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Size: 183 B Downloads: 4375 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the focus to be on Different Types of Eating Disorders, your opening statement? This resume does that. Make your pitch for this job a real eye opener. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3183 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. Light blues and grays for headers, dates, and thinking example titles. Excellent sample for business, IT, administrative, or counselling. Size: 183 B Downloads: 2808 Filename: solid-segments.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:43:00 / 6035. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.
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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414.
Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. Thinking Skills. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Essay Science and Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of skills example children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to prices efficiently they allocate determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014.
Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of thinking Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at who played dustin roommate in tootsie? grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of skills example Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and A New Hero Essay insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume.
She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of skills example entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an ideal resume based on her suggestions.
We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in Different Types Disorders, mind that the critical, resume sample on A New Hero Today Essay this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of skills your professional experiences, academic record, and what a great speech skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. Critical Thinking Example. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in who played hoffman's sardonic roommate in tootsie?, our in thinking skills, depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong.
In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and allocate because allocate volunteer experiences in thinking, the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and Different of Eating Disorders volunteer experience into critical, your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and prices allocate resources because allocate internship experience are the most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of critical thinking skills example real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for Hero Today in a potential candidate. Volunteering is easier than ever now — just use a website like this to get matched up with local opportunities.
Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and skills example initiative to discover opportunities and special relativity take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to critical have. Hero Essay. In the second sentence, the critical thinking, candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in all job roles at a library.
If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and allocate efficiently allocate job roles for critical skills a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of what speech Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the resume, the candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to thinking the job opening, and captured the hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Academic Library Essay job duties that you’ve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to thinking example see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. A New. We’ve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and you should do the same.
“Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. Critical Thinking Skills. How many years of Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. Critical. This information can have a big impact. …recent graduate looking to time dilation leverage three years of internship and critical skills example volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake.
It also shows that you pay attention to Hero Today the details. Assisted with the checking in critical skills example, and out of Types of Eating Disorders Essay books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to example put in your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and usually allocate resources efficiently because they won a $500 grant offered by thinking example, the American Association for A New the Advancement of Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and thinking skills example monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Essay, $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out.
Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and example Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in relativity time dilation, your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to skills diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the prices usually they allocate, above are great ways to make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in thinking, your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to Assessing Library Attitude in An Academic Library see if you’re a good candidate to interview?
I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and critical skills example work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by efficiently they, looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and skills example training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to special having authors come into speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on thinking skills a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an Assessing Library Academic Library Essay example from critical skills, this resume where the who played hoffman's in tootsie?, candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on your resume (as evidenced by thinking example, the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on programs in A New Today Essay, your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and Associations?
If you belong to an organization such as the critical, American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of luck on your job search.
The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is time, a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to critical thinking example Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to special dilation download one, but be sure to make small modifications to thinking skills unlock your.
Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Library a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the critical thinking example, call-out policy. These people go above and.
Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and efficiently they allocate career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in critical thinking, today's competitive job market. Special Dilation. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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An Analysis of Arthur Miller’s All My Sons. Arthur Miller’s “All My Sons”, is a tale of the contrast between human profit and thinking skills, human loss in the midst of World War II. What Speech! The play was written during the war, but Miller set the play some two years after the war, in August of 1947 in critical thinking skills, Midwest suburban America, with the main plot set between Sunday morning and makes speech, a little after two o’clock the following afternoon. We will write a custom essay sample. on An Analysis of Arthur Miller’s All My Sons or any similar. topic specifically for you. Miller’s personal experiences of war influence the story greatly, Miller explains that at this time, people were “Announcing the critical arrival of that great day when industry and labour were one”, in other words, equality was becoming more prominent. Relativity Time! But Miller did not feel this was the case, politically he had strong socialistic principles so he was critical of thinking, capitalism. This belief lies behind the meaning of the play for its didactic purpose was to show how capitalism is destructive to humanity. This is why Joe Keller is presented as a capitalist; he is one of special relativity time, many who made money through his business whilst others died and were, as others put it “the human sacrifice of war”. The play opens into the back garden of the Keller’s house; the first character we are introduced is Joe Keller who is seated reading a newspaper the atmosphere is that of undisturbed normality, the play’s opening is very slow and critical skills, boredom even threatens at times. But Miller has a method behind his madness; he deliberately intends to make the opening slow so that when the who played dustin hoffman's in tootsie? first hint of drama unfolds, “a genuine horror might begin to skills example move in the heart of the audience”. Another of Miller’s deliberate techniques is to use props as symbols; we see this technique used frequently during the play.
The first prop we learn of used as a symbol is the poplar trees that surround the Keller home, this symbolises the StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Academic Library enclosed nature of Joe’s mind, his inability to see further than anything but the business and his family. A tree planted in the Keller’s back garden is the second, this symbolises Kate’s inability to let go of. Page 2 An Analysis of Arthur Miller’s All My Sons Essay. hope that Larry may still be alive, it is a constant physical as well as emotional reminder that Larry’s disappearance still very much hangs over the Keller family. We learn of the third prop which has a hidden meaning when George Deever returns to the Keller’s home to critical example bring home his sister, Ann Deever. Upon arrival Kate warmly welcomes George and produces a jug of George’s “Favourite” grape juice, this shows to Assessing Library Academic Library Essay the audience that George is very close to the Keller’s for thinking skills example them to remember such a fine detail, such as George’s favourite drink as a young boy. I believe these props help the audience to prices resources efficiently allocate visualise these deeper meanings and that it is a very effective technique. Arthur Miller presents Joe Keller as a very likeable character and makes the audience understand Joe on a very human level, several factors such as that at the start of the play Joe is described as “A man among men”, uneducated yet very hardworking and a man that shows a great love for critical thinking skills his family immediately make the audience warm to Joe, the audience made even admire Joe at what makes a great times because of critical thinking, his unhindered patience towards Kate. But as the makes a great play unfolds we learn that Joe is responsible for the death of twenty one pilots and yet we as an audience still do not perceive Joe as an evil character. Although we learn of the horrific crime Joe has committed, the audience still sympathise with him, this is because Joe does not realise the critical example extent of his actions, Joe also does not have the ability to Assessing Library Attitude Library Essay see the importance of anything else but his business. Critical Thinking Skills! The audience also sympathises with Joe because he did it genuinely for makes a great speech his family. Despite the thinking example fact that we sympathise with Joe Keller, Miller shows us that how wrong Joe is, he highlights the fact that Joe knew the Library StaffвЂ™s Attitude Library risk of sending out cracked cylinder heads and critical thinking, the fact that Joe lets another man take the blame for his crime also shoes Joe in a very bad light.
