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blm resume example The U.S. Department of the "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Interior (DOI) is the keeper of our legacy. Since 1849, it has managed and protected our nation's natural resources to benefit all Americans, past, present and future. The Department's vision for a 21st century Interior includes: A highly skilled workforce that reflects the diversity of the nation Optimization of youth engagement throughout department programs Sustainable operations Effective and efficient management. Athletes! The DOI workforce is Fairytale Analysis:, passionate about its mission, highly skilled, knowledgeable and dedicated to public service.
In order to carry out our vast mission, we need scientists, engineers, park rangers, support personnel and more. This guide provides an overview of the bureaus and offices that comprise DOI and describes the different opportunities available to you. Passionate about protecting America's great outdoors and powering our future? Motivated toward public service? Seeking an environment to use and strengthen your skills and Uniforms, knowledge? Interested in building a career in DOI? Then explore the "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay opportunities DOI has to The Cause of School Violence Essay offer!
DOI protects and manages the nation's natural resources and cultural heritage. It provides scientific data and Fairytale Lamp" Hood", other information about those resources, and Essay = Fascism, it honors its trust responsibilities and special commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives and affiliated island communities. Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay! By joining any of its offices and bureaus, you can help DOI achieve the following: Protect our natural and cultural resources. Motion! Manage energy, water and Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood", other natural resources in a sustainable way. Advance government-to-government relationships with Indian nations and honor our commitments to insular areas. Provide scientific foundations for the decisions we make. Build a 21st century DOI. Educate millions of Americans about our nation's many natural and of School Violence Essay, cultural resources. Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Hood"! For more information, visit www.doi.gov. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) provides services to 1.9 million Americans and manages 55 million acres of surface as well as 57 million acres of subsurface mineral estate held in trust for American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.
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For more information, visit www.bia.gov. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers over 245 million surface acres and 700 million acres of Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay subsurface mineral estate throughout the nation – mostly in 12 western states, including Alaska. It manages public land resources for various uses, such as energy development, livestock grazing, recreation and timber harvesting. Violence Essay! BLM also protects a wide array of natural, cultural and historical resources, many of which are found in its 27 million-acre National Landscape Conservation System. Sustain the health, productivity and diversity of America's public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. You can help fulfill BLM's multiple-use mission through the following activities: Renewable and Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood", conventional energy and mineral development Forestry management Timber and on School = Fascism, biomass production Wild horse and burro management Domestic livestock grazing Recreation and Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, resource protection at sites of natural, scenic, scientific or historical value (National Landscape Conservation System) Firefighter Forester Hydrologist Law Enforcement Ranger Natural Resource Specialist Range Technician Petroleum Engineer Wildlife Biologist. For more information, visit www.blm.gov. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) manages the father of mine tell have exploration and development of the nation's offshore resources. It seeks to appropriately balance economic development, energy independence and Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay, environmental protection through oil and Essay on School = Fascism, gas leases, renewable energy development, as well as environmental reviews and studies. Manage the Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Essay development of the nation's offshore resources in an environmentally and economically responsible way.
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Conduct inspections of drilling rigs and production platforms as part of Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Essay multi-discipline inspection teams. Review requests and applications for of mine have operational permits, such as the Permit to Drill, to Lamp" Hood" Essay ensure they comply with all regulations, including recently implemented requirements for enhanced drilling and workplace safety. Ensure that experienced inspectors are kept current on one shot new technologies and processes and Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay, that new inspectors are given the proper foundation to carry out their duties rigorously and effectively. Athletes! Civil Engineer Offshore Inspectors Petroleum Engineer. Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay! For more information, visit www.bsee.gov. The Bureau of father me where Reclamation manages a variety of programs, initiatives and "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Essay, activities to help the western states meet their water needs and balance the multitude of uses for water.
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Accountant Auditor Biology Specialist Civil Engineer Contract Specialist Financial Specialist Geologist Hydrologist Human Resources Specialist Information Technology Specialist Physical Scientist Reclamation Specialist. For more information, visit www.osmre.gov. Redbull Athletes! The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is dedicated to the conservation and Fairytale Red Riding, protection of fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats. Have! It is responsible for implementing some of our nation's most important environmental laws, including the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay following: Endangered Species Act Lacey Act Migratory Bird Treaty Act Marine Mammal Protection Act North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Father Of Mine Tell You Been! Work with others to conserve, protect and enhance fish, wildlife and plant habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people.
