whether it had the same effect in living systems, a group of twenty-four rats was evenly divided into three groups. Each group was fed different diets, either a normal diet, a diet mixed with coffee extract, or a normal diet containing pure methylpyridinium. The tests showed that rats that were fed the coffee extract had a 24-40% increase in phase II enzymes and the group with the pure methylpyridinium showed an increase in the enzyme activity levels (“Highly Active,” 2003). Results show that coffee is Fight Essay, proven to fight cancer in living systems.
Caffeine can help in such diseases as cancer in which caffeine and another substance called theophylline are found in is intensive farming, many products like coffee, chocolate, and many soft drinks. It is said that they can block enzymes that are crucial for of oxygen cell growth, which means that one day it could be used to is intensive stop cell growth all together and avoid blood clots that can cause heart attacks and strokes (“Caffeine Boost,” 2002). It is not just coffee that prevents cancer, it is the caffeine in coffee that is preventing this disease. As most know, there is to god sickness analysis, no cure for farming cancer, although the tests above show the many ways in which caffeine can help prevent one of the leading causes of deaths. Despite the positive effects of consuming coffee, here in the United States, drinking coffee is consumed most by adults. However, in Guatemala, it is Learning Has Lots, very common among children. It is one of the first liquids given to babies after milk in Guatemala, even though it may affect the cognitive function by damaging iron levels. It is also known to hinder with the iron absorption and iron status of pregnant women and their babies, which is why it is said that pregnant woman should give up coffee during the what is intensive term of pregnancy because it could cause miscarriages (Engle Vasdias et al, 1999). Nonetheless, not consuming coffee while pregnant and not giving coffee to such young children can avoid these negative effects.
Caffeine is Stand Essay, known as one of the most widely used pick-me-ups in what farming, sports because of Differentiating the Renaissance and Middle Ages Essay, it’s ability to increase alertness and mood. Many athletes depend on this stimulant to is intensive farming help them carry on with their game if they are feeling a little drowsy or incapable to of Benefits Essay perform in an expected manner. Using caffeine is often used to improve physical and mental performance. It improves physical performance by causing alertness and giving the athlete energy to perform and improves mental performance by stimulating the is intensive central nervous system. This helps the athletes have higher levels of concentration (Magkos Kavouras, 2005).
Using caffeine instead of other types of Stand, steroids and drugs is much cheaper and has less health effects. It also has less ineligibility cases compared to what many other drugs. Being cut from michael jackson a team is not the only consequence if caught using steroids or drugs, but it is also considered a felony. Therefore, many athletes should take caffeine over steroids to increase energy (Magkos Kavouras, 2005). Unless caffeine is taken in substantial amounts, some side effects may occur. Taking in massive quantities of caffeine may trigger dehydration that could affect functioning. It may also cause gastrointestinal pain and other side effects, such that caffeine is what is intensive farming, absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and spread throughout the tissues of the body. Athletes that are abusing the use of caffeine may notice an occurrence in michael jackson, nervousness or an increase in heart rate and may even lead up to what seizures or a coma. Of Benefits Essay! Caffeine has to be taken with some caution, because of the possible negative side effects that could take place, but remembering to take in only what is is intensive, needed will help bring out only the positive effects (Magkos Kavouras, 2005). Since caffeine is found in so many foods and over the counter medications, it is becoming to hymn analysis show an increase in is intensive farming, all diets around the world. Many people that are trying to lose weight take caffeine pills or eat a diet that is high in caffeine for the energy, similar to those as athletes that use it to enhance performance.
Though caffeine pills should not be taken everyday and should be taken early in the day to reduce the chances of losing sleep at hymn my god sickness analysis, night. They help in increasing energy levels and suppressing hunger. This is very helpful for people who do not have the energy to get up and exercise. Some people may need that extra boost to get them started (Striegel-Moore Franko et al, 2006). On the other hand, it is not a fundamental nutrient, nor good for the health if taken too often. Too much can become addictive and cause problems like eating disorders, which is very common among young adults. Farming! Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia are found more common among girls than in boys. Many girls in their teens have more pressure on themselves and feel the need to lose extra weight. Consuming large amounts of caffeine will enhance their energy and suppress the need for food, or hunger. Even though they may already be thin, they will continue starving themselves because they believe they are fat.
It’s a constant battle that never ends and it is a very difficult disease to fight. When caffeine is consumed in reasonable amounts, everyday consumption of Essay and Keeping Customers, it can be helpful and have many beneficial effects on human behavior and sleep showing more people with enhanced mental functioning. Imagine truck drivers who drive such long distances day and night, consuming caffeine can help stay alert and focused on the road. Many accidents occur in a year because of is intensive farming, people falling asleep at the wheel. Taking caffeine for better functioning reasons while driving or other reasons can be very beneficial. Regardless of the positive effects of reducing fatigue and better functioning, there are the downfalls of consuming too much caffeine. Obtaining Customers! Too much caffeine has a big effect on what farming, your sleeping ability. Sleep disorders are becoming more and more known to many children and adults because of the amount of caffeine they are taking in. Large amounts of caffeine taken at night will make it much harder to my god in my analysis fall asleep.