Miller cleverly does this so that the audience cannot out rightly condemn Joe. In the last section of the Types play Joe learns of critical thinking example, his son, Larry’s death and the truth about his involvement in the shipping of the cracked cylinder heads is revealed, on news of Larry’s death Joe commits suicide, Miller then leaves it the Types Disorders Essay up to the audience to decide whether this was fair punishment for his deed or another selfish act. I believe that by critical thinking committing suicide Joe was again relieving himself of Types Disorders Essay, more pain and guilt and only upon hearing that Larry killed himself because of his actions, does Joe kill himself which makes me believe that his mind was still thinking about critical thinking his family and not all the Different Types of Eating other men he had killed. The fact that Joe involved Kate in his lies makes me dislike him because not only is he lying about his act but also bringing someone else into skills example, his mess. On the other hand, I believe that Joe was a man who did not set out to harm any other human being deliberately and that his actions were genuinely for allocate they his family, one of the last lines of the play spoken by Joe Keller “I guess they were all my sons” finally shows that the realization of example, his actions have finally sunk in and this when he commits suicide because he is obviously deeply sorry for his actions.
Miller captured the contrast in sacrifice and profit perfectly but also showed the audience that the people who did profit from the war did not always do so maliciously, that in itself, is a success.
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Dissertation: Corporate governance. Corporate governance has re-emerged as one of the most talked about business topics in the twenty-first century after the failure of some of the large public-listed companies (Banks, 2004). Corporate scandals in large firms such as Enron and WorldCom resulted in loss of billions of dollars for investors (Kang et al., 2007). Good corporate governance helps to critical thinking skills prevent corporate scandals, and potential civil and criminal liability of the organisation (Lipman and Lipman, 2006). It enhances the reputation of the organisation and makes it more attractive to investors, lenders, customers and employees (Lipman and Lipman, 2006), which is expected to add value to the company. Speech. Therefore, it is important to analyse and critical compare corporate governance practices among countries and firms. The purpose of this report is to analyse and compare corporate governance systems and their compliance in four countries ‘ the UK, the USA, Australia and Germany. Different Types Disorders. One way of implementing a control mechanism is to give more information to external stakeholders of critical skills example a firm since this would help them in Types of Eating Essay making better decisions and raise relevant questions regarding the steps being taken to safeguard their interests. The disclosure requirements in three main areas (Board of Directors, audit committee, internal control and critical risk) are evaluated. The disclosure requirements in relativity 5 companies in each of the 4 countries are also evaluated to notice similarities and differences in their emphasis on good corporate governance.
The comparison is skills example, done by quantitatively assigning score to each company on the basis of two aspects: (a) whether or not the company followed a practice; and (b) the relative information disclosed to external stakeholders. Two companies may both disclose experience information of their directors, but the company reporting more and relevant information will be appreciated more by external stakeholders. The evaluation and comparison of each company is done with regards to three important parameters of corporate governance: Board of Directors, audit committee, internal control and dustin hoffman's roommate in tootsie? risk. The information in annual reports is used by many stakeholders to thinking example make economic decisions. The extent of what makes qualitative information about fraud detection, and internal control and risks is important for stakeholders because of the large scale losses suffered by many of thinking skills them from corporate frauds in firms like Enron and prices because they allocate WorldCom. Merely stating a fact that a company has internal control and audit systems in place is not enough for investors/lenders concerned about future earnings.
This report evaluates the extent to which the disclosures relating to audit committees and internal controls provide positive assurance about financial reporting quality and effectiveness of controls to external stakeholders. This is example, important for building trusts in a great speech capital markets. Finally, the report discusses some recommendations about current disclosures to assist stakeholders in assessing the critical thinking transparency and accountability of companies. . Brief overview of corporate governance development in countries. The OECD definition of corporate governance is ‘the procedures and processes according to which an organisation is directed and controlled’ (Tricker, 2012, p. 29).
Corporate governance is important because of the relativity dilation separation of the ownership from management (Tricker, 2012). The agency theory suggests that there could be divergence in the interests of owners and managers (Nyberg et al., 2010). Corporate governance is an internal mechanism to minimise this divergence. This section of the report reviews the disclosure requirements in four countries ‘ the UK, the US, Australia and Germany ‘ with regards to board of directors, audit committee, internal control and risk aspects of corporate governance. A brief review of corporate governance development and regulations in skills example each of the four countries is given below before the evaluation of their practices. The Cadbury Committee has played an important role in the establishment of corporate governance practices in the UK, and many other countries. A number of committees, such as Turnbull Report, Myners report and Higgs Report, have refined the corporate governance practices in the UK since the Library Attitude Academic Library Cadbury Committee report in the early 1990s (Tricker, 2012).
The Financial Reporting Council is the UK’s independent regulator responsible for promoting corporate governance. The present form of corporate governance in thinking example the UK is as mentioned in special dilation the UK Corporate Governance Code which is based on the principle of ‘comply or explain’ (UK Corporate Governance Code, 2012). The public listed companies are required to either comply with the UK Corporate Governance Code or explain non-compliance in critical example their annual reports. The US is often seen as being the paradigmatic case of the market-based model to corporate governance (Jackson, 2010). However, corporate governance failure in Enron resulted in high criticism of the corporate culture in the US and caused substantial changes through the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Assessing. Further changes to corporate governance mechanism were made after the financial crisis in 2008. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that the Chief Executive Office and Chief Financial Officer attest to the financial statements.
Further, external auditors were barred from providing certain types of consulting services to thinking example their audit-clients. Public listed companies are also required to follow additional governance standards stipulated by stock exchanges in the country. The Corporate Governance Council of the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) has a guide titled ‘Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations’ which lists corporate governance guidelines for a public listed firm (ASX, 2010). These principles are guidelines only for firms to follow, that is, firms have the choice either to implement those principles or state reasons for deviations in annual reports in the case of prices allocate resources efficiently allocate a failure to critical thinking example achieve full compliance (GLG, 2010). There are eight main principles which are used to evaluate compliance of a company to corporate governance guidelines. The corporate governance system in Germany is significantly different from the Anglo-American model (Solomon, 2007). The listed companies in Germany have to follow the Today Essay German Corporate Governance Code last amended in May 2013 (German Corporate Governance Code, 2013). Critical. German companies have a two-tier board and Hero Today significant employee ownership (Solomon, 2007). The Supervisory board is intended to provide monitoring function.
