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Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by Assessment Essay counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) because of their special tooth structures. Time To Legalize Drugs Essay. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks ( n =9). Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression ( r 2 =0.98) based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into Choices Classroom Essay, account the uncertainty in the age estimation ( r 2 between 0.88 and 0.98). The two estimated 2 k Asp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2 k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to medea text, be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 SE.

The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the Assessment in the Essay ( d/l ) 0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and What Essay eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and Choices in the 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study. The tusk of the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) was previously thought to be the long horn of a mythical creature: the unicorn. It was mysteriously beautiful and its horn was said to neutralize poison. What Is The Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis Essay. The royal throne of Denmark (1662) was made of 15 “unicorn horns”, which were of tremendous value. Assessment In The Classroom Essay. Back then, as today, narwhals were hunted for their valuable tusks. Today, only Inuit in is the Kafka?, Greenland and Canada are allowed to hunt narwhals, and the hunt is managed in both countries (NAMMCO 2009 NAMMCO (North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission). 2009 . Annual report 2009. TromsoNorway : North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission . [Google Scholar] ). Essay. Ongoing studies of migration patterns (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2003 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Dietz R . Laidre K.L . Confessional Poetry Essay. Richard P . Orr J . Schmidt H.C . The migratory behaviour of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Canadian Journal of Assessment Classroom Zoology. 2003 ; 81: 1298 – 1305 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), population sizes (Heide-Jorgensen et al.

2010 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Pefr Chart. Laidre K.L . Burt M.L . Borchers D.L . Classroom Essay. Marques T.A . Hansen R.G . Rasmussen M . Fossette S . Abundance of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) on the hunting grounds in Greenland . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1135 – 1151 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Richard et al. 2010 Richard P.R . Laake J.L . Hobbs R.C . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Asselin N.C . On Alcohol Among Patients Schziophrenia. Cleator H . Baffin Bay narwhal distribution and numbers: aerial surveys in the Canadian High Arctic, 2002–04 . Arctic. 2010 ; 63: 85 – 99 . Assessment Choices Essay. [Google Scholar] ) and life history (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . An End To Transphobia. Hansen S.H . Assessment Choices In The Essay. Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) of response narwhals contribute to understanding the Assessment underlying population dynamics of pefr chart this exploited species (Reeves Heide-Jorgensen 1994 Reeves R.R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) in Greenland, with emphasis on Classroom tusk exports . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 119 – 134 . [Google Scholar] ). Sustainable harvest levels are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions, are vital (Kingsley 1989 Kingsley M . Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti: Monodontidae) . Journal of Zoology. 1989 ; 219: 201 – 208 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Estimation of life history parameters for narwhals has been hindered by pefr chart the lack of a reliable age estimation technique. Choices Classroom. Without such a technique, it is difficult to parameterize rates of body growth, age at sexual maturity, longevity and survival rates of the whales.

Traditionally, ages of marine mammals have been estimated by counting dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) in teeth, usually consisting of an opaque and a translucent layer deposited annually (Dietz et al. 1991 Dietz R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Harkonen T . Teilmann J . Valentin N . Age determination of European harbour seals Phoca vitulina L . Sarsia. 1991 ; 76: 17 – 21 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Medea. Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Assessment In The Classroom. Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ; Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . To Legalize Drugs Essay. Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Choices Classroom. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Time. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Narwhals are born with two maxillary, elongated teeth embedded in in the Classroom Essay, the upper jaw. The left tooth erupts through the lip in males, and as the medea text whale grows older this becomes a long, spiralled tusk (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Assessment Choices Essay. Handbook of marine mammals.

Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Normally, the right tooth remains inside the maxilla in males. In females, both teeth usually stay embedded in the maxillae. Anomalies such as females with tusks or males without a tusk or with two tusks are reported in the literature but occur infrequently in narwhal populations (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Pefr Chart. Handbook of marine mammals. Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . Assessment Essay. [Google Scholar] ). Besides being expensive to purchase and difficult to prepare for counting GLGs, tusks almost exclusively represent only the male part of the What of symbolism by Franz population. Attempts have been made to estimate age by counting GLGs in embedded teeth. However, due to occlusion of the pulp cavity and thereby cessation of deposition of growth layers, only a minimum estimate of age can be obtained from these teeth for adults; reliable estimates can be obtained only for young individuals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue.

1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). A different method is needed to obtain age estimates for the mature component of the narwhal population, including both males and females. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in several age estimation studies of cetaceans (Nerini 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission. Choices In The Essay. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ; George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Medea. Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of Assessment in the bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of is the importance by Franz Essay Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . Assessment In The. [Google Scholar] ; Olsen Sunde 2002 Olsen E . Time To Legalize. Sunde J . Age determination of minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) using the aspartic acid racemization technique . Sarsia. 2002 ; 87: 1 – 8 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). This technique relies on the fact that in metabolically inactive tissues, the l -form of aspartic acid converts to Assessment in the, the d -form at a constant rate over time, a process known as racemization (Masters et al. 1977 Masters P.M . Bada J.L . Zigler J.S . Pefr Chart. Aspartic acid racemization in the human lens during ageing and in cataract formation . Nature.

1977 ; 268: 71 – 73 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The age of an individual can be estimated when the rate of racemization, the initial ( d/l ) 0 value for Assessment, the species and the individual d/l ratio are known. The most stable proteins of the body are found in teeth and eye lens nuclei, and that is why these tissues are often used in AAR age estimation studies (Bada et al. 1980 Bada J.L . Brown S . Masters P.M . Age determination of marine mammals based on pefr chart aspartic acid racemization in the teeth and lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 113 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ). Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature. Assessment Choices. 1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . Time Drugs Essay. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Assessment Classroom. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Pefr Chart. Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Choices In The Classroom Essay. Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used AAR to estimate ages of narwhals from teeth and eye lens nuclei. Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Medea Text Response. Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in Assessment Classroom, narwhal teeth . Nature.

1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . Pefr Chart. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used the human racemization rate in teeth, whereas Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Choices Classroom. Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . Text Response. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated a rate based on a combination of narwhal and fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) data. The rate of racemization has been shown to differ among species, mainly driven by core body temperature (Garde 2011 Garde E . Assessment Choices In The. 2011 . Past and present population dynamics of is the importance Essay narwhals Monodon monoceros . Assessment Choices. PhD thesis, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen . [Google Scholar] ; Rosa et al. 2012 Rosa C , Zeh J , George J.C , Botta O , Zauscher M , Bada J . O'Hara, T.M . Time. 2012 . Age estimates based on aspartic acid racemization for bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) harvested in 1998–2000 and the relationship between racemization rate and body temperature . Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). It is therefore important to estimate a specific racemization rate for the narwhal based directly on narwhal data. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for Essay, the narwhal by regression of GLGs in tusks against aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. We anticipate that this rate will be useful in future large-scale studies of life history and population dynamics of narwhal populations. Tusks and both matching eyes from text 11 narwhals were purchased from the Inuit hunt in in the Classroom, north-west and East Greenland in the period September 2006–November 2010 (Table 1). Eye samples from Essay two whales (ID nos. 4080 and 4084) were discarded as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Eight of the remaining nine whales were males. We believe the ninth whale (ID no.

4075) was a female: the Inuit hunter that caught this individual also provided ovaries together with the tusk and eyes. Assessment Choices Essay. Body lengths of the whales ranged from 306 to 491 cm (Table 1). Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Table 1 Data on What is the importance of symbolism by Franz Kafka? Essay the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and Assessment in the 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in Essay to Transphobia, tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to GLG.

Tusk preparation and Choices Classroom counting of dentinal GLGs. Total tusk length, external tusk length (portion protruding from the melon of the Time Essay whale), tusk mass, tusk diameter at the melon front, total length of the pulp cavity and Choices in the Classroom diameter of the pulp cavity at the melon front were measured (Table 1). Essay Abuse Patients With. Some tusks were purchased while still embedded in the skull, and these were removed after gentle maceration of the skull in 38°C water for five days. Each tusk was cut into Assessment Essay, two longitudinal sections using a jigsaw (Fig. 1). The surfaces were polished using sheets of very fine sandpaper, and the tusks were placed in a wooden container lined with plastic where they were soaked in 12% acetic acid for four–five days, after which they were rinsed with water and left to dry for one day. This procedure made individual GLGs more visible by revealing troughs and It's to Legalize Drugs ridges, thereby facilitating counting. Growth layers were counted, and their individual widths were measured with a digital micrometer in Assessment Choices Classroom Essay, order to It's Time, estimate a standard width of Assessment Choices in the GLG that might help in identifying GLGs and rejecting secondary lines. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig.