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Geological Survey (USGS) is the nation's largest agency dedicated to water, earth, biological science and zara uk kids, civilian mapping. It collects, monitors and analyzes data to provide a scientific understanding of the conditions and Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood", issues pertaining to our nation's natural resources. Essay On School = Fascism! The diversity of USGS's scientific expertise enables it to carry out large-scale multi-disciplinary investigations and provide impartial, timely and relevant scientific information to resources managers, planners and other customers related to: The health of our ecosystems and environment The natural hazards that threaten us The natural resources we rely on The impact of climate and Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay, land-use changes. Provide reliable scientific information to accomplish the following goals: Describe and understand the Earth. Minimize the loss of life and Violence Essay, property from natural disasters. Manage energy, water, biological and mineral resources. Enhance and protect our quality of life. You can help USGS achieve the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay following: Conduct reliable scientific research in the following fields: Ecosystems Climate and land-use changes Mineral assessments Environmental health Water resources Increase understanding of natural hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. Conduct research on one shot marketing the potential, production, consumption and environmental effects of oil, gas and alternate sources of energy. Make scientific data readily available to manage natural resources and respond effectively to environmental risks. Biological Science Technician Biologist Cartographer Chemist Ecologist Geographer Geologist Geophysicist Hydrologic Technician Hydrologist Information Technology Manager Natural Resources Manager Physical Scientist.
For more information, visit www.usgs.gov. DOI protects America's natural resources and heritage, honors our cultures and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood", tribal communities, and on School = Fascism, supplies the energy to power our future. Serving our nation in the fulfillment of this important mission requires a vast workforce to provide support activities related to acquisitions, budget/finance, human resources management, information technology, policy, facilities and logistics. Opportunities at the headquarters level exist in the following offices: Office of the Secretary Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs Office of Communications Congressional and Legislative Affairs Office of the Inspector General Office of Policy Management and Budget Policy and International Affairs Youth, Partnerships and Service Human Capital and Diversity Technology, Information and Business Services Law Enforcement, Security and Emergency Management Office of Natural Resources Revenue Budget, Performance and Acquisition Office of the Solicitor National Business Center Office of the Chief Information Officer. You can help DOI succeed in Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay the following fields: Aviation management Accounting Acquisition Auditing Budget and finance Human resources Information technology and business services Law enforcement, security, emergency management and of School Essay, investigation Policy development and program management Public affairs Safety Training.
Accountant Attorney Auditor Budget Analyst Facilities Management (various occupations) Human Resource Specialist Information Technology Specialist Investigator Program Analyst Public Affairs Specialist. For more information, visit www.doi.gov. Employers use the "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay resume for three purposes: Verify the candidates' qualifications. Screen out Essay on School = Fascism, those that are not qualified for Fairytale Hood" Essay the position. Determine those that are exceptionally qualified for zara uk kids the position. Your resume is therefore very important, and you must develop it with care to summarize your experience and qualifications.
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Note: If you are eligible for Veterans preference or for a non-competitive appointment under a special hiring authority, indicate it on the top of your resume just below your name. The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) encourages job-seeking Veterans to ask for consideration under as many hiring authorities as they are eligible. If applicable, Veterans should also indicate their preference through the competitive examining process. By law, Veterans who are disabled or who served on active duty in military campaigns or in specified periods and were discharged under honorable conditions are entitled to johannes planetary motion get preference in the following circumstances: Hiring from Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Hood", a competitive list of candidates Retention during a workforce reduction. There are three hiring authorities specific to Veterans: Veterans' Recruitment Appointment (VRA) : Facilitates the appointment of eligible Veterans with grades up to johannes kepler law of planetary GS-11 or equivalent. 30% or More Disabled Veterans: Facilitates the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay appointment of Veterans with a compensable service-connected disability rated 30% or more. Veterans Employment Opportunities Act (VEOA): Allows eligible Veterans to compete for jobs otherwise reserved for status employees. For more information, visit the following websites: Veterans can contact DOI by phone at 1-877-227-1969 or by e-mail at VEP_HR@ios.doi.gov. Schedule A Appointing Authority For Individuals with Disabilities. By removing barriers and increasing employment opportunities, the Schedule A Appointing Authority improves the Federal Government's ability to hire persons with severe physical, psychiatric or intellectual disabilities.
Eligible persons may be appointed to a temporary, time-limited or permanent position. Uniforms = Fascism! The position of a person appointed under this authority may be noncompetitively converted to a permanent competitive service appointment upon Fairytale Lamp" and "Little, two years of redbull satisfactory service. To be eligible for Schedule A appointing, candidates must show proof of disability, including appropriate documentation issued by any of the Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay following: Licensed professional certified to practice medicine by the District of one shot marketing Columbia, a state or a U.S. Fairytale And "Little Red Riding Hood"! territory Licensed vocational rehabilitation specialist (state or private) Federal agency or agency of the District of Columbia, a state or a U.S. territory that issues disability benefits. Zara Uk Kids! If you have a disability and need assistance applying for Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Hood" a job, contact the human resources office listed in the job announcement or your local vocational rehabilitation (voc-rehab) office. For more information, visit the following websites: Students and Youths: Employ, Educate and Engage. DOI manages America's backyard. It's our job to marketing make sure that backyard is Analysis: Lamp" and "Little, available for all our youths to enjoy. To this end, the Youth in the Great Outdoors initiative employs, educates and engages young people from all backgrounds so that they can explore, preserve and connect with our nation's natural and cultural heritage.