The members of the Supervisory board are elected by the shareholders of the company. The Management board is responsible for managing the company. The corporate governance codes in the UK, Australia and Germany follow the ‘comply or explain’ principle, whereas it is the ‘comply or else’ approach in the US (du Plessis et al., 2011). The US approach to corporate governance is critical, based much more on hard law and a regulatory state (Jackson, 2010). This section of the special relativity report reviews the disclosure requirements in four countries with regards to board of directors, audit committee and internal controls and risks. a.Board of directors. The board of critical skills example directors represent the interest of shareholders, and is accountable to them for Different of Eating Essay a series of specific duties, including oversight of executive management, and implementation of critical thinking internal controls (Banks, 2004). The best practice regarding the structure of the board of directors is that governing bodies of companies should include completely independent directors and they should preferably constitute a majority of all directors (Lipman and Lipman, 2006). The main corporate governance disclosures regarding the board of directors of a company are shown in Table 1. 11 parameters are used to review disclosure norms regarding the board of directors. ‘Y’ in a box means that the corporate governance code requires this disclosure in annual reports of companies in that country and ‘N’ implies that this feature is prices usually allocate, not required to critical thinking skills example be disclosed. ‘Y/N’ implies that the Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Academic measure was partially implements. ‘Y’ equates to 1, ‘N’ is 0 and ‘Y/N’ is 0.5. Table 1: Board of thinking directors disclosure norms.
Board structure is analysed by considering three items – separation of the Chairman and special time dilation CEO; the number and percentage of independent directors; and critical thinking example size of the of Eating board (Leblanc and Gillies, 2003). Diversity in the Board of Directors is also important because it increases performance through new insights and ideas (Knippenberg et al., 2004). Three countries ‘ the UK, the US and Australia ‘ scored full points because the recommended corporate governance policies/codes asked companies to disclose information with regards to all of thinking skills those elements. Germany scored only 7 out of 11. This does not mean that corporate governance, with regards to board of A New Hero Essay directors, is substantially low in Germany.
The main reason for the low score in the case of Germany is its tow-tier board structure. The board structure is unitary in the UK, the US and Australia, and critical thinking example two-tier in special relativity time dilation the case of Germany. The Germany Corporate Governance Code does not require firms to disclose individual information of the members of the Supervisory Board of Directors. This is partly to do with the fact that many of the members of the Supervisory Board in critical skills example a company in Germany are its employees only, and what a great were included on the basis of recommendation of worker unions. This nomination process reflects the nature of management-worker relationship in Germany. Thinking Skills Example. Disclosure of information about independent directors in speech the UK, the US and Australia shows the wealth of information they bring to the Board of thinking skills Directors. The inclusion of names and skills of A New Hero Essay all directors of Supervisory Board in companies based in Germany is not going to skills have same information impact on stakeholders. Relativity Time Dilation. The lack of information regarding the directors on the Supervisory Board is also reflected in the absence of information regarding the members of committees and their individual participation in meetings of those committees. However, if a member of the Supervisory Board took part in less than half of the meetings in a financial year, this shall be noted in the Report of the Supervisory Board. The German disclosure requirements do not require the qualitative description of the compensation. Other three countries disclose the rationale behind compensation structure of Board of Directors, but this is not a recommended practice in Germany.
Du Plessis et al. (2011) argue that notwithstanding structural differences between two-tier and unitary board systems, the similarities in board practices are significant. Critical Thinking. Both unitary and two-tier board structures recognise a supervisory function and Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Library Essay a management function (du Plessis et al., 2011). The two-tier system shows a cleaner separation of supervisory and managerial functions, whereas the flow of information is better between supervisory and managerial functions in the unitary system. Additionally, for critical skills example Board of who played hoffman's sardonic roommate in tootsie? Directors to be effective, two more things are required ‘ the selection process of board members and the decision-making process. The purpose of an audit committee is to assist the board in the financial reporting process (Braiotta et al., 2010). Audit committees are formed to improve external auditor independence by reducing the influence of the management on auditors. The main corporate governance disclosures regarding the audit committee are shown in Table 2. 7 parameters are used to review disclosures with respect to audit committee. Table 2: Audit committee disclosure norms. Again, scores of the UK, the US and Australia were same and 7 out of 7. The score of thinking Germany was 5, which is because of the composition of its Board of Directors. The non-disclosure of individual information about the Supervisory Board of special relativity time Directors implies that the critical skills information regarding the financial experience of audit committee members and their individual attendance cannot be obtained.
Some countries, such as the UK, allow variation in the minimum number of audit committee members on the basis of the size of the company. Relativity Time. UK’s Guidance on Audit Committees recommends that there should be at least two independent non-executive directors in an audit committee if the company is below the FTSE 350 index or at least three members if above (Deloitte, 2014). Skills. ASX requires that there should be at least three members in the audit committee (ASX, 2010). As part of a practice to Different Essay reduce the possibility of example financial statement frauds, the UK recommends that all members should be independent non-executive directors. Also, at least one member of the audit committee must be a qualified accountant in a UK-listed company and his name must be disclosed (Deloitte, 2014). Similar requirement is also observed in prices efficiently because they allocate the three other countries, which illustrates the importance of critical example financial knowledge and experience in detecting and preventing financial statement frauds. c. Reporting on internal control and risk. A company’s internal control plays an important role in the management of risks. Internal control facilitates the effectiveness and efficiency of operations (Turnbull guidance, 2005). Internal control also ensures the reliability of A New Today Essay internal and external reporting. This is especially important because some of the critical thinking skills example large financial statement frauds, such as Enron and WorldCom, happened because of falsified external reporting.
The main corporate governance disclosures regarding internal control and what risk are shown in Table 3, 4 parameters are used to review disclosures with respect to internal control and thinking skills risk. The UK, Australia and Germany scored 3 out of a great speech 4, while the skills example US had a score of Disorders 4. This is skills, because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires companies listed in dustin hoffman's sardonic the US stock exchanges to obtain an attestation from external auditor on management’s assessment of internal control. It is a way of indicating that management’s own assessment is thinking skills example, not sufficient as exemplified by corporate frauds in large companies. Table 3: Internal control and risk disclosure norms. Overall, corporate governance codes are very similar in the four countries. Prices Usually Resources Efficiently Because. The main differences observed were because of the two-tier board structure in the case of Germany. ??V. Evaluation of disclosures by companies.
This section compares corporate governance disclosures by 5 companies in each of the 4 countries. All data is collected from annual reports of companies in skills example the UK, Australia and Germany, and statements (Schedule 14A information) filed as part of the annual reports in the case of companies in the US. a.Board of Directors. The data collected was converted into a score for each aspect and then added to roommate arrive at a score for each company (Refer Appendix I for converting data into scores). The maximum possible score was 15. Companies in the UK performed well in this aspect of corporate governance with an average score of 14.2 (Figure 1). Tesco scored lowest because of the lower percentage of independent directors in the Board of Directors since less than 75% of critical thinking skills directors were independent.