1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. And Drug Abuse Among With Schziophrenia. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. Choices In The Classroom Essay. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows). Fig. 1 (a) Root of proximal part of Essay An End to Transphobia tusk no. Assessment In The Classroom Essay. 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of It's Drugs tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and Choices Classroom a large pulp cavity. Essay An End To Transphobia. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows).

It was noted whether the neonatal line, the tip and the root of the proximal part of the tusk (the part originally located within the head of the whale) were present (Fig. 1a, b). Choices In The Essay. A single, experienced tooth-reader trained in and Drug abuse Patients, reading beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) and narwhal teeth (not tusks) was chosen to read the narwhal tusks as less-experienced tooth-readers of harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) teeth have been shown to be less accurate and more negatively biased (Garde et al. 2010 Garde E . Frie A.K . Choices Classroom Essay. Dunshea G . Hansen S.H . Poetry Essay. Kovacs K.M . Lydersen C . Assessment Choices In The. Harp seal ageing techniques—teeth, aspartic acid racemization, and What is the Kafka? telomere sequence analysis . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1365 – 1374 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Frie et al. 2011 Frie A.K . Fagerheim K . Hammill M.O . Kapel F.O . Lockyer C . Stenson G.B . Classroom Essay. Rosing-Asvid A . Svetochev V . Error patterns in Essay on Alcohol and Drug Patients Schziophrenia, age estimation of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ): results from a transatlantic, image-based, blind-reading experiment using known-age teeth . ICES Journal of Marine Science. Assessment In The Essay. 2011 ; 68: 1942 – 1953 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . What Importance In Metamorphosis Essay. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). GLGs were counted on both sides of Assessment in the each of the Time to Legalize Drugs longitudinal sections, and each GLG was marked with a pencil for bookkeeping and to Assessment in the Classroom, check for to Legalize Drugs, consistency in Assessment Choices in the, their classification. With Schziophrenia. GLGs of each of the Essay longitudinal sections were read several times, and consistent readings with the most GLGs were accepted as the to Legalize Drugs Essay best estimates.

This was done to diminish the risk of un-counted GLGs due to uneven sectioning of the tusks. One GLG consisting of a small dense dark layer and a wide paler layer (Heide-Jorgensen et al. Choices In The. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Confessional Poetry. Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ) was assumed to represent one year in the whale's life, as shown for the closely related beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Classroom. Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Often the beginning of a GLG was marked with a node in the cementum; in Confessional Poetry Essay, cases where the GLGs were less discernible, this node could be used as guidance for determining the Assessment Choices Classroom Essay start of the GLGs (Fig. 1c). Time To Legalize Essay. There was also some layering in the cementum, but the layers were less easy to Choices Essay, count and text response the cementum appeared to have far fewer GLGs than the more protected dentine. Secondary lines were frequently present, and care had to Choices in the Classroom, be taken to make consistent readings of standard width GLGs (Fig. 1c).

Growth of the narwhal tusk is shown as a plot of tusk length (cm) versus GLGs for each of the 11 narwhal tusks used in this study. One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of growth. Eye dissection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Eyes were frozen at It's to Legalize, ?20°C upon collection. In the laboratory, eye lenses were dissected out of the eyes. The lens layers surrounding the nucleus were thoroughly removed, like layers of an onion, leaving only the nucleus for further analysis (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in Assessment Choices in the Essay, narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Is The Importance Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). One eye, rather than both eyes, from each whale was analysed, as no significant difference between eyes from the same individual narwhal were found in a previous study (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Hydrolysis of Choices samples and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed following the procedures of Zhao Bada ( 1995 Zhao M . On Alcohol Abuse Among Schziophrenia. Bada J.L . Assessment Classroom Essay. Determination of ?-dialkylamino acids and their enantiomers in geological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with a chiral adduct of o-phthaldialdehyde . Journal of Chromatography A. 1995 ; 690: 55 – 63 . Medea Text Response. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Choices In The Essay. Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by What importance Kafka? Essay aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. Assessment Choices. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Eye lens nuclei were hydrolysed in 1 ml 6 M HCl for 6 h at 100°C. An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn, Germany) was used for the chromatography and pefr chart data analysis. Detection was performed using fluorescence (excitation = 340 nm, emission = 450 nm). The column was a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18, 4.6?150 mm, with particle size of Essay 3.5 µm. The HPLC-measured d/l ratios were calibrated using series of d/l standards: 0.5/99.5, 1/99, 2/98, 5/95, 10/90 and 15/85.

This series was run at the beginning and end of each HPLC run. The measured d/l ratios from the eye lens nuclei were recalculated using the calibration equations (linear regression) for the d/l standards. Narwhal racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. Eye lens nuclei d/l ratios were regressed against the number of GLGs in tusks to obtain a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals (Table 1). In Metamorphosis Essay. Included in the regression were d/l ratios from two near-term foetuses (=0 years old) and 13 young narwhals classified to age based on length and Assessment Classroom month of is the importance of symbolism by Franz death (age range: 0.5–2.5 years old; length range: 175–298 cm; Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . In The Classroom Essay. Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Importance In Metamorphosis Kafka? Essay. Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from Classroom West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. Essay To Transphobia. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The slope of the regression line equals the 2 k Asp value, corresponding to Choices Classroom, twice the racemization rate. The intercept of the line corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value.

A linear regression assumes that explanatory variables are measured without error. Violation of this assumption can lead to and Drug Among, biased results and underestimation of the Choices in the Classroom Essay standard errors. The explanatory variable is age, estimated from either length or GLG counts, both subject to error. To Transphobia. The possible bias and standard errors were quantified via bootstrapping. Each bootstrap data set was created as follows: to the d/l ratios were added a normal random variable with mean 0 and Choices in the Essay SE equal to the residual SE from the ordinary regression assuming no error on the age estimates.

The age of the 15 foetuses and medea response young whales were drawn from a uniform distribution on an interval given by the estimated age±0.5 years, and then rounded to the nearest half-integer value. For whales where age was estimated by GLG counts, simulated values were rounded to the nearest integer. The uncertainty in the GLG counts was larger and based on Choices in the Classroom Essay whether the tusk was complete or not. Confessional Essay. If the neonatal line, the tip or the base were missing (Table 1), the uncertainty was increased. Uncertainty was also based on Assessment Choices Essay the readability of medea response growth layers, especially concerning the two oldest tusks with many GLGs. The uncertainty was evaluated for Assessment Choices in the, each tusk, so the bootstrap study used different uniform distributions for each whale. Essay An End. The number of bootstrap replicates used was 10 000. Tusk lengths ranged from 34 to in the Classroom Essay, 255 cm (Table 1). Tusk diameter (mm) measured at the melon front ranged from 12 to 63 mm. Length of the pulp cavity was between 56% and 100% of Confessional Poetry Essay tusk length; the shortest tusk (34 cm) had the lowest percentage pulp cavity, and the longest tusk (255 cm) had a pulp cavity running through the entire tusk.

Tusk mass ranged from Assessment Choices in the Essay 0.06 to 7.45 kg. Six out of nine tusks were worn at the tip but were complete and included the Essay An End to Transphobia neonatal line. Assessment Choices Essay. The tip of the longest tusk (ID no. 4076) was broken off as well as being worn: it lacked the neonatal line and several GLGs. The tip of the second longest tusk (ID no. 956) was also worn, and it was uncertain whether the Confessional Poetry Essay neonatal line was still present. However, based on Choices in the Essay how it was worn, we assumed that, at most, only the neonatal line and a few, if any, GLGs were missing. To estimate the An End number of Choices missing GLGs in tusk ID no. 4076, it was compared with tusk ID no.

956, which was of almost the same length and diameter. It was concluded that the pefr chart missing tip of ID no. 4076 contained 10 GLGs. Fifty GLGs were counted in the tusk, giving a total of 60 GLGs after adding the Choices Classroom Essay missing 10. The root of the proximal part of the tusk from whale ID no. 888 was partly destroyed during maceration, which complicated counting GLGs. The count of 24 GLGs may therefore be a minimum estimate for this tusk.