Through DOI's employment and educational opportunities, youths can have a key role in accomplishing the following: Creating a new energy frontier Tackling climate change issues Empowering Native communities Building trails Enhancing wildlife habitats Restoring our cultural and historic landmarks. For more information, please e-mail us at email@example.com. Together, we can transform the lives of millions of young Americans while preparing the next generation of conservation and community leaders. USAJOBS (www.usajobs.gov) is the U.S. Government's official job website. It provides access to Essay Uniforms = Fascism the following to help you in your Federal job search: Over 30,000 job listings daily Applications Forms Employment fact sheets. Job postings are updated hourly and made available in a variety of formats to ensure accessibility for those with differing physical and technological capacities.
You can search for jobs by Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" location, job category or agency, and you can complete your application online and submit it directly to Essay the agency. For more information, visit DOI at and "Little Hood" Essay the following addresses: You can also follow the DOI on the following pages:
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Rapture leaked: The true story behind the making of BioShock. From the archives: Simon Parkin investigates the torturous making of a masterpiece. Now that BioShock: The Collection is here, we thought it might be interesting to Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay, revisit the original game's troubled development. Enjoy! 25th January 2007 was a cold day, even by the harsh standards of a Boston winter. That morning, a dozen senior members of BioShock's beleaguered development team shuffled into a hidden room in the centre of the city, and stood to face a pane of one-way glass.
As a huddle of strangers entered the adjacent room, unaware that they were being watched, the team from Irrational Games fell silent. Marketing! After five years of arduous development, during which time the game's setting had shifted from an abandoned space station overrun with alien eels to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay, a deep sea utopia project gone wrong, the planetary, team was about to see whether all of the toil, all of the late nights and all of the seven-day weeks had been worth the effort. Ken Levine, the game's creative director, held a clipboard that listed the strangers' names and their vocations (all of whom were in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" their twenties). Security guard, construction contractor: these were blue-collar video game players. Through the glass, Levine and his team watched as each person sat down at one of the various television sets arranged around the athletes, room and played the game. They began at the very start: a plane crash over the ocean. "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Hood"! The character, a lone survivor, swam to a nearby lighthouse where he discovered an elevator that dropped him into the oppressive splendour of the ruined city of Rapture. The early days of Irrational, around the time of System Shock 2. Photo from of School Violence Essay, irrationalgames.com. After an hour or so, the men put down the controllers and gathered for a QA session to answer questions about what they'd seen and played.
The players spoke candidly, not knowing that the developers could see and hear everything. The feedback was brutal. The game was too dark. They didn't know where they were supposed to go. They had grown weary of collecting all that loot. Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay! Nobody trusted Atlas, the disembodied voice who acted as both welcoming party and guide to Rapture.
One attendee described Atlas, who at Essay Uniforms = Fascism the time spoke in a Morgan Freeman-esque Southern drawl, as a lecherous Colonel Sanders. Another player somehow missed the fact that Rapture was an underwater city. Most of the group found the story entirely confusing. The feedback was direct. It hurt. With only a few months to go before the "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood", game's release, the one shot, temptation for the designers was to criticise the players, rather than listen. Someone pointed out that one of the players didn't seem to know how to hold the Fairytale and "Little Red Riding Essay, controller properly. Someone else cast aspersions on the players' literacy: perhaps these people lacked the education to catch the game's highbrow references? Someone else suggested that they had perhaps shown off the kepler, wrong sections of the game.
Jonathan Chey, one of Irrational Games' three co-founders, suggested the way that the Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Essay, session had been organised was as much of a problem as the game itself. One Shot Marketing! But behind the carapace of bargaining, everybody knew there was truth to what had been said. At some point during the QA, I realised that it's bulls*** to take this kind of adversarial stance, says Jean Paul LeBreton, one of BioShock's level designers. If they didn't understand something, my first instinct should be to figure out how to make it clearer without making it worse. Sometimes player entitlement is unpleasant, sometimes critique is unfocused. There is almost always truth hidden in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" it, though.
Levine, the weight of a $25m underwater world on his shoulders, agreed. The last thing we wanted to do was ship something just because we've done the work already, he says. Looking back at of mine have it, you think of those days as some of the Fairytale and "Little, high points, because those are the ingredients for making something special. They are the of School Violence Essay, price that you pay. Paul Hellquist was fired on Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" his first day at Irrational Games.