Also, diversity in prices resources allocate terms of experience of directors was relatively low. However, the lower score of Tesco does not reflect poor corporate governance. It is just that its corporate governance practice regarding the critical skills example percentage of independent directors was considered to be relatively inferior since higher percentage of executive directors reduces the influence of independent directors. Also, this is just a measure of independence of directors. Actual independence depends upon actions taken by the Board of prices efficiently Directors and is not possible to analyze with the data in annual reports. Figure 1: UK ‘ Board of Directors. Companies in the US scored lower than in the UK since their average score was 12 (Figure 2). Apple and Nike had lowest scores of 10 each. Apple scored low because of the smaller size of the Board of critical thinking Directors, poor description of skills of directors, and smaller number of sub-committees. Also, it states that all board members were present in more than 75% of meetings, which gives it a relatively low score even if the special relativity dilation attendance may be more than 90%. Given the low score of Apple, it would be expected that investors would not like to purchase shares of the company.
On the contrary, Apple’s share was one of the best performers in the last decade because of high growth in revenues and profits. Therefore, the simple correlation between the score in this report and actual share price performance is difficult to argue for. Figure 2: US ‘ Board of Directors. Companies in Australia were similar to the US since their average score was 12.2 (Figure 3). However, this was mainly because of the low score of 9 of Seek Ltd. Seek Ltd had a low score because of the small size of its Board of Directors and higher percentage of executive directors on the Board of Directors. Large companies scored high as compared to smaller ones, mainly because of the large size of their Board of Directors.
It is assumed that large size brings more diversity and hence a higher score. However, large board sizes also create communication and implementation problems. Figure 3: Australia ‘ Board of Directors. German companies had the lowest average score of critical thinking skills 9 (Figure 4). This was mainly due to the two-tier board structure and Different Types Disorders low information sharing regarding the members of the Supervisory Board. No information regarding the directors of the Supervisory Board also makes it difficult to give any score on independence of critical directors. Further, not every company disclosed the number of meetings.
The lowest score of German companies implies that their shareholders may be getting less than expected information to make economic decisions. Figure 4: Germany ‘ Board of Directors. Overall, firms in the UK were the Assessing StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Academic Library highest scorer on the Board of Directors corporate governance aspect. They were followed by critical thinking, firms in Australia and the US. German firms were the lowest scorer, mainly due to their two-tier board structure. Usually Resources Because They Allocate. The two-tier board structure is not bad for corporate governance; it is just that the skills firms in Germany did not disclose enough information about the who played dustin hoffman's sardonic in tootsie? directors on the Supervisory Board.
However, as significant members of the Supervisory Board are elected by workers, it can result in critical thinking example lower independence of the Board of Directors, as well as less diversity and expertise at the highest level. The data collected regarding with respect to audit committees was converted into a score for each aspect and Different Types of Eating Disorders Essay then added to arrive at a score for critical example each company (Refer Appendix II for converting data into special time, scores). The maximum possible score was 11. Companies in the UK performed decently in this aspect of corporate governance with an skills example, average score of 9.2 (Figure 5). GSK was the best performer with a score of 11, which implies that it fully disclosed all information, as well as had higher number in Different of Eating Essay terms of attendance, number of meetings and size of audit committee. All companies stated that they review non-audit fee, but it is not possible to conclude what measures they used in enhancing auditor independence. Critical Thinking Skills Example. There was no mention of the maximum non-audit fees, either as an Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s in An Essay, absolute number or as a percentage of audit fees. Figure 5: UK ‘ Audit Committee. Companies in the US also performed decently with an average score of 9.0 (Figure 6). Apple was again the lowest scorer among the US companies in this category. There is no information about attendance in audit committees, but a score of 1 is given to each company on the assumption that members would have attended on average 75% or more of audit committee meetings.
The review of non-audit fees is more important in the US because of the regulatory requirement under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. However, there was no mention of the maximum non-audit fees, either as an absolute number or as a percentage of audit fees, allowed under guidance issued by the audit committee of the company. Figure 6: US ‘ Audit Committee. The performance of companies in Australia was also decent with an average score of 8.4 (Figure 7). Critical Thinking Skills Example. The diversion in makes a great scores was very low. The relatively lower scores of companies in Australia and the UK and the US were because of the smaller size of audit committees in Australia. Companies in Australia also scored lower in the number of critical skills example audit committee meetings in a year.
However, they compensated this by achieving 100% attendance in meetings of the audit committee in each of the 5 companies. The lower score in Library StaffвЂ™s in An Library Essay Australia should not be seen as a reflection of poor corporate governance with respect to the audit committee if smaller size audit committees were equally effective in preventing and detecting financial statement frauds, a parameter beyond the critical thinking scope of this report. Figure 7: Australia ‘ Audit Committee. The performance of companies in Germany was also decent with an average score of 8.4 (Figure 8), however there was wide diversion in scores with the maximum score of who played dustin sardonic in tootsie? 10 and critical skills example minimum of Different Types of Eating Essay 7. Thinking. There was no data regarding the attendance in the audit committee; a score of 1 was awarded to each of the 5 companies. One interesting aspect of the audit committee in Germany was the Hero Essay relatively large size of audit committees. This implies that more emphasis was given on preventing financial fraud than other aspects of corporate governance. Figure 8: Germany ‘ Audit Committee.
The scores of companies in the UK and the US were similar, while average score of companies in Australia and Germany were lower. Some of the lower score in Germany is critical thinking skills, because of less information, which means that disclosure is relatively poor even though actual practice may not be. c.Reporting on internal control and special time risks. The data collected regarding with respect to reporting on internal control and risks was converted into a score for each aspect and then added to arrive at a score for each company (Refer Appendix III for converting data into critical thinking skills example, scores). The maximum possible score was 5. All companies in the UK achieved a score of 4, which implies that the average score in the UK was 4 also (Figure 9). None of the company scored in the category on attestation by external auditor on management’s assessment of the company’s internal control.
The requirement to attest is dustin in tootsie?, a regulatory requirement in the US under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Hence, companies in the UK have not shown an interest in implementing this since it will increase their costs due to payments to the external auditor. One important issue in the quantitative analysis of reporting on internal control and risks is the difficulty in capturing substantial differences in critical the amount of prices allocate efficiently because coverage given to this aspect in annual reports of companies. Thinking Example. All companies state that they have procedures for risk assessment and measuring effectiveness of internal control, but some corporations devote substantial part of their annual report on describing risks and controls. Hoffman's Sardonic In Tootsie?. The annual report of BHP explains in depth various risks and control measures (BHP, 2013). The information in the annual report of BHP on internal control is very helpful for investors and lenders. The difference in the coverage to risks and controls is also because of the variation in size and risks faced by businesses. BHP faces many international risks than, as an example, Tesco. Therefore, the reporting on thinking skills example, internal control and risks should be viewed in light of the risks faced by a business. Figure 9: UK ‘ Reporting on internal control and risks.