The proximal parts of tusks with ID nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were lost, having been cut off by the hunters during removal. By comparing these three tusks with other tusks, we estimated that 5 – 7 cm was missing in each case (Table 1). However, for the abovementioned four tusks, we assumed only a few, if any, GLGs were missing. GLGs were counted in all 11 tusks, and counts, or age estimates, ranged from 5 – 70 GLGs (Table 1). Tusk growth in length for the 11 tusks ranged between 3.54 and 9.11 cm ?yr with an average of 6.33 cm ?yr . The two largest and text oldest tusks were growing the least per year (range: 3.54 – 4.25 cm ?yr ). The remaining tusks grew between 5.38 and 7.73 cm ?yr except for Classroom Essay, tusk with ID no.

974 that had the fastest growth of 9.11 cm ?yr . Width of individual GLGs did not diminish with age but varied between years (range for Poetry, all tusks: 0.76 – 3.96 mm). Tusk lengths versus number of GLGs are shown in Fig. 2. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of in the growth layer groups (GLGs). What Is The Importance Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis Kafka?. One GLG is assumed to Assessment Choices in the Classroom Essay, constitute one year of tusk growth. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is to Legalize Drugs assumed to constitute one year of tusk growth. Standard curves and linear regression equations.

The d/l standard series was used to produce two standard curves for each HPLC run. For each run, linear regression equations were calculated by regression of theoretical d/l ratios versus the measured d/l ratios from the d/l standards. The coefficient was r 2 =0.99 for each run. Assessment Choices Classroom. Individual d/l ratios were recalculated using the equation with a slope closest to 1 (range: 1.1295 – 1.2187) from Poetry each run. Estimating the racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. The slope of the Assessment regression line (=2 k Asp value) including nine whales with tusks and 15 foetuses and Poetry young whales was estimated to be 0.00233±0.000080 SE with an intercept of 0.0579±0.00179 SE ( r 2 =0.98). The residual SE in the regression was 0.0073. The racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value were, therefore, 0.00117 ?yr ±0.000040 SE and Assessment Choices in the Essay 0.0290±0.00089 SE, respectively.

For the bootstrap study, the simulated age for whales ID nos. 950 and 951 was drawn from a uniform distribution centred at their estimated age±1 year; for whales ID nos. 841, 953 and 974, an uncertainty of±3 was used; and for Confessional Poetry Essay, whale ID no. 4076, an Assessment Choices in the Classroom, uncertainty of ±5 was used. Finally, for whales ID nos. 4075, 888 and 956, the An End to Transphobia values given in Classroom, Table 1 are minimum values, with a possible underestimate of up to five years. Therefore, for these three whales a number between 0 and 5 was added, with linearly decreasing probability.

The average estimate of the slope was 0.00229±0.000089 SE, and the average intercept estimate was 0.0580±0.00185 SE (Fig. 3). The r 2 was in all cases between 0.88 and 0.98. We finally estimate the racemization rate to 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 and the ( d/l ) 0 to 0.0290±0.00093. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks.

Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of Essay An End d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on Choices in the Classroom length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the Essay to Transphobia racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Fig. 3 Regression line from the Classroom bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and What importance of symbolism in Metamorphosis by Franz estimated age based on length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Eleven narwhal tusks and matching eyes were sampled for the purpose of estimating a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regression of GLGs in tusks against Assessment Choices in the Essay, d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. Medea Text. Eyes from two whales were discarded, as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Thus, samples from nine whales remained for analysis. The sample size is less than optimal, but the costs and difficulties of Assessment Classroom obtaining whole tusks and matching eyes preclude a more extensive sampling programme.

Furthermore, a high incidence of Confessional Poetry Essay broken tusks in adult males (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. Choices In The Classroom. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Pefr Chart. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) impedes sampling of old and Choices in the complete tusks. The tusks in pefr chart, this study were not all complete (Table 1), which complicated the counting of Assessment in the Classroom Essay GLGs, and there were some evident differences in the readability of the tusks that were impossible to quantify. Furthermore, it could only be assumed that one GLG represents one year in narwhals. A deposition of pefr chart one GLG per year in narwhal tusks is supported by in the Essay analogy to What is the in Metamorphosis Essay, other odontocete species (Hohn 2009 Hohn A.A . Age estimation . Encyclopedia of marine mammals2nd edn. Perrin W.F . Assessment. et al. . An End To Transphobia. Academic Press . Choices. San Diego , 2009 ; 11 – 17 . [Google Scholar] ), and especially to It's Time Drugs Essay, the narwhal's close relative, the beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology.

2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and until proven otherwise this is the Choices in the Classroom most likely deposition rate. Tusk growth per year differed among the 11 tusks. The two largest and oldest tusks had the lowest growth rate, which is probably because growth in length ceases with age while growth in circumference and in Time to Legalize Drugs, weight increases (Table 1). Two racemization rates were estimated: one based on assuming that the age was known without error; and one based on Choices in the a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation. Pefr Chart. Uncertainty of the GLG estimation was mainly based on whether the tusk was complete or not.

The two oldest tusks had increased uncertainty because either the neonatal line was not present (ID no. 4076) or it was uncertain whether it was present or not (ID no. 956), and the neonatal line needs to be visible to obtain reliable age estimates based on GLG counts (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Choices In The. Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ). Another reason was that GLGs in teeth from old animals are more difficult to discern and count due to compact layering, wear of the teeth and often broken tips (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Poetry. Dunbar M.J . Choices Classroom. Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . To Legalize. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Luque et al. 2009 Luque P.L . Pierce G.J . Learmonth J.A . Santos M.B . Ieno E . Lopez A . Assessment Classroom Essay. Reid R.J . Rogan E . Gonzales A.F . Medea Response. Boon J . Assessment In The Essay. Law R.J . What Is The Of Symbolism Essay. Lockyer C.H . Dentinal anomalies in teeth of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) from Scottish waters: are they linked to Assessment Choices Classroom, sexual maturation and environmental events? . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2009 ; 89: 893 – 902 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Text. [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The two estimated 2 k Asp values are, however, almost identical. In order to Assessment in the Essay, recognize the Confessional Essay uncertainty in in the Classroom, the age estimates based on length and GLGs, we propose the 2 k Asp value of pefr chart 0.00229 and the ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 from the bootstrap study to Assessment Choices Essay, be used in future age estimation studies of narwhals. Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . Essay To Transphobia. 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated the Choices in the ages of 75 narwhals using AAR with a racemization rate estimated by linear regression using age estimates based on body length from the same 15 young narwhals used in this study and Essay age estimates of 13 fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) from Nerini ( 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Assessment Classroom Essay. Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ) based on An End to Transphobia counts of earplug laminations. The combined narwhal–fin whale 2 k Asp value of 0.00209 is lower than the present one of 0.00229. This could potentially be a result of using data from two species with different ( d/l ) 0 values, but could also be caused by a lower core temperature of fin whales (36.1°C, from George et al. Assessment Classroom. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Confessional Poetry. Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . Assessment In The Essay. O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of An End Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . Essay. [Google Scholar] ) than that of What is the importance by Franz narwhals. In The Classroom. However, the core temperature of the It's Drugs Essay beluga whale, the narwhal's closest relative, has been measured to 35°C (Katsumata et al. 2006 Katsumata E . Assessment In The Classroom Essay. Furuta C . Katsumata H . Pefr Chart. Watanabe G . Taya K . Basal body temperature method for detecting ovarian cycle in captive beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) . Journal of Assessment in the Classroom Essay Reproduction and Development.

2006 ; 52: 59 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and we assume narwhal core temperature to be similar. But, this is only speculation as no records of narwhal core temperature are available in response, the literature. The 2 k Asp value estimated here is specific to narwhals and in the Classroom Essay should as such be a better proxy for the value in to Transphobia, narwhals than one based on narwhal and fin whale data combined. Assessment Choices In The Classroom. Both the 2 k Asp values from Garde et al. Essay An End. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in in the Classroom, narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and the present one rely on indirect estimation of ages either through difficult GLG readings of narwhal tusks, body lengths or uncertain counts of earplug laminae in fin whales; they also rest on the assumption that one GLG is deposited per year throughout the life of the animal. Ideally, racemization rates could be derived from known-age animals in captivity or animals marked somehow early in abuse Among With Schziophrenia, their life. Assessment Choices Essay. However, neither fin whales nor narwhals are held in captivity, nor are wild individuals being marked as young whales. Even if either of these approaches were technically feasible, a substantial number of animals would be required, ideally spanning the full longevity, to calculate authentic racemization rates. The estimated racemization rate and the ( d/l ) 0 value have different effects on AAR age estimates.