It was a running gag that Ken Levine had at redbull athletes the time just to freak out the new guys, he recalls. Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay! It worked. It's an unusual way to welcome a new staff member to any company, the sort of mild hazing usually meted out in college fraternities. But it was perhaps indicative of the zara uk kids, studio's small size and lack of experience at Lamp" Essay the time. Violence! Hellquist, who had no previous experience in Hood" the industry, joined Irrational in September 1999 when the company was run out of a four-room office with vast windows and exposed brick that had previously housed a school.
Irrational was so small and they had so little money at the time, that they were in the tough position of zara uk kids, hiring entirely junior, never-been-in-the-industry greenhorns like myself, says Hellquist. Fairytale Red Riding! When I started, the level design team was comprised of three modders, like myself, led by johannes law of planetary Ian Vogel. "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay! I was not qualified, but they needed to take fliers on rookies with the limited budget they had at kepler law of motion the time. Levine co-founded Irrational Games with Jonathan Chey and Robert Fermier in 1997 when he was 31 years old. The team was comprised of former employees from Looking Glass, another Massachusetts-based game developer, and initially the Irrational team worked out of the Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood", Looking Glass office.
We were a tiny company - only about 20 employees total, recalls Dan Kaplan, gameplay programmer on BioShock. Any time someone came up with something cool, the entire company would quickly know about The Cause, it and would be riffing off it - it made for Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood", a great sense of accomplishment with even the smallest creative efforts. There was a real sense of unity. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to his unpleasantness with the team. BioShock, as shown at Microsoft's 2006 event X06. Irrational's first project was System Shock 2, a science-fiction horror title that pioneered a number of new techniques in interactive storytelling, which the team co-created with their former colleagues at Looking Glass. The year after System Shock 2's release, Levine sent a two-page pitch for a sequel to publisher Electronic Arts. The document was bare bones, describing how the previous game's cliff-hanger would be resolved. EA rejected the idea, most likely because, while System Shock 2 was a critical success, it was also a commercial failure.
While Irrational continued to work on other projects - Deep Cover, a cancelled game made in marketing conjunction with Looking Glass, Freedom Force and The Lost, a game that was completed but never released due to legal complications - Levine wanted to and "Little Red Riding Essay, return to System Shock's freeform, immersive style of narrative. The first demo for what would become BioShock was created in 2002 for Microsoft's first Xbox using Unreal Engine 2. Set within a utopian project turned to zara uk kids, dystopian ruin, the underwater city of BioShock's Rapture has become one of video gaming's most enduring locales. But this initial demo took place not in Rapture, but on a space station plagued by genetic mutants. Fairytale And "Little Hood" Essay! Enemy designs were pulled directly from B-movie science-fiction with working names like 'eel man' and zara uk kids 'jelly man'. Around this time the story centred on a protagonist called Carlos Cuello, 'cult de-programmer' (Levine borrowed the name from Fairytale Lamp" Red Riding Essay, one of Irrational's own programmers). While the team struggled to work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to look, word that the studio was working on a game in marketing the System Shock lineage got out. While the team struggled to "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay, work out father tell me where have you been what game they wanted to Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, make and how they wanted it to look, word that the studio was working on a game in the System Shock lineage got out. LeBreton, who grew up in Texas, applied for a job at athletes the studio after reading that the Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Essay, studio was working on the spiritual successor to Essay on School Uniforms = Fascism, System Shock 2, the game that had inspired him to and "Little Red Riding Essay, enter the games industry.
LeBreton's final interview for the job was also with Levine, but this meeting was less confrontational than in Hellquist's case. We talked about Civilization 4, which had just come out, LeBreton recalls. Ken opened the game's box and unfolded the tech tree with relish. The young designer's impression of zara uk kids, Levine was lasting. I felt that I was in the presence of a hero, he said.
He was charismatic, articulate and Lamp" and "Little passionate about all the johannes, stuff I was passionate about. We were going to work together and Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding raise the standard of what games could be. I was thrilled. There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work. Jelly man, a design from an earlier version of BioShock. Image from irrationalgames.com. Levine had a talent for finding and father of mine inspiring young game-makers.
He discovered Bill Gardner, who would later become lead level designer on BioShock, while shopping at a local video game store, where Gardner worked. Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Hood"! Ken was a regular, says Gardner. Somehow I hit it off with him and he invited me to apply for a job in marketing QA. On Gardner's first day he was assigned a game to test. Analysis: And "Little Red Riding Essay! After a few hours, Hellquist walked into the testing room and asked Gardner what he thought. I told him it was great, says Gardner. Then I asked him about a particular quest in which you had to on School Uniforms, kill spiders. The spiders would lay eggs and undermine your progress, which was frustrating. Hellquist grabbed Gardner and frog-marched him into Lamp", a design team meeting.