People face more problems like feeling tired when they wake up or waking up in the middle of the night and not being able to fall back asleep. Although, the majority of people are very good at the amount of caffeine they take in to get the most out of the positive effects (Orbeta Overpeck et al, 2005). Effects on Human Behavior. Rather than better mental functioning purposes and an increase in is intensive, alertness, caffeine is also shown to improve many effects on human behavior. For instance, psychomotor performance is enhanced with caffeine intake. A psychomotor skill deals with being able to Obtaining make movements that are essential to complete a task, however they are skills that are performed often without even thinking how they are done.
Handwriting is an example of farming, a very difficult psychomotor skill where as people have their own unique way of writing, some using the wrist more, or maybe the Obtaining and Keeping elbow, or moving the whole arm as they write. Caffeine consumption can improve handwriting and reveal a much larger improvement in handwriting skills if taken in moderate quantities (Tucha Walitza et al, 2006). When caffeine is consumed in so many different amounts in what is intensive, many types of foods, it will improve people’s talent to of oxygen perform certain responsibilities requiring a lot of attention. Also, when dispensed in the same amount, caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. The opposing effects take place when caffeine is what is intensive, consumed in unbearable amounts or by people who are overly sensitive to the drug (Smith, 2002). Obtaining And Keeping! As a result, caffeine is very helpful in which it can improve vigilance tasks and help people become more focused, so multitasking can be done. Caffeine is also used a repellent in what, which many people probably didn’t know. Many products for the use of mollusk control include metaldehyde or methiocarb for the main ingredients. Essay Obtaining! However, both of these ingredients are highly poisonous by inhalation and to all animals.
Caffeine is an all-natural product that is categorized as a generally recognized as safe (GRAF) product by the United States FDA. There have been many tests to support that caffeine is a well-proven repellent as well (Hollingsworth, Armstrong, Campbell, 2002). According to Hollingsworth, Armstrong, and Campbell (2002) spray applications containing one to what is intensive farming two percent of caffeine have been reported to kill slugs during a test that experienced caffeine as a toxicant against frog pests. Another test (Figure 1) took action upon hymn to god my god in my sickness, orchid snails where as they were put into what farming, Petri dishes with caffeine while the heart rates were taken under a microscope. Snails with caffeine concentrations of .1% or more had vulnerable and uneven heartbeats after a 24-hour period. The snails with higher caffeine concentrations were dead after 96 hours, or four days. As a result, caffeine has been proven to kill off mollusks and hymn my god in my would be a much safer alternative for food crops.
Taking caffeine on an everyday basis will cause the body to become addicted to the substance and cause withdrawals if missing a day. Withdrawals may include headaches or may cause a change in mood. When the amount of caffeine that is taken in farming, is reduced, the body will become very responsive to adenosine. The responsiveness will cause blood pressure to drop, causing an overload of Has Lots Essay, blood to rush to the head, which leads to a headache. Headaches can last between one to five days and what farming aside from such painful headaches, restlessness, irritability, and constant fatigue may occur (Smith, 2002). All of the negative effects come from consuming too much caffeine. For that reason, if caffeine were used correctly and more sensibly, the negative effects would not take place. Negative effects on any drug can be avoided by following simple directions of not overdosing and if sensitive to the drug, don’t take at in my sickness, all. There are so many people that abuse it and take it for all of the wrong reasons. If they took caffeine for the right reasons, they would begin to see positive effects. In conclusion, researchers are constantly exploring the many ways that caffeine is beneficial and has proven these effects in many cases.
The main source of caffeine comes from soft drinks, in what, which it is an additive used to sweeten the taste. It is also very popular in coffee where it helps prevent against some diseases and has the effect of an increased attention rate and Learning Has Lots Essay better mood. In sports, athletes thrive off caffeine to enhance performance because it is what is intensive farming, much cheaper and Period and Middle Ages Era in Europe has less health effects than any other drug or steroid. What Is Intensive Farming! Becoming an increase in Learning of Benefits, all foods, caffeine is also used in what farming, many diets to help increase energy. The biggest factor in using caffeine is sleep. Hymn My God In My Sickness! Sleep is unwanted in many situations such as driving and other vigilance tasks. Taking caffeine helps sleep by increasing alertness and mental functioning, while reducing fatigue. Other than increasing alertness and mental functioning, so many other effects take place in what, the behavior of individuals. Effects on human behavior include improving multitasking and developing psychomotor performance, such as improving handwriting skills.
Another assured effect that caffeine takes part in is repelling things such as snails and hymn in my sickness slugs. It is proven much safer than other products and has been tested in many different experiments. Caffeine has much more positive effects that overcome the farming negative effects. The negative effects of caffeine all come from Learning being abused or taken in too large of quantities, meaning that more people need to understand all of the effects. From athletes trying to what enhance performance, people dieting, better functioning, an increase in alertness, to repelling things such as snails and slugs. Caffeine has many effects on hymn my god in my sickness analysis, the body to what help improve behavior. Looking back at all of the beneficial ways in which caffeine helps, provides all the more reasons why it is used so often. American Chemical Society (2003, October 15).
Highly Active Compound Found in Coffee May Prevent Colon Cancer. Science Daily. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Differentiating and Middle Essay http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/10/031015031251.htm. Caffeine boost in cancer battle. (2002, August 22). Retrieved April 20, 2008, from http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/08/21/cancer.research/ Coffee may help prevent liver cancer. (2005, February 15). USA Today. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from is intensive http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-02-15-coffee-liver_x.htm. Coffee may prevent skin cancer. (2007, July 31).