AAR age estimates of older individuals are influenced mainly by the racemization rate, while age estimates of young animals are affected primarily by the ( d/l ) 0 value (George et al. Pefr Chart. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . In The Classroom Essay. [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, when using the AAR technique it is is the importance of symbolism Kafka? also significant that a reliable ( d/l ) 0 value for the species is available. Dentinal GLGs can be examined in cross-sections of Classroom Essay embedded narwhal teeth, but occlusion means that only a minimum GLG count can be obtained from older whales (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the medea text narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). Assessment Choices Essay. However, the dentinal layers representing early years (before sexual maturity) are readable in embedded teeth and can apparently provide reliable age estimates of young narwhals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . It's To Legalize Essay. Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, for Assessment Choices in the Essay, future studies it is recommended that both eyes and embedded teeth be collected so that both methods of age estimation of young narwhals can be used to derive an is the importance of symbolism Kafka?, improved estimate of the ( d/l ) 0 value. To summarize, in this study we have estimated a species-specific 2 k Asp rate of 0.00229 and a ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 for narwhals by regression and bootstrapping of aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against GLGs in tusks. These estimates are the first based entirely on narwhal data. Assessment Choices In The Classroom Essay. Though we recognize the small sample size as well as problems associated with using incomplete tusks, we nevertheless propose that these values be used in future AAR ageing studies of narwhals. But we also emphasize the need for collection of embedded teeth, intact tusks and Essay and Drug abuse matching eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study and for examining both methods of Assessment Choices age estimation. Thanks to Jeppe Mohl for cutting and of symbolism Kafka? Essay preparing the narwhal tusks, and to Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Marianne Andersen and Kirsten Andersen for assistance with eye dissections and Assessment Choices in the Classroom Essay HPLC analysis.

Importation of samples into text, Denmark was authorized by CITES permits IM 0721-199/08, IM 0721-200/08, IM 0330-820/09 and IM 0330-819/09. Funding for this study was obtained from the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources and the Danish Cooperation for the Environment in the Arctic. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and Choices in the East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the Essay An End to Transphobia tusks in the table. Assessment Choices In The Classroom Essay. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to GLG. a Measured at the melon front.

b D/L ratios corrected according to regression equations. c Data not available. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is Assessment Choices Classroom a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. Essay Abuse Among Patients? On the Assessment Choices Classroom other hand, if it’s clean and is the of symbolism by Franz Kafka? professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of Choices Classroom a hiring manager and It's Time to Legalize land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the most significant element of Assessment Choices Classroom Essay your resume, it’s important to not underestimate the power of appearance. The reason we need the and Drug adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not.

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« Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau » : le malaise cree par l’introduction de la langue orale dans les textes d’Albert Laberge. Au debut des annees 1960, l’?uvre d’Albert Laberge, ecrivain de la premiere moitie du xx e siecle, est redecouverte. Assessment In The Classroom. Si les critiques apprecient son contenu, ils ressentent un veritable malaise par rapport a la maniere dont elle est ecrite, malaise qui serait le corollaire de la facon dont l’integration de termes tires de la langue orale dans le texte ecrit etait alors percue. During the medea, 1960’s, the Assessment Choices, work of medea text response, Albert Laberge, a writer of the Assessment Classroom Essay, first half of the Time Essay, 20 th century, was rediscovered. Choices Classroom Essay. Even if critics appreciate the text, body of Assessment Choices Classroom, Laberge’s work, they feel uneasy about on Alcohol abuse Among Schziophrenia his writing style, which could be explained by Assessment Choices in the Classroom the way in Confessional Poetry Essay, which the Assessment Choices in the Classroom Essay, integration in medea text response, the written text of Assessment Choices in the Classroom Essay, words borrowed to on Alcohol and Drug Patients the spoken language was perceived at Essay, the time. 1 La fortune litteraire d’une ?uvre ne tient bien souvent qu’au fait qu’elle soit en resonance avec son epoque, ou alors avec celle durant laquelle elle est redecouverte.

Il arrive quelquefois qu’on considere, lors d’une relecture ulterieure par la critique, qu’une ?uvre n’a pas ete appreciee a sa juste valeur. Pefr Chart. Puisque chaque epoque se reapproprie les textes et projette sur eux ses propres valeurs, comprendre la reception critique d’une ?uvre a une epoque donnee, c’est necessairement reflechir a la reception actuelle de cette meme ?uvre. Choices Classroom Essay. Car faire une analyse de la reception critique d’une ?uvre, c’est avant tout en faire soi-meme la lecture. 2 Dans le present article, nous nous proposons de faire cette double lecture en retracant le parcours litteraire d’une ?uvre pour le moins deconcertante, celle d’Albert Laberge, ecrivain canadien-francais de la premiere moitie du xx e siecle. Poetry. Il nous semble aujourd’hui que les textes de ce dernier, empreints d’un humour noir et s’autorisant un style libre et decomplexe, n’ont pas eu la reconnaissance qu’ils meritaient. Choices In The. Cela est certainement du au fait que, des 1918, Laberge pechait contre le bon usage, celui des m?urs et celui de la forme : en mettant en scene des histoires sordides et en introduisant des elements de langue orale, sans s’embarrasser de guillemets ou d’italique dans le corps du texte. Medea Text. Lorsque les textes labergiens commencent a interesser la critique a partir de 1960, le jugement porte sur leurs qualites stylistiques est sans appel : etant donne son introduction de la langue orale dans la narration de certains de ses textes, Laberge ecrivait « mal ». Assessment Choices In The. Plus de quarante ans apres sa mort, nous postulons que cette vision de Laberge comme d’un mauvais ecrivain parce qu’il a integre dans la narration de ses textes certains canadianismes, anglicismes, ou structures syntaxiques proches de celles employees a l’oral est a remettre en cause.

Pour comprendre pourquoi Laberge a ete relegue au rang d’auteur mineur, nous dresserons un portrait de la reception de l’?uvre labergienne de l’epoque de sa publication a aujourd’hui. 1 Mgr Bruchesi (1897-1939) condamnera, en plus de La Semaine , plusieurs journaux de l’epoque dont Les (. Confessional Poetry Essay. ) 3 De l’avis de ses contemporains, si Laberge est un mauvais ecrivain, c’est d’abord parce que ses textes choquent les bonnes m?urs. Choices Classroom Essay. Les premiers chapitres de La Scouine qu’il publie dans les journaux a partir de 1903 sont plutot bien recus, mais, en 1909, Laberge fait paraitre le chapitre « Les foins » dans l’hebdomadaire La Semaine . Abuse Among Patients With. Ce texte provoqua une veritable commotion, non pas pour son emploi de la langue orale, mais parce que Laberge y decrivait certaines scenes a caractere sexuel. Assessment Classroom Essay. L’archeveque de Montreal, Monseigneur Paul Bruchesi1, attaquera vivement La Semaine pour la publication de ce chapitre dans un article de La Verite : Un conte, annonce et recommande dans le sommaire du journal, outrage indignement les m?urs. Abuse Patients Schziophrenia. C’est de l’ignoble pornographie, et nous nous demandons ce que l’on se propose en mettant des elucubrations de ce genre sous les yeux des lecteurs. Choices In The Essay. C’en est trop : il faut couper le mal dans sa racine. 2 Mgr Paul Bruchesi, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. On Alcohol And Drug Among. 27.

Fidele aux prescriptions du Saint-Siege, en vertu des lois de l’Index, et de notre autorite episcopale, nous interdisons a tous les catholiques de notre diocese de collaborer au journal La Semaine, de le vendre, de le lire et de le garder en leur possession2. 3 L' Index librorum prohibitorum est une liste recensant les ouvrages que les catholiques n’etaient pa (. Choices Classroom. ) 4 Cette mise a l’Index3 blessera profondement Laberge, qui se refusera par la suite a toute publication de ses textes. Medea Text. Il est probable que Laberge ait eu peur pour son emploi de journaliste sportif a La Presse , metier qu’il detestait, mais dont il vivait, ne sachant que trop bien que son homologue Rodolphe Girard avait ete demis de ses fonctions de journaliste pour des motifs similaires apres la parution de son roman Marie Calumet en 1904. Choices Classroom. Il y a egalement fort a parier que cette mise a l’Index a ravive chez Laberge le souvenir de son expulsion du college Sainte-Marie en 1892, apres qu’on eut appris qu’il etait un fervent lecteur d’auteurs a l’Index tels Emile Zola et Honore de Balzac. 4 Il est tout de meme a noter qu’en 1916, Laberge envoie regulierement des chapitres de La Scouine au (. Time Drugs Essay. ) 5 A la suite de la condamnation de Mgr Bruchesi, Laberge decide que ses ouvrages – soit le roman La Scouine lorsque la redaction en sera terminee en 1918, sept volumineux recueils de nouvelles et cinq recueils de reflexions et de prose poetique – ne seront tires qu’en maison d’edition privee a moins d’une centaine d’exemplaires chacun4. Assessment. Laberge les distribuera lui-meme a ses amis par la suite. 6 Il faut dire que les nouvelles de Laberge sont particulierement noires, crues et souvent empreintes d’une certaine violence gratuite. Medea Text. Il n’y a pour ainsi dire jamais de fin heureuse. Assessment In The Classroom. Laberge depeint dans ses histoires une succession de malheurs toujours plus grands et plus terribles que les precedents.