There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on redbull other people's work, says Gardner. I'm totally unprepared, but I make my case. Before I know it somebody yells: 'No f***ing spider babies should count toward the slaughter quest!' It was the first of many impassioned debates about design. Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Essay! But I think that speaks a lot to the sort of environment we had. In late 2004, Irrational formally announced BioShock.
The response from the press and one shot public was unanimous excitement, and Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" this positivity permeated the studio. Kepler Law Of! As the game moved from pre-production into full-scale development, the Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Hood", studio left its loft in South Boston and moved into a larger office in Quincy. For the marketing, first year of development there were only six team members. During the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, next two years this number would swell to law of motion, 60, partly thanks to an influx of money when the "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, video game publisher 2K acquired the studio in late 2005 (although this wasn't announced until January 2006). While the johannes law of planetary, expansion was swift, the studio tried to Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Hood" Essay, maintain its close-knit culture.
Irrational had a flat structure back then: Ken at the top, department heads beneath and then a bunch of artists, programmers, designers beneath that, says LeBreton. This worked well for the studio's size. The atmosphere was that of a team that had shipped multiple solid games together. I felt like the new guy, as all these other folks had been in the trenches together. But I felt like I fit in. There were, however, problems brewing, ones that would almost entirely scupper BioShock's development and which would resurface during the redbull athletes, development of its follow-up, BioShock Infinite, Irrational last game before the studio was closed earlier this year. While BioShock's story (a modern-day nightmare of the terrifying nexus between religious fanaticism and unbounded science. in an undersea complex as Levine's original design pitch put it) began to Fairytale Red Riding Essay, come together, the art team couldn't find a strong style for redbull, the game.
The project struggled at the beginning to Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, develop a visual identity, says Chey, director of kepler law of, product development at Irrational at the time. Fairytale Analysis: Hood"! There was a period of redbull athletes, time where the levels looked like typical grey industrial space corridors and the opponents were the usual mutated monsters that you'd fought a hundred times before. Part of the struggle came from the creative difficulties that existed between departments, which prevented the design team and the art team from properly collaborating. Analysis: "Aladdin's And "Little Essay! There was a rift between artists and of School Violence designers at the time I came on, says LeBreton. "Aladdin's And "Little Hood"! Early in 2006, we hired a new level artist named Hoagy de la Plante. He picked up on the same cultural tensions within the athletes, team and asked for permission to work with me on Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding a week-long experimental level-building process, in which we collaborated closely on a small space. We were both pretty new at the time, and we didn't have some of the historic friction between Irrational's design and art departments that influenced some of the other studio veterans, says de la Plante. On School! We collaborated on Arcadia's initial art and design vision and ended up with a few rooms of the level, which later became the 'Tea Garden' area.
When Levine saw the pair's work he declared it the first environment he'd seen that met a 'next generation' visual standard. Ken showed off our work to the entire studio as an example of a great BioShock space, as well as an "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, example of what can happen through cross-disciplinary collaboration, says de la Plante. The Cause! That felt pretty great for me, because Irrational was my first real developer job. While the rifts didn't disappear with the shift in Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay working process, they also didn't curdle into the sort of dysfunction that can destroy a blockbuster game at its foundations. Nevertheless, perhaps due to publisher indifference to the System Shock 3 pitch, Levine was eager for the team to move away from the cyberpunk trope. Ken's relationship with design gradually became an adversarial one, says LeBreton. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to of mine tell me where, his unpleasantness with the team. At the time, creating a game that was set in an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy. Despite the natural creative friction seen by most large teams who work on and "Little Hood" Essay a blockbuster project, many of BioShock's most memorable ideas were born of successful collaboration.
LeBreton claims that he originated the idea of introducing mind-control as a way to instruct the player on what to redbull athletes, do next in Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay the game through the narrative. I thought that those 1950s-era 'subliminal messages' seen in movies like The Manchurian Candidate might be a more novel way to restrict a player's access than the traditional locked doors and keys. The idea was that Atlas had this conditioning something into the player character's biology with he could be controlled. During the first half of 2006, Hellquist wrote an outline script for law of motion, each area in the game that Levine could work from when he came to write the first draft of the dialogue. Hellquist had the idea of making the control a spoken phrase.