The score of all 5 companies in Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s in An Academic Library the US was 5 (Figure 10). This was expected given the critical example regulatory requirement on attestation by external auditor on a company’s internal control. Again, same scores reflect the regulatory requirements. Figure 10: US ‘ Reporting on internal control and risks. Scores were similar and prices usually allocate efficiently because allocate 4 each in the case of 4 companies in Australia; only Sonic Healthcare had a lower score of critical thinking skills example 3 (Figure 11). This was because there was no summary of process used in reviewing effectiveness of internal controls. The company’s annual report did mention that there is a procedure for reviewing effectiveness, but nothing was mentioned of the process itself. Figure 11: Australia ‘ Reporting on internal control and risks. The score of each company in Germany was also 4 (Figure 12).
Each company scored single point on all aspects of internal control and reporting, expect on the attestation by external auditor of management’s assessment of company’s internal control. Figure 12: Germany ‘ Reporting on internal control and Hero Essay risks. The reporting on internal control and risk does not show significant differences among companies. All firms mention about their internal control and risk procedures. Critical Thinking Skills. However, the amount of description of risk assessment and controls varies in annual reports. This can have an impact on investor/lender’s assessment of the financial reporting quality and effectiveness of controls, which is discussed in the next section. V. Financial reporting quality and effectiveness of controls. Financial statements are used by many stakeholders to form an opinion about the financial performance and financial position of the company. Existing and potential investors, lenders, government agencies, employees and suppliers use information in financial statements to make economic decisions. Shareholders review financial statements to see trends in past performance to form an opinion about the future earnings of the company. Usually Resources Efficiently Because They Allocate. Shareholders are interested in capital gains and dividend income, and therefore they are interested in prospective earnings and risks.
Lenders want to know whether the debts given by critical skills, them to Hero the company are secured with sufficient safety margin. Skills. Collateral provides the dustin roommate lender with assets that can be used to raise cash if the borrower defaults on the loan (Leitner, 2006). Lenders also want to know if the business will generate enough cash in the future to make interest and principal repayments because the collateral has value only to the extent of its market value, and therefore reliance on historic costs may not be the thinking skills best way to ascertain collateral values Therefore, lenders rely on historic information in financial reports as well as risk analysis of the management to estimate future cash flows. Between shareholders and lenders, shareholders place more emphasis on the future earnings, and Different Types of Eating therefore are more interested in risk analysis and critical skills example internal control. Suppliers are interested in assessing the ability of a company to meet its short-term obligations as they arise.
Government agencies typically use the historic data in financial reports to determine tax obligations of a company, and Assessing Library Attitude Library whether the business is solvent. Current and prospective employees use financial reports to determine whether the business would be a going concern in the short and medium term. They want the company to be profitable to have assurances about their job prospects, but are less concerned than shareholders about the level of profits and returns. The above analysis shows that various stakeholders use financial reports for economic decision making, but some use it more often than others. Investors and lenders use are interested in all financial reports, whereas government agencies are less likely to review reports unless a company declares or is close to bankruptcy. Critical. This suggests that the need for reliability of financial reports is makes a great speech, higher in the case of shareholders and lenders.
Audit committees, internal control and critical thinking skills example assessment of effectiveness of internal control measures improve the reliability of financial reports. They give more assurance to users of reports regarding the who played hoffman's in tootsie? authenticity of financial statements. However, it is critical thinking skills example, difficult for an outsider to observe the true effectiveness of these measures. The Blue Ribbon Committee in 1999 argued that audit committee is an important tool in corporate governance mechanism because of its role in monitoring the ‘nancial reporting process of a company (Abbott et al., 2000). Hogan et al. (2008) state that ‘rms with a weak corporate governance structure are more susceptible to reporting fraudulent ‘nancial information. Audit committees and internal control systems are two main components of corporate governance structure to give positive assurance to the users of financial information about financial reporting quality.
Rezaee et al. Disorders. (2003) state that earnings restatements by public listed companies and allegations of financial fraud statements have increased the attention on audit committee as a means to increase assurance regarding the quality of financial reports. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 expanded the formal responsibilities of audit committees. Krishnan (2005) lists three measures to determine audit committee quality: size, independence, and expertise. Independence of an audit committee minimises the influence of the management in skills example the preparation of financial statements, and therefore gives higher assurance to external stakeholders. All companies in the UK, the US and Australia have to show whether members of their audit committees are independent or not. This disclosure increases the reliability of information in financial reports to the users, and suggests that financial statements of the company are useful for decision making. PepsiCo described in its annual report the allocate they allocate steps taken by it to ensure the effectiveness of the Audit Committee, including the process to ensure that it consists solely of directors who are not salaried employees and free from any relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment as a committee member (PepsiCo, 2013). Critical Example. This increases the assurance to investors and lenders.
The experience and allocate resources because they skills of the Board of skills Directors is also useful in analysing whether audit committee members have right skills in assessing financial reports. Tesco stated that at prices efficiently because allocate, least two members of its audit committee had skills to fully review financial statements and other members of the audit committee had an appropriate understanding of financial matters (Tesco, 2013). Critical Thinking Skills. This is special relativity time, useful in giving assurance to investors since the critical thinking skills skills of the audit committee members would be useful in Hero Essay detecting and preventing financial statement frauds. However, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of audit committee members as Fiolleau et al. (2012) stated that management of a company has a major say in hiring both the auditor and the directors on the audit committee. The implication of this statement is that members of audit committees are likely to be less effective than expected by external stakeholders.
This is difficult to test in real cases but field experiments regarding the procedure adopted by companies for selecting auditors have found limited involvement of the audit committee in the auditor selection decision (Fiolleau et al., 2012). The management of the company is more involved in assessing external auditors, whereas the audit committee serves as a witness to critical thinking skills management’s procedures and approves management’s selection decisions (Fiolleau et al., 2012). This behaviour of time audit committee reduces assurance of investors and lenders regarding financial reports. Internal controls have gained importance after the failure of firms like Enron. A company’s internal control procedures includes policies that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records of transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of skills financial statements; and (3) provide assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorised acquisition, use, or disposition of the A New company’s assets (Apple, 2013). Internal control and risks disclosure increase information of stakeholders regarding earnings in the future. A sound system of internal control in a company depends on a regular evaluation of the thinking business and financial risks (Turnbull guidance, 2005). Risks are uncertainties which can have a negative impact on profits.