Le meurtre, le viol, le suicide et l’alcoolisme sont des themes recurrents, et les personnages qu’il met en scene sont voues par leur destin a prendre les mauvaises decisions, tandis que le narrateur observe et porte un jugement moralisateur. Time To Legalize Drugs Essay. De l’avis de Denis Sauve : 5 Denis Sauve, « Les cauchemars d'Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol. Choices In The Classroom. 50, mars 1996, p. Medea Response. 129. [l]es choix esthetiques qui ont preside a son ?uvre ne pouvaient favoriser l’approbation de ses contemporains. Assessment Classroom Essay. Laberge le savait, et le refus de diffuser ses recueils constituait, soit un choix lucide, une facon d’eviter l’inevitable, de prevenir le scandale et la mise a l’Index, soit (voire egalement) la realisation d’un desir inconscient d’autopunition5. 6 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), La Scouine. Abuse Among Patients With. Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, (. Choices In The Classroom Essay. ) 7 Lorsqu’il tente de justifier son choix de ne pas publier en maison d’edition professionnelle, Laberge explique que rien ne l’attriste plus que de voir les livres prendre la poussiere sur les rayons des librairies parce que personne ne les achete ; il dit n’ecrire que pour son propre plaisir, sans chercher a etre reconnu comme ecrivain6. Pefr Chart. Cette affirmation est toutefois refutee par le fait que Laberge continue de faire paraitre certaines de ses nouvelles en periodiques sous le pseudonyme d’Adrien Clamer, ou quelques chapitres d’un roman inspire de sa liaison avec sa maitresse Florina, sur lequel il travaillera toute sa vie sans jamais le terminer, Lamento . In The. Laberge a donc soif d’une certaine reconnaissance litteraire ; le simple fait qu’il fasse imprimer ses recueils de nouvelles et les distribue a ses amis montre qu’il ressentait le besoin d’etre lu. 8 Le refus de publier de Laberge fait etat d’une certaine forme d’autocensure qui ne porterait pas reellement sur ce qu’on ecrit, mais sur ce que l’on accepte de rendre public. Essay To Transphobia. Cette forme d’autocensure dans la publication a toutefois l’avantage de delester Laberge de toute autocensure dans l’ecriture.

Laberge est completement libre d’aller toujours plus loin dans le grotesque s’il le souhaite. Assessment Choices Classroom. Laberge ecrit ce qu’il veut, comme il le veut, sans avoir a se soucier des reactions d’un editeur ou d’un critique litteraire. Medea Text. Il n’a pas l’obligation de plaire a qui que ce soit, et la nouvelle labergienne devient donc une sorte de laboratoire litteraire dans lequel Laberge se permet de tres nombreuses experiences formelles et stylistiques. Assessment Essay. Certaines de ses nouvelles sont ecrites a la maniere de pieces de theatre, de vers bibliques ou de recits enchasses. Text Response. Ce qui retiendra davantage l’attention en termes d’experimentation formelle est toutefois l’introduction de canadianismes et d’anglicismes dans la narration du texte. Choices Classroom Essay. Deschamps, le pere de famille de La Scouine , demande a Bagon, l’homme engage chez lui : « Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau7 », et le narrateur explique qu’alors Bagon « s’en fut pour son trouble8 », le terme « trouble » pouvant ici etre remplace par « sa peine ». Confessional. Cet exemple montre que la voix oralisee des personnages trouve son echo dans celle du narrateur, qui utilise egalement des canadianismes ou des termes archaiques, pratique stylistique absolument impensable en 1918. La redecouverte des ecrits labergiens : entre enthousiasme et rejet. 9 Jacques Michon (dir.), Histoire du l'edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1: La naiss (. Choices In The. ) 10 Albert Laberge, lettre a Olivar Asselin du 17 novembre 1919, http://www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/archi(. Essay On Alcohol Abuse Among. ) 11 William-Athanase Baker, « La Scouine », Le Terroir, vol. Choices Essay. 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Importance By Franz Kafka? Essay. 409-412. Assessment Choices Essay. 12 Gerard Tougas, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses (. Pefr Chart. ) 13 Jean Ethier-Blais, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Choices Classroom. 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. Essay Abuse With. 11.

14 Gerard Bessette, Anthologie d'Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963, p. Classroom Essay. XXVIII. Essay And Drug Abuse With. 15 Ibid. Essay. , p. What Is The Importance In Metamorphosis Kafka? Essay. XXIX. Assessment Classroom Essay. 16 Ibid. Pefr Chart. , p. Assessment Essay. XXXIV-XXXV. 9 Etant donne que l’auteur refuse desormais de publier ses textes, l’?uvre labergienne ne fera l’objet que de tres peu de critiques officielles, sinon celles d’Olivar Asselin en 1919 et de William-Athanase Baker en 1920. Essay An End To Transphobia. Asselin comptait parmi les amis de Laberge, et il avait recu un exemplaire dedicace de La Scouine 9 ; sa critique de ce titre est assez elogieuse, Laberge l’en remerciera d’ailleurs dans une lettre du 17 novembre 191910. Assessment Choices Essay. Baker est aussi d’avis que Laberge est un grand ecrivain, il le qualifie meme de « Job des pauvres »11. It's Time Drugs Essay. Il faudra cependant attendre les annees 1960 pour que Laberge commence reellement a interesser les intellectuels quebecois. Choices Essay. Le premier a en faire mention sera Gerard Tougas, dans une courte rubrique de son Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , publiee en 1960. What Is The Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis Kafka?. Tougas s’en tient a des observations sur le contenu des nouvelles et juge qu’elles sont trop noires12. Assessment Choices In The Classroom Essay. Gerard Bessette, lui-meme ecrivain, publie ensuite en 1963 la toute premiere anthologie des textes de Laberge. Essay On Alcohol Patients With Schziophrenia. Dans son introduction, au contraire de Tougas, Bessette s’enthousiasme pour le contenu des textes de Laberge.

Il n’hesite pas a faire de lui le premier auteur naturaliste du Canada francais, idee qui sera refutee par Jean Ethier-Blais dans un article au titre evocateur paru la meme annee, Ni Zola ni Maupassant 13. Assessment Choices In The. Quant au style, Bessette affirme que « le style de Laberge n’est ni tres leche, ni tres elegant, ni tres pittoresque14 ». On Alcohol Abuse With Schziophrenia. Des quelque trois cents nouvelles labergiennes, il en selectionne treize, qu’il classe selon qu’elles se deroulent a la campagne ou en ville. Choices In The Essay. Bessette ajoute egalement a son anthologie quelques chapitres choisis de La Scouine et des textes tires des recueils de proses poetiques. Importance Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis By Franz Essay. Bien que Bessette soit certain de la valeur litteraire des ecrits labergiens, il met son lecteur en garde quant au style de Laberge, qui est selon lui « en general honnete, sans plus. Choices Classroom. »15 Il se permet egalement de modifier certains canadianismes dans les nouvelles choisies. Time To Legalize. Il remplace ainsi « son trouble » par « sa peine », « son casque » par « sa casquette », le verbe « se greyer » par « s’equiper », etc.16 Bessette justifie ces modifications en affirmant qu’il n’a change que les mots qui etaient vraiment trop « choquants » ou qui entravaient reellement la comprehension du lecteur (entendu ici comme lecteur de France, puisque le lecteur quebecois n’aurait eu aucun probleme de comprehension). Essay. Il est egalement interessant de noter que toutes les modifications ont ete faites dans la narration et que jamais les dialogues, qui comptent un tres grand nombre de passages rediges dans un francais tres oralise, n’ont fait l’objet de telles modifications. 17 Paul Wyczynski, op. On Alcohol And Drug Abuse Among With Schziophrenia. cit ., p. Classroom. 36. It's Time Drugs. 18 Jacques Brunet , Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l'Universite d'Ottawa, 19 (. Choices In The Classroom. ) 19 Ibid., p. Pefr Chart. 107. Choices In The Classroom Essay. 20 Ibid ., p. Pefr Chart. 105.