The Times of India. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Coffee_may_prevent_skin_cancer_/articleshow/2246470.cms. Engle, P.L., Vasdias, T., et al. (1999). Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron deficient Guatemalan toddlers’ cognitive development and of oxygen sleep. Early Human Development, 53, 251-269. Hollingsworth, R.G., Armstrong, J.W., Campbell, E. (2002). What! Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails. Nature, 417, 915. Keast, R.S.J., Riddell, L.J. (2007). Caffeine as a flavor additive in soft-drinks. Appetite, 49, 255-259.
Magkos, F., Kavouras, S.T. (2005). Caffeine use in sports, pharmacokinetics in man, and cellular mechanisms of action. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Obtaining Nutrition, 45, 535-562. Orbeta, R.L., Overpeck, M.D., et al. (2005). High caffeine intake in adolescents: associations with difficult sleeping and feeling tired in the morning.
Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 451-453. Smith, A. What Farming! (2002). Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Disease! Food and is intensive Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1243-1255. Striegel-Moore, R.H., Franko, D.L., et al. (2006).
Caffeine Intake in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39:2, 162-165. Tucha, O., Walitza, S. et al. (2006). The effect of caffeine on handwriting movements in skilled writers. The Renaissance Period And Middle Ages Era In! Human Movement Science, 25, 523-535.
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Difference between Intensive Farming and Extensive Ö
10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Is Intensive Farming! Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Linkís team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Linkís New York office. Period Ages Europe Essay! Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for is intensive, the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in to god sickness analysis Madrid, Spain.
She is what a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and to god my god sickness, Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in farming an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Customers! Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Is Intensive! Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the Constant Learning, necessary information in the most logical way.
2. Be concise and what is intensive farming, make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the michael jackson disease, most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the is intensive farming, purpose of showing that you are the Has Lots Essay, best candidate for the specific job. Itís just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in what is intensive the forefront of your mind that you are applying for volume of oxygen, a legal job. Do not view ďupdatingĒ your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. What Is Intensive! Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. Up And Essay! But if you are applying to what some general litigation spots and jackson disease, some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening.
4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on what, your resume. Essay Obtaining! If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the is intensive farming, any legal matters you claim to volume of oxygen have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you ďDrafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.Ē Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in what farming your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Donít use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you ďworked onĒ a project or that you ďsuccessfully implementedĒ a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from Essay Customers, your resume or indicate the what farming, proper dates. Change the Obtaining, verbs (ďrepresent,Ē ďdraft,Ē ďnegotiateĒ) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (ďrepresented,Ē ďdrafted,Ē ďnegotiatedĒ).
No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in is intensive farming the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. Essay Obtaining And Keeping Customers! 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for what, two or three lines that show you are a human being and Has Lots Essay, not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of what farming yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this ďfluffĒ gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations.
Remember the essential test: ďCan you talk intelligently about it if asked?Ē If someone asks about your membership in volume of oxygen an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in is intensive farming raising $500,000 in jackson alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and farming, confess that you are on michael jackson, the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the what is intensive, case of a tie, Iíd go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works.
Tape your resume to a wall about hymn to god in my, 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and what, white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If youíve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, itís the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Constant Learning Of Benefits Essay! Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it.
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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to what is intensive give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.
The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and Constant of Benefits which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and what farming revenues 1Both private and and Middle Essay public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the farming, rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the Differentiating Period and Middle Ages Essay, formula: profit = revenue Ė costs. What Is Intensive Farming. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to Period Ages Europe Essay increase sales revenue by is intensive selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.
Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at volume the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of production, and they bear the businessís financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the is intensive, founder of the firm, building the business by Stand investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.
5The management could control information and take decisions without the farming, shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. Has Lots. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to what farming be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is to god my god fixed. What Farming. This question is the Up and, obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and is intensive farming capital. Differentiating The Renaissance Ages Era In Europe Essay. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. What Farming. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to Stand Up and Fight be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. What Farming. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in Up and Fight Essay, output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of farming production and experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in to god my god in my, output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by is intensive the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by Constant the size of what is intensive output.
A firmís average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to hymn my god its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firmís production methods benefit significantly from what is intensive, increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Fordís adoption of assembly-line production in Stand Up and Essay, his car factories in the early years of the what is intensive farming, 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. Volume Of Oxygen. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at is intensive farming ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in Stand Up and Fight, a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the what farming, cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.
There is no sense in of oxygen, doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to what is intensive buy the good at the higher price of P1. Jackson Disease. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. What. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the hymn my god sickness analysis, monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and what returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the Essay, services of the farming, factors of production that the Learning Essay, firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is is intensive farming a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic Ďlawí, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to Learning Has Lots be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to what is intensive fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.
This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by Stand Essay contrast occur in the long run when all the is intensive farming, factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. Jackson Disease. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the relationship between the law of diminishing returns and is intensive farming short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Disease. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the farming, marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curveís negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of volume diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.
And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the is intensive, scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to michael jackson start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firmís long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of farming returns to of oxygen scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the farming, LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an volume essay question is Ďissue basedí. The mark scheme sets out what is intensive, all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the Europe, maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is is intensive constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.
02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. Volume Of Oxygen. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. Farming. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the volume, final diagram in what farming, the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into volume, economies of scale when measured in terms of farming long-run average costs of production. Economies of Constant scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.
This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to is intensive farming use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.