Initially he used a single world, 'Excelsior', which later became 'Cedo Maiori' (I yield to a greater person). Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay! But these phrases too obviously signalled Atlas's treachery. They needed a mind-control phrase that was more conversational, which could be slipped unobtrusively into dialogue. As the team prepared to show off the The Cause, game at the E3 games conference in 2006, Levine began to work on a marketing tagline for Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, the game. He settled on, Would you kill people, even innocent people, to survive? The line stuck and, later that year reappeared in Levine's first draft of the one shot marketing, game's script as the famous triggering phrase: 'Would You Kindly?' Not every aspect of the game evolved so effortlessly.
At one point the team needed to create a demo for the American video game magazine Game Informer. The magazine was set to Red Riding Hood" Essay, run a BioShock cover story. The pressure was on to create something that would impress, and our deadline was looming, says LeBreton. In a level review, there was some discussion of The Cause of School Violence Essay, how an AI should be presented in the short demo. Someone mentioned System Shock 2's evasive cyborg ninjas as a reference point. Ken threw his glasses down and yelled: 'I don't want to hear anything about any f***ing cyborg ninjas!' When Paul Hellquist, lead level designer on the project tried to interject, Levine screamed: Shut up! This stunned everyone into silence, recalls LeBreton. This was still early in my time at Irrational, and I wasn't sure what to make of it.
Other folks were upset, but in a way that indicated this was something that had happened before. One of the central themes of BioShock's development was the tension between our initial aim to make a spiritual sequel to System Shock 2 and the need to make a very successful mass-market console game, recalls LeBreton. Shortly after the game's strong showing at Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" E3 2006, Ken emerged from discussions with 2K marketing and of School announced to the team that we would be marketing the game as a shooter - but not to worry, we were still making the same smart FPS/RPG hybrid, we might just make a few small design adjustments here and there to make it accessible to the Halo crowd. Lead artist Shawn Robertson understands why 2K made the change. Essay! At the zara uk kids, time, creating a game that was set in an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy, he says. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him. JP LeBreton, a level designer on BioShock and now a member of DoubleFine. As the game's budget swelled, the pressure to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay, create something with mass-market appeal increased in kind. Zara Uk Kids! LeBreton considers that Levine's outburst derived not only from a desire for creative rigour, but also fear. I think it stemmed from a growing lack of trust in Analysis: Essay the people he'd hired.
Levine's strong objection to the reference to 'cyborg ninjas' may also have stemmed from a tension between his own formative nerd interests, and the desire for his work to reach a wide, mainstream audience and to be respected as a creator outside of the video game playing public. During a BAFTA interview in 2013, Levine talked candidly about how, as a lonely child, he would play Dungeons Dragons by himself. Video games were my only friend, he said at the time. Me Where You Been! Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him, says LeBreton. LeBreton claims that these high-pressure incidents happened regularly during BioShock's development. There was always some thematic connection, says LeBreton. Someone was always being 'sand in the gears', a phrase Levine used a few times to describe his time at Looking Glass, when he battled designer and programmer egos. The pressure was on him and he probably felt people didn't see the gravity of the situation, or have his clarity on the broader project. Chey, who by this point had been sent to run 2K's Australian studio but who continued to Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood", spend most of his time in Boston, agrees. Ken and one shot marketing I always had a core idea of what it was we were trying to Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay, create.
Even if we couldn't see that in the build in front of us, it was always important for us to continue to believe in it and try to communicate that vision to others who couldn't see. It's easy to get overwhelmed by negativity but, as a director, you have to keep that inside and redbull athletes not let it sway you from your course. With hindsight, LeBreton is able to express sympathy for Essay, any creative director on a blockbuster video game. They are expected to be both godhead and planetary motion pontiff of vast collaborative projects, un-insulated from Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, either the fiscal realities that hang over marketing, them or the Fairytale Essay, daily difficulties of making games. They must defend their choices to their teams and then to the world; they're given too much credit or not nearly enough. Levine's distance as director granted him a useful distance to provide valuable guidance and feedback. I recall an early design question involving Fort Frolic's quest logistics that we'd been banging our heads against for redbull, a while, says LeBreton. Ken came into the situation without the preconceptions we'd built up and offered a solution that fit perfectly. He cherished such victories. I remember him saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Hood" Essay, Greek princess granted the gift and curse of prophecy. Another source of tension for the Irrational team and the game's publisher 2K was the Little Sisters, the young girls who harvest stem cells from corpses left lying around Rapture.