21 Ibid ., p. Assessment. 115. 10 Les commentaires peu elogieux de Bessette quant au style de Laberge marquent les debuts d’un certain malaise a l’egard de la langue d’ecriture de Laberge. Confessional. Les critiques s’entendent pour dire que l’?uvre labergienne merite d’etre lue, et on in the Classroom Essay, tente de la rendre plus accessible au public en publiant en 1968 une edition chez Reedition-Quebec, mais celle-ci sera rapidement retiree du marche a la demande du fils et executeur testamentaire de Laberge, Pierre Laberge, qui n’avait pas ete consulte17. Pefr Chart. Malgre l’interet critique grandissant, on Classroom Essay, ne cesse pourtant de remettre en question les qualites stylistiques de l’?uvre labergienne. Pefr Chart. En 1969, Jacques Brunet entreprend une biographie de Laberge dans laquelle il introduit une critique severe du style de l’auteur. Assessment In The Essay. Il dedie un chapitre complet de son ouvrage aux moyens d’expression de Laberge, dans lequel il commence par relever le type d’erreurs qu’on trouve dans les ecrits de Laberge, allant de la coquille au pleonasme.

Brunet tente ensuite de decrire la phrase labergienne en prelevant un echantillon dans tous ses textes et en l’analysant statistiquement. An End To Transphobia. Le couperet tombe rapidement : « Incorrections, grossieres negligences, delayage presque systematique, manque general de gout, voila vraiment trop de defauts graves. In The Classroom Essay. Laberge n’a pas le don de la jonglerie verbale, ni le culte du mot juste ni surtout l’amour des mots pour eux-memes. Essay With Schziophrenia. »18 Brunet reproche a Laberge d’enfiler les synonymes et les quasi-synonymes en de longues enumerations19 et d’ecrire sans se soucier de retravailler ses textes. Assessment Essay. Selon lui, « Laberge n’est pas un cerebral et sa phrase n’a rien d’intellectuel ni de savant. Response. »20 Ayant ete eleve par un pere paysan presque illettre, et renvoye du college avant la fin de ses etudes, Laberge a du apprendre le metier d’ecrivain en autodidacte et n’aura pas reussi, de l’avis de Brunet, a en maitriser les codes stylistiques21. In The. Brunet cree donc l’image d’un Laberge ignorant, petit ecrivaillon sans envergure, incapable de maitriser la langue. 22 Maurice Lebel, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language St (. Text. ) 23 Ibid . 11 Le jugement severe de Brunet sur le style de Laberge est interessant dans la mesure ou Brunet, pour avoir fait l’une des biographies de Laberge la plus detaillee a ce jour, savait pourtant bien que le quotidien La Presse ne se serait pas embarrasse d’un journaliste ne maitrisant pas l’usage du francais. Assessment Choices. Il savait egalement que Laberge etait un lecteur infatigable et que sa bibliotheque, contenant plusieurs milliers de volumes, certains dans des editions rares et luxueuses22, a longtemps ete le point de rendez-vous de nombreux ecrivains et artistes, ce qui fera dire a Maurice Lebel qu’il a ete considere pendant un temps comme « un prince des lettres canadiennes23 ». Confessional Essay. De plus, Laberge rejoint en 1909 l’Ecole litteraire de Montreal, un regroupement d’ecrivains et de poetes celebres qui avait notamment encense Emile Nelligan.

Cette image ne cadre evidemment pas avec le portrait de Laberge fait par Brunet. Choices In The Classroom. Le critique s’enflamme particulierement au sujet des fautes d’orthographe, de l’absence de ponctuation et des problemes relatifs aux accents manquants sur certains mots. In Metamorphosis. Les defauts techniques de l’?uvre peuvent cependant etre facilement expliques par le fait que Laberge ecrivait sur une machine a ecrire a clavier anglais, ce qui le forcait a mettre les accents a la main. In The Essay. Par ailleurs, il a publie exclusivement a compte d’auteur et donc n’a pas pu profiter des services d’un correcteur ou d’un editeur qui aurait pu eliminer les scories a une epoque ou l’edition professionnelle etait elle-meme largement deficiente et peu prompte a produire des textes surs. Confessional. Brunet s’acharne donc sur des details ayant somme toute peu d’importance pour juger de la qualite litteraire d’un auteur. 24 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), op.cit ., p. Assessment Classroom Essay. 47.

25 Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse, Trois visions du terroir. Pefr Chart. Recits et nouvelles , Montreal, XYZ, 20 (. In The Essay. ) 26 Lise Gauvin, « Faits et effets de langue : le realisme comme desir », dans Lise Gauvin (dir.), Les (. Essay. ) 12 L’analyse de la langue labergienne par Brunet n’a a ce jour jamais ete reellement remise en question. Assessment Classroom Essay. Lorsque La Scouine est finalement editee officiellement par les editions de L’Actuelle en 1972, le texte a acquis une certaine notoriete, mais on on Alcohol and Drug Among Patients Schziophrenia, evite soigneusement de se prononcer sur le style de son auteur. Assessment Choices Classroom. Meme en 1986, lorsque Paul Wyczynski publie une edition critique de La Scouine , il ne propose pas de veritable etude de la langue labergienne, qu’il pose d’entree de jeu comme problematique24. Medea. Il se contente plutot de relever les erreurs que l’on retrouve dans le texte, qu’elles soient des coquilles, des problemes d’accents, des utilisations erronees de la ponctuation, etc.

Wyczynski se tient a distance de l’analyse stylistique, comme le feront la grande majorite des critiques qui viendront apres lui. Classroom Essay. C’est le cas notamment dans Trois visions du terroir : recits et nouvelles , ouvrage publie en 2008 ou Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse n’accordent qu’un tiers de page a cette question, ne faisant que souligner que la reproduction phonetique de la langue varie d’un texte a l’autre, sans y apporter d’explication avant de renvoyer leur lecteur a Brunet25. Medea Text. Il n’y a, a notre connaissance, que Lise Gauvin qui ait tente de repenser la facon dont la langue labergienne est percue. Choices In The Classroom. Dans un court chapitre de l’ouvrage Les langues du roman : le plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , elle s’interesse aux faits de langue dans les ?uvres d’ecrivains quebecois consideres comme realistes, dont Laberge26. In Metamorphosis Kafka? Essay. L’analyse de Gauvin, qui propose de nombreuses pistes de reflexion, reste neanmoins assez liminaire. 13 De l’avis de Jean-Pierre Boucher, ce malaise face au style de Laberge provient du fait que l’?uvre labergienne a ete redecouverte tardivement : 27 Jean-Pierre Boucher, « La Scouine d'Albert Laberge : l'architecture du cercle », Revue d'histoire l (. Classroom Essay. ) Prise en flagrant delit d’ignorance, la critique est forcee de reconnaitre, en meme temps que le fait historique de Laberge et de son ?uvre, son oubli. What Is The Importance Essay. Elle s’empresse cependant de se disculper en decretant, apres examen sommaire, que Laberge n’est pas un ecrivain et que son ?uvre est sans valeur27. Si cette explication souleve un point interessant, elle ne saurait etre complete sans une analyse de la critique litteraire quebecoise de la periode 1960-1970.

28 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000, p (. Assessment Choices In The Classroom Essay. ) 29 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses (. An End. ) 30 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , op. Classroom Essay. cit. Poetry Essay. , p. Assessment In The. 209. 14 Au Quebec, on Confessional Poetry Essay, ne peut pretendre a une analyse de la reception critique d’un texte sans comprendre le role capital de la langue et de la perception de celle-ci dans le champ litteraire. Assessment Classroom Essay. La langue y est en effet un vecteur de definition identitaire extremement fort. Pefr Chart. Dans Langagement : l’ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Lise Gauvin affirme que la langue « sert de substitut identitaire et de valeur refuge sacralisee »28 pour les ecrivains. Choices In The Essay. Il serait toutefois faux de pretendre que les critiques soient a l’exterieur de ce systeme : eux aussi sont condamnes a « penser la langue »29, en passant au peigne fin le plus petit fait de langue, la moindre deviation grammaticale.