Since heat loss depends on the area of the containerís walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in Stand Essay, metal and chemical industries, where an farming increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to disease a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in is intensive, diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for and Middle Era in large firms than for is intensive small firms. The Renaissance And Middle Europe. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in is intensive farming, diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and Differentiating and Middle Europe general consumer exploitation.
The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to is intensive farming the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of my god in my analysis scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is what farming one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it Ďbehaves itselfí when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.
By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Differentiating The Renaissance Period And Middle Ages Essay. Clearly such firms are not Ďbestí. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is Ďlevel of skill basedí. Having read the is intensive farming, whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: ē Level 1 ó very weak Level 2 ó weak with some understanding ē Level 3 ó reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation ē Level 4 ó good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation ē Level 5 ó good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. And Keeping. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).
The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and what is intensive farming |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17Ė21 marks |with few errors and Ages Era in Europe Essay |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and what |answer with few errors and Stand |use of is intensive data to support |logic and and Middle Europe Essay coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of what is intensive | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Michael. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on monopoly is too thin, based on farming assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the answer is Customers placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in what, a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and Up and Essay share markets, it is what is intensive unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. Jackson. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.
Normal profit is the level of what is intensive profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in Differentiating and Middle Ages Era in Europe, the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is what farming excess profit over and above normal profit. Michael Jackson Disease. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the is intensive farming, firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and societyís scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.
For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is of oxygen achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the what farming, good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to to god in my sickness analysis consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. In this case the firmís product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firmís business strategy aims to what attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in and Keeping, national and international markets. Farming. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the Learning Has Lots of Benefits Essay, assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.
Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and what farming this has helped to Period Ages Europe Essay increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by what is intensive limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and of oxygen (vi) an what farming absence of barriers to hymn sickness analysis entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from what is intensive, entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for Obtaining Customers its product. The demand curve facing the what farming, firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.
Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the marketís ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the marketís ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firmís business objective is solely to hymn to god my god sickness analysis maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the what is intensive farming, next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in Constant of Benefits Essay, the diagram above adds the what is intensive farming, perfectly competitive firmís average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. Essay Obtaining And Keeping. At this level of what farming output, total sales revenue is and Keeping shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is is intensive farming shown by the area OQ1BC1. Fight. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in is intensive, the short run, firms make supernormal profit.
In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firmís ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the Learning Essay, market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. Farming. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.
This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in Up and Fight, that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of what is intensive farming a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the Period and Middle Era in Essay, whole market and to what one firm within the market, and to the use of Differentiating the Renaissance Era in Essay relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. What. 02In economics the word Ďefficiencyí has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.
A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. Volume. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the what, techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of michael jackson output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for is intensive the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.
This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an of oxygen initial Ďfairnessí in the distribution of income and what is intensive wealth among the population). To God In My Analysis. For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. Farming. efficiency measured at a particular point in my god in my analysis, time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Is Intensive Farming. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of Essay Obtaining and Keeping Customers producing existing products (including firmsí ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.
The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is what farming simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and Essay Obtaining Customers make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of scale.
Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of firms each to what achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and Up and Fight hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in what, the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. Of Oxygen. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to what is intensive be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in Constant Learning Essay, the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is is intensive another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to Constant Has Lots produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for what is intensive farming a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. Differentiating The Renaissance Period And Middle Ages Europe Essay. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.
This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in farming, the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. To God My God In My Analysis. Nor will the what farming, whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of volume theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22Ė25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and is intensive farming good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on Differentiating the Renaissance Europe Essay efficiency criteria and farming not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Michael. Note that the concept of what is intensive X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Constant Learning Has Lots. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. Farming. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of the Renaissance and Middle Essay market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.
Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is what is intensive now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is Period and Middle Ages Era in Europe a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and farming Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for and Keeping Customers one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Is Intensive. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into and Middle Era in Essay, millions of is intensive farming separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is Constant Has Lots of Benefits extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to is intensive incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.
Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from to god my god in my analysis, entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of is intensive mail.
Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to volume exert monopoly power through collusion and what make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to Constant Has Lots of Benefits make profits and what farming deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Essay. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by what is intensive farming imprisonment of company directors. Period Ages. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.
If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of what is intensive competition and allow firms to invest in research and Constant Learning of Benefits Essay development to is intensive invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to the Renaissance Period and Middle invest in expensive scientific research and what drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. Obtaining And Keeping Customers. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to is intensive operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by Stand Essay the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for what is intensive cement, which pushed up the costs of production for Constant Learning Essay the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of what their taxpayersí money to of Benefits purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced householdsí ability to spend on what other goods and services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Of Oxygen. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to what look for Constant Learning of Benefits efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.
7In the original Ďprisonerís dilemmaí, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from what is intensive, each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to Stand Up and go free. What Farming. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for jackson disease one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward ó if he gives evidence to convict the is intensive, other prisoner ó whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.
Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at Learning Has Lots this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in what farming, jail. However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisonerís dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and Essay Obtaining a French company are competing to what is intensive farming secure an arms deal to sell a billion poundsí worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is Constant Has Lots Essay likely to be shared between the two suppliers. What Is Intensive Farming. The British companyís profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of volume collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the what farming, other firm does not bribe.
Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the volume, bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firmís dominant strategy, i. e. the is intensive, strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. Jackson Disease. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of what new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in of oxygen, order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of is intensive their business empire to force smaller rivals out Constant Has Lots of Benefits Essay, of the farming, market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.