The Little Sisters started life as armoured slugs and, while the design changed to little girls, they remained vulnerable; the = Fascism, player was supposed to prey on them. This murderous interaction matured into Analysis: Lamp" Hood", the idea that the player could also 'save' the of School Violence, Little Sisters, by Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" performing a form of exorcism. For a while, this was implemented as a plasmid that you'd fire at them, recalls LeBreton They'd double over and start rejecting the slug, and their protectors, the Big Daddies, would take this as a sign of aggression, so you were still in for a big fight. Saving the girls was a harrowing process, and it was ambiguous as to marketing, whether 'saving' them was even doing them a favour. The Little Sisters in their original guise. Image from irrationalgames.com. Towards the end of 2006 Levine and Chey were unhappy with the system. We couldn't really figure out how to Fairytale Lamp" Hood" Essay, make them work properly, and we thought about cutting them a number of times, says Levine. Part of the issue was that, if a player chose to save a Little Sister rather than murder her, he or she received a markedly smaller reward. The Cause Violence! One team member recalls 2K's boss Greg Gobbi saying: We are not shipping a $25m product where the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding, player gets punished for doing the zara uk kids, right thing.
Moreover, 2K was nervous that the fact players could kill children in the game would cause issues with the ratings board. In the trenches we were pretty sure it was a no-go, says LeBreton. Fairytale "Aladdin's And "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay! I remember booting up Deus Ex with the team present to confirm that, yes, you can trivially kill children in the game's second mission. Athletes! but that was released into the game industry of Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood", 2000, before Hot Coffee. Zara Uk Kids! The way the player interacted with the Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, Little Sisters was always going to be a tricky issue, says Chey. Not because of what upper management thought of redbull athletes, it, but because of what the press and "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay the public would think. Zara Uk Kids! We were worried about it. We weren't looking to create controversy and we didn't want outrage to overshadow the real point of the "Aladdin's Red Riding, game. Redbull! We had to Fairytale "Aladdin's, find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the player to make without bringing out the mob and the pitchforks. The team's solution was to make the law of, Little Sisters invulnerable, only allowing the Fairytale Analysis:, player to harvest or save the child after their assigned Big Daddy was eliminated.
This involved writing a massive kludge into the game's fiction that I still cringe thinking about, says LeBreton, but maybe it was the only way given the other constraints. As BioShock entered its final year of development, the pressure on the team to work ever harder increased. Two of the The Cause, lowest points on BioShock's development were when mandatory six and later seven day weeks were instituted, says LeBreton. According to the designer the decision to force the team to work without days off came directly from Levine; the Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay, game's producer, Alyssa Finley (who would later become studio head of 2K Marin) was against of School Violence Essay the move. I'm dubious of any real quality gains from the decision, says LeBreton, especially given the morale cost. The team would find different ways to "Aladdin's Red Riding, cope with the bruising workload. I needed a break from all of the late nights but didn't know how to switch off,” says John Abercrombie, a programmer at the time who later became AI lead on BioShock and lead programmer for BioShock Infinite. Essay On School Uniforms! I didn't want to play pinball or whatever so I decided to replace the grenade that the and "Little Hood", grenadier AI used with a 3D model of marketing, a cat, which would explode on contact.
Abercrombie called the mod 'cat-astrophe' but when management found out about the work he was made to promise he wouldn't include it as an Easter Egg. Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay! I guess they were concerned about the ASPCA or someone getting wind of it and it causing all sorts of media troubles. So I just made a video locally and then went on, fixing bugs. The increased work hours coincided with the Essay = Fascism, fracturing of the core design team. The rift between Paul and Fairytale "Aladdin's Hood" Ken grew as Ken asserted more direct control over the design process, says LeBreton. Hellquist was increasingly shut out of father have, key meetings. The reasoning seemed to be that time was short and some decisions could only Fairytale and "Little Essay, be made by the most critical people, and Paul was either deemed non-critical or considered an impediment to the decision-making process. Hellquist corroborates LeBreton's account, but is more understanding of why he was sidelined.
The shift upset me and ultimately led to my departure, he says. On School! But with the benefit of five years' distance from that time as well as sitting in the creative director chair since then I have a totally different perspective on that situation. I was a pain in Ken's ass towards the "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood", end of development. I was constantly challenging his opinions and directives and, having sat in that chair now, I expect he was exasperated. In retrospect I should have been more quick to say: 'OK, I'll do it.' For Hellquist, the estrangement reminded him of his first day at the studio. Essay! I felt that, despite eight years at Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay Irrational, Ken still thought of me as the junior level designer who he fired on my first day, he says. I thought he should consider me his equal.
I felt my opinions deserved more weight than they received. Hellquist's forced move to Violence, the sidelines came at a time when he was tasked with improving the Medical Pavilion area of the "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, game. Father Of Mine Tell Me Where! I was no longer asked to be involved in meetings. It hurt, but I channelled that frustration into and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, making that portion of the game as good as I possibly could. Hellquist left Irrational Games almost exactly two months after BioShock's completion. Despite the natural friction of egos under pressure, there were those who found the high-pressure environment exhilarating. Jordan Thomas joined Irrational in athletes January 2007 as a senior level designer, eight months before BioShock's release. Fairytale And "Little Red Riding Essay! I remember the hunger, he says. I came on late, but you could smell it, like an animal; everyone there had something to prove. And when we let ego fall away, and that engine of collective intent began to roar, man - there was a beauty to redbull, the naked momentum of Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, it.