Therefore, risk management can positively influence on profits of the firm. It is argued that the perceived lack in Hero risk management, especially by the financial services firms, resulted in the financial crisis in 2008 (ASX, 2010). Critical Example. This has increased the emphasis on risk management through effective oversight and internal control (ASX, 2010). Hoffman's Sardonic Roommate. The disclosure of risk management processes provide further positive assurance to investors as it shows that the management is taking steps to safeguard their wealth. A review of the annual reports of companies shows more emphasis on internal control in critical skills example the recent year. The assessment of internal controls by external auditors is a regulatory requirement in the US. PepsiCo’s external auditor reviewed the company’s internal control by using the Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of efficiently because allocate Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (PepsiCo, 2013). The auditors of PepsiCo defined stated that internal control provides reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and critical skills the preparation of dustin hoffman's financial statements for external purposes (PepsiCo, 2013). This gives higher assurance to external stakeholders. Critical Thinking Skills Example. The objective of the internal control audit by an external auditor is to assess the risk that a material weakness exists within the functions of an organisation, which can have a negative impact on its valuation.
An external auditor’s assessment of internal control systems can result in an assurance, but not a guarantee to prevent all financial frauds. Sonic Healthcare gives a brief of the risks faced by the company ‘ revenues, interest rate changes and regulations. The description appears to A New be customary, but the company discloses the fee structure and roles of governments in critical thinking skills example determining revenue of the dustin sardonic firm in different countries (Sonic Healthcare, 2013). This is useful for an investor who wants to analyse the critical impact of government austerity measures on future revenues of the firm. However, there are inherent limitations in internal controls which imply that they may not prevent or detect financial misstatements. The reporting of the internal control function to the senior management creates doubt about its effectiveness. External stakeholders will be sceptical about the ability of the internal control function to report frauds being conducted by the management. Olympus fraud in Japan resulted in heavy losses for investors. The fraud went on for more than a decade before it became public news. This shows that internal control measures were not effective in preventing the management from committing the fraud. The above analysis shows that audit committee and internal reporting on Assessing, control and risks increase assurance regarding the quality of financial reports to external stakeholders.
The audit committee disclosures are useful in increasing assurance regarding the quality and truthfulness of the historic information. The disclosure of internal control and risk reporting gives higher assurance regarding the future earnings of the business. However, there are some limitations in both disclosures, but it is thinking skills example, better to have these disclosures than not having them. This section of the report discusses how current disclosures can be made more informative to assist in assessing the transparency and accountability of corporations. Makes A Great Speech. A number of recommendations are made to increase transparency and accountability. One of the main observations was the thinking skills example way information was presented in the majority of relativity time annual reports. All companies had information as required by their national corporate governance codes. Critical. However, in many cases the Hero Today Essay information seemed to be included in critical thinking annual reports to of Eating meet the obligations of being seen as a good corporate entity rather than being done for the purpose of enhancing transparency.
As an example, all annual reports had information about the Board of Directors in terms of their skills and experience. However, it was only in the case of thinking example BHP Billiton that the management had taken extra effort to present the information in a graphical and user-friendly manner. Relativity Time Dilation. The annual report of BHP Billiton showed pie charts with age, skill and location distribution of its Board of Directors. This was much easier to grasp than the descriptions seen in the majority of the cases. Users of annual reports would find it much easier to look at these graphics for analysing the diversity and experience of the Board of Directors, and critical thinking skills example therefore it is recommended that companies should adopt similar presentation formats. Currently, the management of a company is responsible for its internal control over financial reporting. This has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is that the internal control function can quickly get in touch with the Assessing Library Attitude Academic Essay management if any issue needs to be reported. If the internal control function were to thinking skills example report to the audit and/or risk committee of the board of directors, there may be delays in communication because of the less number of meetings of audit committees. This may allow the Assessing Library in An risk or fraud to continue for a longer duration.
The disadvantage of this reporting structure is that the internal control may find it difficult to highlight an thinking skills, issue if the senior management engages in financial frauds. It is prices usually allocate resources efficiently they, also expected that employees appointed in critical skills example the internal control function may have been with the company for relativity dilation some time, and therefore may have developed a personal relationship with the senior management. Critical Example. This also makes it difficult to report any violation by the senior management. It is recommended that the annual report of a company should disclose all financial frauds over a certain amount or percentage of equity of the company. This would increase the knowledge of investors and lenders regarding the state of corporate governance within the company. It is also recommended that each company should establish a guideline which should state that if a corporate fraud is more than a certain amount or percentage of what makes speech its equity, then the critical example internal control function would report to the audit committee with regards to investigation of that fraud. This would increase the independence of the internal control function without overburdening the audit committee with small frauds. This step will increase the faith of investors in the financial reports of the Disorders Essay company. It is also recommended that companies should make effort to ensure that users of annual reports find it easier to obtain information on risks and internal control measures. Risk is an important topic in the majority of annual reports, but information on risk is thinking, not typically available in one place in annual reports. Companies mention that they have processes on determining the effectiveness of Types Disorders risks but the actual process is mentioned in other areas of the report such as ‘Risk management and discussion’.
Some firms, such as Siemens, provided clear links but others failed to critical point properly to look for material on risk management. The content on risk and internal control can be overwhelming for investors, especially individual investors who wish to Types of Eating know about the critical example future prospects of a company but find it too time consuming to go through all content in special time an annual report. Since risk has a material impact on the future earnings and cash flows, it is recommended that major risk elements and critical skills example controls in place to what makes a great mitigate them should be presented in a bulleted summary somewhere (ideally in early chapters) in an annual report. This will help investors in gaining a better understanding of risks of investing in a business. Annual reports of critical skills companies list a number of prices usually because they allocate risk factors which may influence the critical thinking skills performance and who played hoffman's in tootsie? financial position of the business in the short and long-term. Listing of risks is useful for investors and lenders but again the effort seems to be on meeting the thinking obligatory requirements under the national corporate governance codes of countries. The effectiveness of risk disclosure can be improved by allocate, including a risk-ranking matrix in annual reports. This will allow investors to focus quickly on critical, major risks and look for steps being taken to mitigate them.
It will also help users of annual reports to see if the management of the firm is prioritising more on areas that need greater attention. The matrix may not be a complex one ‘ a simple three-tier ranks of high, medium and low ‘ would be sufficient to help users of annual reports. Firms should design and put into practice strong whistle-blowing systems to ensure that employees with knowledge of frauds within the Different of Eating Disorders Essay company can report them to the Board of Directors without the thinking skills fear of being prosecuted. In the case of Olympus, the board of the company fired its CEO for StaffвЂ™s Attitude Academic questioning suspicious transactions. If this was the thinking example treatment given to the CEO, employees at lower level could not have thought of Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Academic Library reporting the fraud without being severely reprimanded. Protection of employees is critical, important because most external whistle-blowers first blow the whistle internally (Kaptein, 2011). Thus, developing a system that encourages internal whistle blowing could result in early detection of frauds. In terms of accountability, there should be more emphasis placed on the accountability of independent and non-executive directors. The Board of Directors are agents of shareholders and it is their fiduciary duty to protect shareholders’ wealth. Currently, accountability rests with the executive board.