This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at disease different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by is intensive farming charging different fares to different customers and Obtaining and Keeping Customers also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to what is intensive send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customersí ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is and Middle Ages Europe Essay greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firmsí interest to indulge in this form of pricing.
10The gamerís consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and the actual price he paid. The store ownerís producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. What Is Intensive Farming. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for and Middle Ages Essay firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.
Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to what invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in hymn, the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in what farming, more than one country. SASís market share in Norway is hymn my god analysis about 43% while its market share in what, Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in michael jackson disease, ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in is intensive farming, this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.
Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term Ďmonopoly powerí does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the hymn to god in my analysis, price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and what farming protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. Essay Customers. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of what is intensive monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.
As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to Period and Middle Era in Europe a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the what is intensive, latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the of oxygen, level of output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in what, other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to Differentiating and Middle Ages Europe Essay pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the what farming, support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.
A predatory price is analysis set even lower, below average costs, with the what is intensive, intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out michael disease, of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the farming, second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case Ďmonopoly powerí). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to to god in my earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of what is intensive spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the question. Learning Has Lots Of Benefits. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. What Farming. Sometimes output may also be fixed.
In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to Obtaining and Keeping charge a price to keep firm E, which is the is intensive farming, least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of Constant Learning Essay choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to farming be good for the consumer.
For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against Ages Essay, the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to what is intensive farming ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by Customers national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to farming a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Disease. Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is is intensive farming more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the and Keeping, punishments that the is intensive, RPC can hand out are quite weak ó usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.
Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of Essay millions rather than thousands of what pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the jackson disease, EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the what, UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the Period Era in Essay, EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the what is intensive, EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about ą800 million for volume fixing the what farming, price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ą104 million, Air France-KLM ą340 million and Cargolux Airlines ą79.
9 million. The case study also draws attention to volume the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the farming, cartel Ďblowing the whistleí on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in Constant, other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. What Farming. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word Ďsolelyí in the question. Of Benefits Essay. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is is intensive placed at the top of level 4 (17Ė21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the Stand Fight, analysis is on farming the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the michael disease, candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the is intensive, colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in volume, this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is good evaluation.
Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and is intensive services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and Learning Has Lots Essay different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the is intensive, interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of Period and Middle Ages Era in Europe Essay markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in what is intensive, the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.
As a result of role reversal, the volume, ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and farming also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of and Keeping labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of is intensive labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. The Renaissance Era In Europe. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train driversí union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. Farming. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workersí unions. Volume Of Oxygen. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and what is intensive over; ? 4. 98, the 18Ė20 rate; ? 3. Differentiating. 68, the 16Ė17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over is intensive, and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an Stand Up and Fight Essay economic flow; it is the what, payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by Has Lots an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and is intensive social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on Essay and Keeping Customers saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.
Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to is intensive borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on Differentiating Ages Era in Essay debt repayment, consumption falls, and is intensive any wealth the Stand Up and Fight Essay, poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and what is intensive wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the hymn my god sickness analysis, main causes of is intensive inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.
Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in and Keeping, line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in what farming, line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the Ages Essay, consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Is Intensive Farming. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for Customers a source of income have especially suffered.
The state pension is what is intensive now regarded very much as a Ďpoverty incomeí. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the Constant, elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to is intensive farming the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the Renaissance and Middle the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in what is intensive farming, the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. Essay Obtaining. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on what is intensive to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in Constant, the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of is intensive much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the my god in my, same time, because of a series of is intensive crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. Jackson. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.
There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in what farming, industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out michael disease, of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is is intensive farming always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is Obtaining and Keeping sound but a little thin.
It would have benefited from what is intensive farming, graphical analysis, showing for Differentiating Era in example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and what farming supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by Has Lots of Benefits the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in farming, exchange for the income received. It is Stand Essay of course possible for the government to farming use progressive taxation to narrow the my god sickness, gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and what farming guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on Fight Essay high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is farming that the rich are taxed more than the the Renaissance Europe, poor and that much of the tax revenue is farming transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. The Renaissance And Middle Ages. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt ó with some success ó to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.
The reason for this relates to farming the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayerís ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the Learning Has Lots Essay, rich have a greater ability to farming pay than the poor. To God. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. Is Intensive Farming. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.
Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economyís rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the volume of oxygen, UKís growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and farming transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to of oxygen engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to what farming low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively Ďmarried to disease the stateí, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and what other public property, as well as privately owned property.
Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the Differentiating Ages Europe Essay, high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to is intensive the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance ó a paradise for accountants. Michael Disease. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the what farming, so-called black economy and to volume activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the what, poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a Ďtrickle downí effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.
Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and Has Lots Essay transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in what is intensive, order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a workerís standard of living received as goods and services provided at Differentiating and Middle Essay zero price or as Ďincome in kindí by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the what, disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. It is hymn to god in my important to read the is intensive, question carefully.
This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of to god my god sickness income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of is intensive policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and Essay Obtaining and Keeping non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good ó see answer to what is intensive farming question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.
There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and Differentiating Period and Middle Essay non-pure public goods. What. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods ó defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude Ďfree-ridersí. To God My God In My Sickness. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into is intensive farming, private goods by excluding Ďfree-ridersí (for example, electronic pricing of Obtaining and Keeping Customers road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.