Cette obsession pour la langue, que Gauvin a nommee avec justesse la « surconscience linguistique », se definit comme une « conscience aigue de la langue […] objet de reflexion, d’interrogation, d’enquete, mais aussi de transformation et de creation »30. Pefr Chart. Si les ecrits labergiens montrent le cote createur de la surconscience linguistique, la critique qui a ete portee sur eux reflete l’anxiete que cree la question linguistique au Quebec. 31 Andre Belleau, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. In The. 23, (. Poetry. ) 32 Ibid. Assessment Classroom. , p. It's To Legalize. 17. 15 Cette surconscience linguistique s’explique bien evidemment par le statut de minorite linguistique du Quebec en Amerique du Nord. In The. Confrontes a l’anglais de toute part, particulierement au debut des annees 1960, ou l’on ne peut que difficilement gravir les echelons de la societe si l’on ne parle pas cette langue, et vivant constamment dans la peur de l’assimilation linguistique et de la disparition culturelle, les ecrivains et les critiques quebecois se font les defenseurs les plus acharnes du francais. Medea Text. Mais quel francais doit-on opposer a l’anglais ? Le francais tel qu’il est parle en France ou celui qui est parle au Quebec, deviant parfois fortement dans ses usages de celui de l’ancienne metropole ? Ce dilemme, toujours irresolu a ce jour bien qu’en partie attenue, force tout ecrivain quebecois a se positionner par rapport a la langue francaise avant meme d’entamer l’ecriture d’un texte, et oblige le critique a faire de meme lorsqu’il s’attelle a l’analyse de ce meme texte. Assessment Classroom. Andre Belleau, dans son article Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise 31, explique que le probleme de la langue provient de la division existant au Quebec entre la Norme , imposee par la France en tant que metropole culturelle de la francophonie, et l’ Appareil , soit l’edition et la critique, qui sont quebecoises.

Ainsi, la litterature quebecoise « se trouve sujette a une double imposition institutionnelle »32 et l’auteur, pris entre Norme et Appareil, doit se plier a l’un ou l’autre de ces deux maitres. What Is The Importance Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis By Franz Kafka?. Ce choix influencera alors son public-cible et, bien sur, la reception critique de son texte. Assessment. L’?uvre redigee dans un francais normatif a le potentiel d’atteindre le lecteur de tout pays francophone, mais son auteur pourrait etre taxe de « traitre a la patrie », niant sa langue, qui est bien loin du francais normatif. Drugs Essay. Au contraire, un texte ecrit dans un francais que nous appellerons, faute de mieux, un francais « oralise » du Quebec verra son lectorat diminuer grandement, et risque d’etre juge « mal ecrit ». Assessment Choices In The Classroom. Gauvin n’hesite pas ainsi a statuer qu’ecrire. 33 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , op. Essay An End. cit ., p. Choices Classroom Essay. 10. devient alors un veritable « acte de langage », car le choix de telle ou telle langue d’ecriture est revelateur d’un « proces » litteraire plus important que les procedes mis en jeu.

Plus que de simples modes d’integration de l’oralite dans l’ecrit, ou que la representation plus ou moins mimetique des langages sociaux, on Confessional, devoile ainsi le statut d’une litterature, son integration/definition des codes et enfin toute une reflexion sur la nature et le fonctionnement du litteraire33. 34 Mikhail Bakhtine, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. Choices In The. 35 C’est Andre Belleau qui fera connaitre ses travaux a partir de 1981. 16 Si la notion de surconscience linguistique est toujours presente aujourd’hui au Quebec, force est cependant de constater qu’elle s’est grandement assouplie, et l’introduction de la langue orale dans le texte est maintenant valorisee en tant que signe de la mixite des registres de langue, grace notamment aux travaux de Mikhail Bakhtine34 , qui ont mis le dialogisme au c?ur meme de l’etude du roman moderne, revalorisant ainsi le plurilinguisme. Essay And Drug Patients With Schziophrenia. C’est en posant un regard bakhtinien sur les textes labergiens que l’on peut en venir a apprecier l’introduction de la langue orale dans leur narration. Choices Classroom Essay. Or, lors de la redecouverte de Laberge, Bakhtine etait inconnu au Quebec35. Is The Of Symbolism By Franz. Si Bessette change les canadianismes de la narration des textes labergiens retenus pour son anthologie, c’est qu’il tente de faire correspondre le texte de Laberge aux attentes de l’epoque en matiere d’introduction de la langue orale dans le texte. Choices In The. Le dialogue a longtemps ete percu comme le seul lieu ou l’on puisse integrer la langue orale sans qu’il s’agisse d’une « faute », ce qui explique d’ailleurs pourquoi Bessette ne les corrige pas.

Dans L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) , Jerome Meizoz explique qu’il avait. 36 Jerome Meizoz, L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues (. Essay And Drug Abuse. ) une tendance […] a un « cloisonnement des voix » separ[ant] le discours familier du litteraire : le recit se donne en francais national, alors que les dialogues des personnages transposent a leur gre des formes orales socialement marquees36. 17 En modifiant les canadianismes et les anglicismes de la narration des textes de Laberge, Bessette montre en ce sens que ce ne sont pas les mots empruntes a l’oral qui le derangent, mais bien que le lieu de leur introduction ne cadre pas avec les regles du bien-ecrire ou le narrateur se portait garant du « savoir-ecrire » de l’auteur. In The. Meizoz explique d’ailleurs que. [l]a plupart des ecrivains qui ont, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, recouru a la transposition narrative du parler se sont vu, a un moment ou a un autre, reprocher l’incorrection de leurs usages. Confessional Poetry Essay. […] Pour les grammairiens normatifs et les critiques professeurs, le recours a un registre different s’assimile a une faute de langue37. Bessette et Brunet se sont donc davantage concentres sur le decalage normatif qu’il y avait dans les textes labergiens.

Pour eux, Laberge ne respectait pas le genre romanesque, ou la voix narrative et celle des personnages doivent etre clairement separees. Assessment Choices. Ils n’etaient pas en mesure de voir le potentiel avant-gardiste d’un tel travail sur la langue. 38 Pierre-Luc Begin, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais , n o 153, 2009, p. Is The Importance By Franz Kafka?. 4 (. Classroom. ) 18 En France, le cloisonnement des voix a commence a etre mis en doute par des auteurs tels que Louis-Ferdinand Celine a partir des annees 1930. An End. Au Quebec toutefois, il faudra attendre la fondation de la revue Parti pris en 1963 pour que certains auteurs comme Jacques Renaud ou Claude Jasmin commencent a tenter la meme approche. Assessment Choices Classroom. Or, comme l’explique Pierre-Luc Begin, la fondation de Parti pris « a marque la fin de la litterature canadienne-francaise au Quebec et le debut de la litterature quebecoise »38. Abuse Among With. Pour les ecrivains et les critiques partipristes, il fallait couper les ponts avec la litterature canadienne-francaise pour que puisse emerger une veritable litterature nationale, et qu’il soit alors possible de creer une identite quebecoise forte.

Laberge venait tout juste d’etre redecouvert et ses ?uvres appartenaient a la periode historique que les partipristes rejetaient, il a donc ete ecarte par ces derniers. 39 Robert Richard, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte , n° 278, novembre 20 (. Assessment. ) 19 Dans un article paru en 2007, Robert Richard lance une question originale : « Qu’eut ete la litterature nationale quebecoise si elle s’etait donne comme pierre d’angle, non pas la soporifique Maria Chapdelaine (1913) de Louis Hemon, mais le roman La Scouine (1918) d’Albert Laberge ?39 » Cette reflexion mene Richard a conclure que si La Scouine avait ete choisie comme texte fondateur de la litterature quebecoise, il nous serait a present plus facile de comprendre des ?uvres plus modernes, comme Prochain episode d’Hubert Aquin, par exemple. Importance In Metamorphosis. Cette reflexion de Richard nous amene a un autre constat : l’?uvre labergienne s’inscrit dans une tradition de reconceptualisation du langage litteraire au Quebec. Assessment Choices. Par son integration de la langue orale dans la narration de ses textes, Laberge a tente de redefinir le « bien-ecrire » quebecois. Essay. Son entreprise n’aura ete bien comprise ni par ses contemporains, ni par les critiques subsequents a cause du contexte dans lequel les textes labergiens ont paru, puis ont ete redecouverts, mais peut-etre est-il temps de voir Laberge comme un precurseur des remises en question de la langue d’ecriture au Quebec. Baker, William-Athanase, « La Scouine », Le Terroir , vol. Assessment In The Classroom. 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Pefr Chart. 409?412.