It is recommended that the non-executive directors are also made more accountable because of the impacts of their actions. As an example, the annual report of Nike states that ‘The Board has also determined that Mr. Graf is an ‘audit committee financial expert’ as defined in efficiently regulations adopted by the SEC (Nike, 2013, p. 41). In the event of example failure of the audit committee, the designated independent director should be approached first and his actions should be reviewed. This will increase accountability of Different of Eating independent directors and they will take their role more seriously.
There is a risk that some experienced people may not wish to take non-executive director roles because of the increased accountability. This has to be weighed in, but the loss of wealth of shareholders in a large company due to thinking skills example fraud is more important. The purpose of this report was to analyse and special relativity time dilation compare corporate governance practices in countries and companies in three main areas: Board of Directors, audit committee, and internal control and thinking risks. Corporate governance is a useful tool to increase faith in Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s capital markets, especially in the case of firms where owners are different from managers. The corporate governance systems across the world have shown convergence, but there are some differences. The corporate governance developments in four countries were briefly reviewed.
The Cadbury Committee played an important role in the development of corporate governance code in the UK. The codes are similar in critical thinking skills example the UK, the US and Australia with some minor differences. The US code is of Eating Disorders Essay, stricter after the Enron scandal. Thinking Skills Example. The main difference with the what German code on corporate governance is critical skills example, that companies in Germany have two-tier boards. Independence of directors is makes speech, important in all countries and critical example was reflected in individual company analysis also.
Size of Board of Directors and Assessing Attitude in An Academic Library diversity (skills) are also important. Actual independence depends upon actions taken by the Board of Directors and is not possible to thinking skills analyse with the data in annual reports. All audit committees were responsible for auditor review/selection, but their effectiveness cannot be judged from prices allocate because allocate annual reports. Shareholders use historic data to predict future earnings, so they are interested in risks which may reduce earnings and cash flows in the future. Critical. Therefore, they rely on audit committees and internal reporting to assure themselves about the quality of financial reporting. All companies had some members on their audit committees who had financial experience.
Some companies disclosed the lead person in audit committees with financial expertise. This increases accountability. It was difficult to observe skills in the case of German companies, as they did not disclose individual audit committee members in their annual reports. Emphasis on internal control has increased and companies disclosed summary of policies for the management of business risks. StaffвЂ™s Attitude Academic. Management also reported the effectiveness of their management of material business risks. This gives users of annual reports more comfort about the quality of internal controls present in a firm to mitigate risks. However, it is difficult for users to comprehend the actual steps being taken. There should be effort to critical thinking skills example present major risks and internal control steps in a user-friendly manner to improve the disclosure of risk information.
The report recommended a number of actions which can be taken to increase the effectiveness of disclosures. Different Types Of Eating. Firstly, companies should try to present some key information about directors in a user-friendly visual manner to help readers of annual reports make better judgements. Secondly, the annual report should disclose all financial frauds over a certain amount or percentage of equity of the company. Thirdly, companies should establish a guideline that if a corporate fraud is more than a certain amount or percentage of its equity, then the internal control function would report to the audit committee with regards to the investigation of that fraud. This would increase the independence of the internal control function and reduce the potential of financial statement frauds by the management. Example. Finally, in terms of A New Essay accountability, it is skills, recommended that independent directors should be held more accountable for their work as the lack of their effective actions can cause substantial losses to shareholders and lenders.
Adidas (2013). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.adidas-group.com/media/filer_public/2014/03/05/adidas-group_gb_2013_en.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2014] Apple (2013). Schedule 14A. [Online] Available at: http://investor.apple.com/secfiling.cfm?filingID=1193125-14-8074CIK=320193 [Accessed 9 April 2014] BAE Systems (2013). Who Played In Tootsie?. Annual report 2012. [Online] Available at: http://bae-systems-investor-relations-v2.production.investis.com/ /media/Files/B/BAE-Systems-Investor-Relations-V2/Annual%20Reports/BAE-annual-report-final.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2014]
Banks, E. Critical Thinking Example. (2004). Corporate governance: financial responsibility, controls and ethics. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Bayer (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.bayer.com/en/annual-reports.aspx [Accessed 9 April 2014] BHP Billiton (2013).
Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.bhpbilliton.com/home/investors/reports/Documents/2013/BHPBillitonAnnualReport2013.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] CSL (2013). Annual report 2012-2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.csl.com.au/docs/335/826/CSL_AR_2013,1.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2014] Deloitte (2014). Prices Efficiently Because. Guidance on audit committee. [Online] Available at: http://www.iasplus.com/en-gb/standards/corporate-governance/audit-committee-guidance [Accessed 7 April 2014] du Plessis, J.J., Hargovan, A., and Bagaric, M. (2011). Principles of contemporary corporate governance. 2nd edn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Exxon Mobil (2013). Schedule 14A. [Online] Available at: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/34088/000119312513152355/d460324ddef14a.htm [Accessed 9 April 2014] German Corporate Governance Code (2013).
German Corporate Governance Code. Skills Example. [Online] Available at: http://www.corporate-governance-code.de/eng/download/kodex_2013/D_CorGov_final_May_2013.pdf [Accessed 8 April 2014] GSK (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.gsk.com/content/dam/gsk/globals/documents/pdf/Annual-Report-2013.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] Henkel (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.henkel.com/com/content_data/340610_2014.02.20_FY_2013_annualreport_en.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] Jackson, G. (2010). Understanding corporate governance in the United States. [Online] Available at: http://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_arbp_223.pdf [Accessed 7 April 2014] Kaptein, M. A Great Speech. (2011). From inaction to external whistleblowing: The influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to example observed wrongdoing.
Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 98, Issue 3, pp. 513-530. Leitner, Y. (2006). Using collateral to secure loans. What. [Online] Available at: http://www.phil.frb.org/research-and-data/publications/business-review/2006/q2/br_q2-2006-2_using-collateral.pdf [Accessed 7 April 2014] Linde (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://annual-report.linde.com/annual-2013/servicepages/welcome.html [Accessed 10 April 2014] Lipman, F.D., and thinking example Lipman, L.K. (2006). Corporate governance best practices. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons.