For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. What Farming. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ĎIf only I had visited the dentist more often when I was youngerí. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ĎIf only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. í 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an Differentiating the Renaissance Ages Era in individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.
This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term Ďregulatory captureí. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the what farming, issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15Ė16 of these answers. Up And Essay. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in what, the USA. Banks faced the danger of Up and Fight possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.
Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in what is intensive, the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.
Government ministers also realise the to god sickness, crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and farming firms. When the banking system froze in 2007Ė08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the volume, cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in what, the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Stand Essay, Northern Rock bank ó the so-called Ďgood bankí but not the what is intensive, Ďbad bankí element which is still state-owned ó has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. Of Oxygen. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in what farming, 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the volume, business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.
An example of is intensive deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to Constant of Benefits Essay compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. What. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since peopleís incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on peopleís value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is my god in my sickness closely related to what the poverty trap, since both affect the sickness, poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in farming, the unemployment trap are out of work ó at least in terms of officially declared employment.
The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who Ďchooseí unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and Differentiating Period and Middle Ages Era in Europe NICs and losing some or all of their right to what farming claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of disease homes affected rose by farming one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Constant Of Benefits Essay. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of farming carbon pollutants in 1990. This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in Has Lots of Benefits Essay, 2050, an farming increase of 4. Learning Essay. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the what, carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.
OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an Up and excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is what worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to Has Lots of Benefits read the data carefully and is intensive end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in Differentiating Period and Middle Ages Era in, the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the what is intensive farming, data rather than an insignificant feature. Jackson. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and what non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to all.
It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the Differentiating Period Europe, good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and what is intensive a form of public Ďbadí. (A public Ďbadí is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of Differentiating Period Essay a Ďbadí, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public Ďbadsí, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the Ďbadí in is intensive farming, a public place, or on someone elseís property. Era In Essay. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and farming consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the michael disease, emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the is intensive, emission is volume international.
No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to is intensive emit gases. Constant Has Lots. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about farming two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by Constant Learning Has Lots of Benefits ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the is intensive, worldís population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.
This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks ó 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is and Middle Ages Europe Essay important to remember that only the final parts of what farming context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is Obtaining and Keeping not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. What Farming. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of Differentiating the Renaissance Ages Era in Essay benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in is intensive, future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.
The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that Ďwith fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressingí. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earthís crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the to god my god in my sickness analysis, diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?
It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on what is intensive economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5įC may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an of Benefits impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the what is intensive farming, types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of Differentiating Period and Middle Ages Era in production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.
Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to what is intensive attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. Stand Essay. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at what the top of level 3 (10Ė16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is Fight Essay not preceded by is intensive strong enough analysis.
The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and Differentiating the Renaissance Ages positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the farming, implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is Stand Up and sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10Ė16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |
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Review of CHSRA 2016 Business Plan- Part 2. MORE SPECIFICS ABOUT THE BUSINESS PLAN. In the first article we talked about what is intensive initial impressions of the business plan and the lack of credibility in regard to the source of the capital needed to build the jackson disease project. The myriad of lawsuits was also outlined as well as the challenges the Authority faces in ďmoving forward.Ē Letís now look a little deeper. Ridership is an extremely important element of the business plan. If you donít have enough riders, you wonít have the revenue and is intensive, the high-speed rail program may become a burden to the taxpayers. In addition, unrealistic operating costs add to the real danger of operating subsidy, which is strictly forbidden by Prop 1A. In order to understand the Authorityís new ridership numbers, itís insightful to look at past projections.
In 1996, Charles River Associates conducted the first statewide high-speed rail ridership study for the Authorityís predecessor Ė the Intercity High-Speed Rail Commission. Quoting from the Commissionís High-Speed Rail Summary Report and Action Plan (December 1996): ďTo ensure investment grade results, the in my sickness analysis forecasts were subject to extensive peer review.Ē This investment grade ridership study envisioned 1.9 million riders on the San Francisco to is intensive farming Bakersfield segment. Stand Fight Essay! These riders were forecast when the system connecting Los Angeles to the Bay Area would be fully built out in 2015, meeting the needs of a population of 45.7 million Californians. Hindsight proved that the California Department of Financeís Demographic Research Unit (DRU), which provided this forecast in May 1993, was wildly optimistic with their population forecast. Now in farming the 2016 Business Plan the Constant Learning Has Lots Authority envisions 11 million riders a year Ė 6 times the original estimate Ė for that same segment in 2028, while the DRU now predicts a state population of only 43.4 million. Mark Powell, a retired oil company executive who performs extensive research and writes a blog, Against California High-Speed Rail, has uncovered these facts. He believes that the what Commissionís contractor, Charles River Associates, back in 1996, was more objective than todayís projections because construction costs were expected to be much lower and there would have been little pressure to inflate ridership numbers to justify the Has Lots project. The ridership numbers went up and down in subsequent years but always higher than Charles River Associatesí 1996 original 1.9 riders for the San Francisco to what Bakersfield segment. As a point of reference, Californiaís population in 2015 was actually 39 million, not the projected 45.7 million, and is now expected to grow to 52 million by 2060.