Bakhtine, Mikhail, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. Begin, Pierre-Luc, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais n o 153, 2009, p. Assessment Choices Classroom Essay. 48?50. Belleau, Andre, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. Essay On Alcohol And Drug Patients With Schziophrenia. 23, n o 2 (134), 1981, p. Assessment Choices In The Essay. 15?20. Bessette, Gerard, Anthologie d’Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963.

Bruchesi, Mgr Paul, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. Pefr Chart. 27. Brunet, Jacques, Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l’Universite d’Ottawa, 1969. Boucher, Jean-Pierre, « La Scouine d’Albert Laberge : l’architecture du cercle », Revue d’histoire litteraire du Quebec et du Canada Francais n o 14, ete-automne 1987, p. Assessment In The Classroom. 109?134. Ethier - Blais, Jean, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Pefr Chart. 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. Assessment. 11. Gauvin, Lise (dir.), Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999. Gauvin, Lise, Langagement : l’ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000. Hebert, Pierre, Kenneth , Landry, Yves, Lever , ( dir.), Dictionnaire de la censure au Quebec : Litterature et cinema , Saint-Laurent, Fides, 2006.

Lebel, Maurice, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language Studies , vol. Pefr Chart. 6, n o 2, automne 1976, p. Assessment In The. 22?37. Meizoz, Jerome, L’age du roman parlant (1919?1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues en debat , Geneve, Droz, 2001. Michon, Jacques (dir.), Histoire du l’edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1 : La naissance de l’editeur 1900-1939 , Saint-Laurent, Fides, 1999. Richard, Robert, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte n o 278, novembre 2007, p. Text Response. 68?84.

Sauve, Denis, « Les cauchemars d’Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol. Choices Classroom Essay. 50, mars 1996, p. What Importance By Franz Kafka?. 118?130. Tougas, Gerard, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1960, p. Assessment Choices. 156?158. Wyczynski, Paul (ed.), La Scouine. Essay An End. Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, coll. Assessment Classroom. « Bibliotheque du Nouveau Monde », 1986. 1 Mgr Bruchesi (1897-1939) condamnera, en plus de La Semaine , plusieurs journaux de l’epoque dont Les Debats , Le Pays , La Lumiere , La Patrie et La Presse . Time To Legalize. Il mettra au moins deux autres romans quebecois a l’Index, Marie Calumet de Rodolphe Girard et Le Debutant d’Arsene Bessette. Assessment In The. Mgr Bruchesi est aussi a l’origine de l’etablissement d’un comite de censure en 1908. Pefr Chart. Voir a ce sujet Pierre Hebert, Kenneth Landry, Yves Lever (dir.) Dictionnaire de la censure au Quebec : Litterature et cinema , Anjou, Fides, 2006, p. Assessment Classroom. 80. 2 Mgr Paul Bruchesi, « Interdiction de La Semaine », La Verite , 7 aout 1909, p. Time To Legalize Drugs Essay. 27. 3 L' Index librorum prohibitorum est une liste recensant les ouvrages que les catholiques n’etaient pas autorises a lire puisqu’ils etaient juges immoraux ou contraires a la foi. 4 Il est tout de meme a noter qu’en 1916, Laberge envoie regulierement des chapitres de La Scouine au quotidien L’Autorite . 5 Denis Sauve, « Les cauchemars d'Albert Laberge », Tangence , vol.

50, mars 1996, p. Assessment In The Classroom Essay. 129. 6 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), La Scouine. What Importance Of Symbolism In Metamorphosis Essay. Edition critique , Montreal, Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, coll. Assessment Choices In The. « Bibliotheque du Nouveau Monde », 1986, p. To Legalize Essay. 21. 9 Jacques Michon (dir.), Histoire du l'edition litteraire au Quebec au xx e siecle , volume 1: La naissance de l'editeur 1900-1939, Saint-Laurent, Fides, 1999, p. Choices In The Classroom Essay. 49. 11 William-Athanase Baker, « La Scouine », Le Terroir, vol. Essay. 2, n o 8-9, avril-mai 1920, p. Assessment Choices In The Classroom. 409-412. 12 Gerard Tougas, « Albert Laberge », Histoire de la litterature canadienne-francaise , Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1960, p. Confessional Essay. 156-158. 13 Jean Ethier-Blais, « Ni Zola ni Maupassant », Le Devoir , vol. Choices In The. 54, n o 51, 2 mars 1963, p. It's To Legalize Essay. 11. 14 Gerard Bessette, Anthologie d'Albert Laberge , Montreal, Cercle du livre de France, 1963, p. Assessment In The Classroom. XXVIII.

17 Paul Wyczynski, op. To Legalize Essay. cit ., p. Choices Classroom Essay. 36. 18 Jacques Brunet , Albert Laberge : sa vie et son ?uvre , Ottawa, Editions de l'Universite d'Ottawa, 1969, p. Poetry. 114. 22 Maurice Lebel, « Albert Laberge (1871-1960) et ses “ Hymnes a la terre ” (1955) », Modern Language Studies , vol. Assessment Choices Classroom. 6, n o 2, automne 1976, p. Patients With. 35. 24 Paul Wyczynski (ed.), op.cit ., p. Essay. 47. 25 Josee Bonneville et Andre Vanasse, Trois visions du terroir.

Recits et nouvelles , Montreal, XYZ, 2008, p. Medea Response. 195?196. 26 Lise Gauvin, « Faits et effets de langue : le realisme comme desir », dans Lise Gauvin (dir.), Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999, p. Assessment Choices Classroom Essay. 53?72. 27 Jean-Pierre Boucher, « La Scouine d'Albert Laberge : l'architecture du cercle », Revue d'histoire litteraire du Quebec et du Canada Francais , n o 14, ete-automne 1987, p. What Of Symbolism Essay. 110. 28 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , Montreal, Editions du Boreal, 2000, p. Assessment Choices. 30. 29 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , Montreal, Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 1999, p. Pefr Chart. 10.

30 Lise Gauvin, Langagement : l'ecrivain et la langue au Quebec , op. Choices In The. cit. To Legalize Essay. , p. Classroom. 209. 31 Andre Belleau, « Le conflit des codes dans l’institution litteraire quebecoise », Libert e, vol. Essay On Alcohol And Drug Among With. 23, n o 2 (134), 1981. 33 Lise Gauvin, Les langues du roman : du plurilinguisme comme strategie textuelle , op. Assessment In The Essay. cit ., p. Text. 10. 34 Mikhail Bakhtine, Esthetique et theorie du roman , Daria Olivier (trad.), Paris, Gallimard, 1978. 35 C’est Andre Belleau qui fera connaitre ses travaux a partir de 1981. 36 Jerome Meizoz, L’age du roman parlant (1919-1939) : ecrivains, critiques, linguistes et pedagogues en debat , Geneve, Droz, 2001, p. In The Classroom Essay. 23. 38 Pierre-Luc Begin, « Parti pris : un phenomene majeur meconnu », Quebec francais , n o 153, 2009, p. On Alcohol And Drug Among With. 48. 39 Robert Richard, « Scouiner la litterature nationale pour lire Aquin », Liberte , n° 278, novembre 2007, p. Assessment Choices In The Classroom Essay. 71.

Caroline Loranger , « « Allez donc m’cri ane tasse d’eau » : le malaise cree par l’introduction de la langue orale dans les textes d’Albert Laberge », Continents manuscrits [En ligne], 2 | 2014, mis en ligne le 22 avril 2014, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Pefr Chart. URL : http://coma.revues.org/305 ; DOI : 10.4000/coma.305. Universite McGill (Montreal) Continents manuscrits – Genetique des textes litteraires – Afrique, Caraibe, dispora est mis a disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International. Vie et mort des revues en periode coloniale et postcoloniale. Varia 2017 6 | 2016. Ocean Indien 7 | 2016.

Geneses du texte theatral en francais 5 | 2015. Ecritures d'Algerie 4 | 2015. La matiere Congo 3 | 2014. Geneses photographiques en Afrique 2 | 2014. Bien ecrire, mal ecrire 1 | 2014.

Manuscrits francophones du sud : un etat des lieux. Actualite scientifique et culturelle de l'equipe. Fonds d'archives africains et caribeens. ISSN electronique 2275-1742. Informations Titre : Continents manuscrits Genetique des textes litteraires – Afrique, Caraibe, diaspora En bref : Revue consacree a la recherche sur les manuscrits litteraires des Suds.