Nike (2013). Schedule 14A information. [Online] Available at: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/320187/000032018713000114/nke-2013xdef14a.htm [Accessed 10 April 2014] Pepsico (2013). Schedule 14A information. Assessing Library Attitude In An Essay. [Online] Available at: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/77476/000119312513122175/d459507ddef14a.htm#toc459507_7 [Accessed 10 April 2014] Qantas (2013). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/investors-annual-reports/global/en [Accessed 9 April 2014] Rolls-Royce holdings (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.rolls-royce.com/Images/RR_Full%20Annual%20Report__tcm92-55530.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] Seek (2014). Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://ir.seek.com.au/Investors/?page=Annual-Reports [Accessed 12 April 2014] Siemens (2014).
Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: https://www.siemens.com/annual/13/en/download/pdf/Siemens_AR2013.pdf [Accessed 12 April 2014] Solomon, J. (2007). Corporate governance and thinking skills accountability. 2nd edn, Chichester: John Wiley Sons. Telstra (2014). StaffвЂ™s Attitude In An Academic. Annual report 2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.telstra.com.au/abouttelstra/download/document/Telstra-Annual-Report-2013.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] Tesco (2013). Annual report and financial statements 2013. Critical. [Online] Available at: http://files.thegroup.net/library/tesco/annualreport2013/pdfs/tesco_annual_report_2013.pdf [Accessed 10 April 2014] Tricker, B. (2012). Corporate governance: principles, policies, and practices.
2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wal-Mart (2013). Schedule 14A. [Online] Available at: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/104169/000130817913000238/lwalmart_def14a.htm#_N10B69 [Accessed 12 April 2014] Appendix I ‘ Board of Library in An Academic Essay Directors: Companies data and thinking scores. Scores (scores in brackets) Statement on how board operates: Yes (1); No (0) Size of board: More than 10 (2); Between 7 and 10 (1); Less than 7 (0) Description of skills: Good (2); Medium (1); Low (0)
Number of independent directors: More than 75% (2); Between 50-75% (1); Less than 50% (0) Diversity of experience: Strong (2); Medium (1); Low (0) Number of meetings of the board: 6 or more (1); 5 or less (0) Attendance in board meeting: More than 90% (2); Between 75-90% (1); Less than 75% (0) Separation of chairman and CEO: Yes (1); No (0) Number of sub-committees: 5 or more (2), 3-4(1); Less than 3 (0). Appendix II ‘ Audit committees: Companies data and scores. Scores (scores in brackets) Independent of not: Yes (1); No (0) Size of the committee: 5 or more (2); 3-4 (1); Less than 3 (0)
Number of experienced members in the committee: 3 or more (2); 2 (1); 1 or less (0) Number of meetings in time a year: 6 or more (2); 3-5 (1); Less than 3 (0) Attendance in meetings: More than 90% (2); Between 75-90% (1); Less than 75% (0) Consideration of non-audit fees: Yes (1); No (0) Responsible for external audit review/selection: Yes (1); No (0) Australia – Data Score. Germany – Data Score. Appendix III ‘ Reporting on internal control and skills example risks. Scores (scores in brackets)
Summary of policies for the management of business risks: Yes (1); No (0) Management to report the effectiveness of the company’s management of Hero Today its material business risks: Yes (1); No (0) Review of effectiveness of internal audit review/control functions: Yes (1); No (0) Attestation by external auditor on management’s assessment of the company’s internal control: Yes (1); No (0) Summary of process used in reviewing effectiveness: Yes (1); No (0) Australia – Data Score. Germany – Data Score. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to critical thinking example help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in A New Today our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to critical skills example your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in Hero Today your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Dissertation: Corporate governance . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/business/corporate-governance/ [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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Examples of Using Critical Thinking to Make Decisions in the
Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in thinking skills example, some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. Prices Allocate! (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and critical skills example, includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to Different Disorders Essay your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for critical, a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from makes a great speech, Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is skills very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review.
In the sections from time dilation, Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. Critical! I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the prices usually allocate resources efficiently because they literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to thinking get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of a great speech these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the critical skills example links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. Types! font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Critical Thinking Skills Example! Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and Hero Essay, also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the critical skills example Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for identifying suitable literature and Types of Eating Disorders, narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field.
You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the critical skills example document title and in the abstract. Usually Allocate Resources Because They! Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out critical skills example, if the topic that you are reviewing is Assessing StaffвЂ™s Academic Essay too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to critical skills look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to dilation identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to skills do this from prices usually allocate efficiently they, different databases). Critical Example! You can also enter references manually into what a great, RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the skills articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the of Eating Essay general purpose and content of the critical thinking article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to sardonic in tootsie? organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into critical thinking example, topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic).
Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the Types of Eating articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Critical Skills! Be consistent in how you record notes.
Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). What! Note key statistics that you may want to use in critical thinking skills example, the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. A New Hero Essay! Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in thinking skills example, note taking), if you are accessing the article in what, a format that allows this, you can copy and critical thinking skills example, paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly.
The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to Assessing StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Academic Essay paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Skills! Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the A New Today issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of thinking skills different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the what makes a great speech research methodologies used in the studies, and critical skills, distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from Types of Eating, empirical evidence). Thinking! Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Library Essay, trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of critical studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over Assessing Library StaffвЂ™s Attitude in An Academic time. Critical Thinking Skills Example! Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on Today why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area.
You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in critical skills, the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and relativity time dilation, discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and critical, directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and A New Today Essay, coverage: Although you can always find more articles on critical example your topic, you have to decide at who played in tootsie?, what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings.
However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the critical thinking skills direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the what makes a great tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by thinking skills, an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in who played dustin sardonic, the table. You can plan your table or do the critical thinking example entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Hero Essay, Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. Critical Thinking Skills Example! The advantage of sardonic roommate using Excel is that it enables you to thinking skills sort your findings according to a variety of prices usually allocate efficiently factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by critical thinking, author; sort by methodology and special time dilation, then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts.
Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the critical thinking notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of time dilation your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to critical thinking skills example you, demonstrating your understanding of what a great key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and critical thinking skills example, ultimately in your final project.
In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for relativity, a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into thinking skills, a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in of Eating, your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the critical example case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in StaffвЂ™s in An Academic Library Essay, the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in thinking, a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories.
Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the prices usually efficiently allocate end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the critical thinking review Flesh out prices usually resources efficiently because they allocate, your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the example time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to prices allocate efficiently other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of skills example previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in Hero Today, the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96)
If your review is critical thinking skills long, provide an overview near the time dilation beginning of the critical skills example review Near the prices usually allocate they allocate beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and critical skills, will not be covered Specify your point of view early in who played hoffman's sardonic roommate in tootsie?, the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the critical thinking skills example key details of the literature and communicates your point of Hero view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in critical thinking example, long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed.
Check the makes a great speech flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Critical Thinking Example! Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.