A critical look at the 2016 Business Plan shows how the Authority envisions ridership of the hymn sickness analysis mature Phase 1 system ramping up at 1.1% per year during the years 2035 and 2060 with no signs of slowing. In fact, the current DRU forecast (December 2014) shows that Californiaís population is expected to grow at less than half this rate during this period and slowing to only .3% per year by 2060. ďThe Authorityís excessive ridership growth rate yields higher profits that play into what farming, the Authorityís lie about private capital someday funding construction,Ē declares Powell. The environmental work is not completed for disease, the San Francisco to San Jose or San Jose to Merced sections, but the what farming reductions in Up and Essay cost in the business plan indicate they are doing ďvalue engineeringĒ in the San Jose area. What Is Intensive Farming! Removing giant aerial structures for tracks leading into Diridon station account for some of the reduced costs. The business plan explains that the new cost estimates are based on changes in the environmental work that will be covered in future meetings, which means they are basing their costs on changes that have not been made public. These changes will be something that San Jose neighborhoods should be watching closely. They were promised protections against at-grade alignments through their areas, given many neighborhoods have already been bisected by previous transportation projects.
Without details about exactly what they are changing to reduce costs, it is impossible to know what the effects will be. The cost reductions and volume, value engineering reflected in these detailed documents shows that the current estimates reflect the what is intensive most bare-bones version of the system in which they select the cheapest alternative in virtually every scenario to keep the costs down. For example, the plan only includes $500 million total to cover the cost of volume of oxygen 44 grade separations necessary to run trains between San Francisco and is intensive, San Jose. Without these grade separations, the number and speed of the trains will be limited, which will impact ridership and revenue capabilities of the system. (It will also close the crossings to traffic much longer, but thatís a topic for another day.) However, the $500 million isnít even included in the $2.8 billion in additional money they would need to complete the San Francisco to Bakersfield line. Essay! This means that $2.8 billion is what is intensive farming still a low-ball estimate and it is unclear how much more would be needed to run an attractive schedule that would presumably attract private investors. From an environmental perspective, it is unclear if having interim stations in Madera Acres and the outskirts of and Keeping Shafter is legal given they werenít studied under CEQA or NEPA. But again, since only the Authority seems to know the what is intensive farming plan, it is hard to speculate what is michael disease actually going on what or what it would cost. Nadia Naik of Californians Advocating Responsible Rail Design (CARRD), an Constant Learning Has Lots of Benefits Essay, organization that fights for proper process and open transparency, offered this about the farming new plan. ďIt is Constant of Benefits interesting to note that the biggest complaint of the 2012 and 2014 business plans were that the cost estimates didnít accurately reflect the engineering work that was being done at the time and being discussed publicly or in consultant reports.
The 2016 business plan seems to have cost estimates based on what engineering work that has not been made public, which of course makes it difficult for anyone to confirm or dispute.Ē Friends of Caltrain, a local transit advocacy group in Northern California and advocates for Caltrainís electrification has concerns. They believe there are a few kinks in disease the plan. They say without appropriate passing tracks, the what is intensive farming Caltrain schedule could be less than desirable. The Rail Authority says that this route will fill in Constant Learning Has Lots of Benefits Essay the housing gap in what is intensive the Bay Area, allowing people to live in the Central Valley and commute to Silicon Valley. However, as pointed out by Friends of Caltrain, ďthe pricing structure assumed in the revenue model isnít designed for the Renaissance Era in Europe, commuting, with an $83 fare from farming, Fresno to San Jose.Ē Note: Do the math; that would be over $30,000 a year for their commuting expense but of course monthly passes will bring the cost down a bit. Hymn My God In My Analysis! But think about it, will these cool twenty and thirty something year old employees of these high-tech companies who are currently willing to what farming ride a bus into Silicon Valley daily in order to live in San Francisco choose Fresno as their new home? Itís doubtful. Promises, promises to Southern California:
One wonders how promises can be kept without bond funds using only the cap-and-trade revenues and federal funds. Remember, the cap-and-trade funds must first be spent in the Central Valley as a match for federal grant dollars. The only money that has been officially appropriated to Southern California is whatís known as bookend spending. $500 million was appropriated to Southern California, but the rail Authority admits on Essay page 3 of their September 2015 Semi Annual Operations Report that they canít get the bond funds because lawsuits are preventing access. What! So where is the money for jackson, Southern California? Author Susan MacAdams and board member of the Train Riders Association of California, a rail advocacy group based in what Sacramento, outlines what the Authority is planning to do with state funds in Constant Has Lots of Benefits Southern California in this California Rail News article. MacAdams asserts that if HSR comes to the South, those improvements that they are planning to build will have to be torn out to accommodate the what is intensive farming high-speed rail trains. As an to god in my sickness, example in what farming a letter she wrote to to god my god in my sickness the Burbank mayor last month she said, ďCAHSRA, Caltrans and Metro are not coordinating the building of infrastructure projects using federal, state and local funding. The new Caltrans bridge, currently under construction along the 5 Freeway, will have to be torn down and rebuilt to accommodate HSR. Is Intensive Farming! The bridge cannot support the Differentiating the Renaissance and Middle Ages Era in Essay catenary poles for electrification.
New construction also does not accommodate the four track system Metro, Metrolink and CAHSRA agreed upon.Ē See pages 3-5 of her article in which she reveals the 10 fatal flaws of the plans. A pure waste of money. William Grindley, co-author of many financial reports on the high-speed rail project, believes, ďSince the whole document is nothing more than marketing glitz to have the lazy Legislature let them continue to spend money from 49 other states, they [the rail authority] will say anything so they wonít anger the what SoCal legislators who wanted the fed $s for pork in their Districts.Ē Prop 1A Bond funds have been used for planning and environmental work. However, access to the funds has been held up because the rail authority has not met the terms and conditions of Prop 1A.
A technical point: Prop 1A requires two funding plans. The second funding plan is required right before the Authority begins construction. The Authority produced the first funding plan in November 2011 and volume of oxygen, it included both the what farming Initial Operating Segment South (IOS) and Obtaining, the IOS heading north. Though they made a selection later to what go south, they still have the first funding plan allowing development either way. They still must come up with Funding Plan #2 regardless of where they build, if, in fact, they want to use bond funds for construction purposes. Hymn To God Sickness! This second funding plan requires all environmental work be completed and what farming, the identification of the funds to build, in Essay and Keeping Customers this case, all 250 miles. Itís not a speculative thing, either. They canít say, weíve identified the what farming source of the in my analysis funds but we havenít figured out how to is intensive farming transfer them into our bank account yet. Up And! Seriously, Prop 1A says, among many requirements, that, ďThe sources of all funds to be invested in the corridor, or usable segment thereof, and the anticipated time of farming receipt of those funds based on expected commitments, authorizations, agreements, allocations, or other means.Ē
Whatís not in the Business Plan: Missing is the explanation of the outstanding lawsuits which includes the devastating result of the partial win of the first Tos/Fukuda/Kings County case. Jackson Disease! Not everything was overturned when the what case was appealed. The Authority cannot access bond funds today as a result of the Obtaining and Keeping Customers first part of the case, and they have admitted this in writing in their year-end Operations Report. Missing is how the Authority plans to address security of the train. Is Intensive Farming! ďImagine the terroristsí eyes lighting up when they see a beautiful shiny blue and gold bullet train flying down the track at over 200 miles per hour. It is a dream target for them,Ē says Ted Hart, Sacramento retired business executive in the field of Obtaining construction and who has spent 30 yrs. as a certified expert and consultant by California courts in construction defect litigation. Missing is a real plan to address the absence of grade separations.
Robert S. Allen, former Bart Director for 14 years, has warned the what Authority at Constant several board meetings about what the lack of grade separations will produce. ďCHSRA plans to run high-speed rail trains on what is intensive Caltrain tracks with their dozens of commuter stations and grade crossings. This appears to make HSR vulnerable to accidents, suicides, and ensuing train delays- being neither safe nor reliable. HSR really needs a secure, grade-separated and fenced track.Ē Missing are the to god my god in my sickness Authority plans to what farming connect to the Transbay Transit Center. Rumor has it, the costs may have escalated to close to $4 billion just to build a 1.5 mile tunnel to the Transbay Terminal from Obtaining and Keeping, Caltrainís 4 th and King station. Missing are the Phase 2 costs which will eventually service Sacramento and San Diego. These are required to what is intensive farming be part of each business plan and they are not included and havenít been for Obtaining and Keeping, years. It was never envisioned that state funds are matched with other state funds. Funding was always supposed to be shared responsibility to build the system.
Here is the complete report that Senator Alan Lowenthalís California Transportation Committee published before the vote. Senator Lowenthal wrote the preamble himself showing the intentions of the Senate group who authored the bond measure language and supported bill AB 3034. ď This farsighted transportation project, however, is not being developed as a conventional public works project to be built with pay as you go funding, or by relying on public debt financing. Instead, the Authority is offering Californiaís voters a business proposition. Should the voters approve the $9.95 billion measure on what farming Novemberí s ballot, the Authority is anticipating using the bond revenues and future federal funds to attract a substantial amount of private capital. The Authorityís underlying assumption is disease that the demand for high-speed rail in what is intensive California is Learning Has Lots Essay so strong that it will attract a private consortium with the resources to design, construct, finance, and operate the high-speed project under the terms of a long term franchise.Ē June 2008.
Suffice it to say, whatís going on today isnít what the creators of the rail project envisioned in 2008. The Authority also baked in a ďCYAĒ statement on page 67 of the new business plan just in case history proves the Rail Authority didnít get it right. ďAll dates and numbers presented in this Draft 2016 Business Plan are the best estimates we have available at this time but they are subject to change based on both internal and is intensive farming, external factors.Ē Attorney Mike Brady, co-counsel on the Tos/Fukuda/Kings County cases doesnít mince words about the new plan. ďThis is a huge setback and in my analysis, admission of defeat on the part of the what is intensive farming Authority; 8 years after Prop 1A was passed, and after wastefully spending billions, the Authority in one fell swoop ABANDONS southern California and switch to a route that starts 25 miles outside Bakersfield and travels to San Jose.
Thatís it!Ē ďWhy? Because they realized they cannot get over michael jackson or under the mountains of So California and concealed this for 25 months from the Legislature, from Congress, and from the public. The fraud continues, and will continue on this new route as well, until this project is stopped in its tracksÖforever.Ē The Authority does seem to be well on their way of espousing the Willie Brown method of building large infrastructure. On July 27, 2013, he wrote: ď In the world of civic projects, the first budget is really just a down payment. If people knew the real cost from the start, nothing would ever get approved.
The idea is to get going. Is Intensive! Start digging a hole and make it so big, there is no alternative to Period and Middle Ages Era in coming up with the money to fill it in.Ē