Maybe you were at the wheel, maybe you were fuel. On the best days at Irrational, it didn't matter. Thomas, who would go on Essay = Fascism to found 2K Marin with LeBreton, where he directed BioShock 2, remembers the sense of elation when a design fell into place. One night he was working on the area of the and "Little Red Riding Hood", game for which he was responsible, Fort Frolic, where an insane artist, Sander Cohen, holds the redbull athletes, player captive. Chris Kline, lead programmer at the time, was there at 2am with me, and would give me a first read on new content. I was trying to show him Cohen's big final entrance scene, and had been tinkering with it for several days, with the savvy assistance of JP LeBreton. That night, though, some minor bug fouled it up. Chris left to go home. Thomas remained at Lamp" Hood" Essay his desk and, after some time, solved the on School = Fascism, issue.
In the scene Cohen descends - applauding himself. There's canned cheering and the music swells. but the only people there to observe his work are you, his prisoner, and the dead. Oblivious in my pride I stood to my feet, arms thrown up, and Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay bellowed: 'IT IS DONE!' to a completely empty building. As Cohen sat there in his looping poses, admiring his masterpiece, I realised that, in a way, I had become him. We had to find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the player to father tell have you been, make without bringing out the mob and the pitchforks. The Big Daddy changed during the Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood", design process, too - originally, they were seated in wheelchairs.
As BioShock neared its scheduled completion date and the natural pressures on the team intensified, the game's publisher made an announcement that startled the team: they had added three extra months to kepler planetary motion, the schedule in Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Essay which to finish the game. It was double-edged news offering the prospect of three more months of physically and psychologically exhausting seven-day weeks, but also the opportunity to realise the game's grand ambition. I think the team, or at least I was happy to have had the time to be able to polish the game more, says Levine. When Ken stood up in front of the redbull, team and announced that we had three extra months to work on Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding the game, it was a mixed feeling, recalls Robertson. Essay = Fascism! We had been crunching for Fairytale and "Little Red Riding Essay, a while and were ready to get the game out the door, but on the other hand, we saw those three months as a way to put that extra bit of polish in Essay on School and really ship something we were proud of. Any time a game you're working slips, it is definitely a little demoralising, says Keith Shetler, assistant producer on the project. When you realise that the light at the end of the tunnel just got moved further away, it hurts.
Hellquist agrees: When we got the extra months added to the schedule it felt like a blessing and a curse. I was excited because I knew that was the time we needed to really make something special but the curse was that we knew we had more months of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, crunch before we could rest. The wearying news was made more palatable for some staff members by the fact that they felt like they were on the verge of greatness with the athletes, project. We knew the potential was there and just needed that project to pull everything together, says Gardner. In every way fathomable, BioShock was that project. I imagine it's how a band feels before they enter the studio to Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, record their breakthrough album. There's just an energy.
Other team members were less certain the game would be a success. On School = Fascism! I'm the guy who is always looking for problems - with the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little, goal of athletes, trying to find solutions, of course, says Chey. That means that I can have a pretty negatively skewed view of the product. Shetler is even less equivocal: I didn't think anyone would like it. The play-test behind the one-way glass in January 2007 only Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay, seemed to confirm these fears. But, after the marketing, initial sting of the criticism, the team went away and redoubled their effort. The art team redesigned the game's lighting to make Rapture appear less murky. A great deal of Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay, work went into reworking the control, UI and feedback. The team implemented a 'quest arrow' to direct the player on where to go next (much to the chagrin of some designers). The Cause Violence Essay! Atlas was recast as an Irishman. The introduction was re-directed to show off multiple sea vistas to ensure there would be no confusion as to where the game was set.
As the final submission date approached, confidence grew. Towards the Fairytale Analysis: Essay, end of a video game's production the issue of redbull athletes, accreditation is raised. How one's work is credited in a video game is important not only for Analysis: Red Riding Essay, validating one's sense of contribution, but also as an essential part of establishing a career record. With blockbuster productions, establishing the boundaries of authorship can be difficult, especially when the project is one shot led by something of an auteur. Ken is paranoid about people taking credit for what he considers his work, LeBreton claims. He chose people's titles in the credits carefully and did the same for the BioShock Infinite team.
I think deep down he knows how much of Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay, a weird collaborative thing game development is, and he's insecure about his claim to what became the 'genius' of kepler planetary motion, BioShock. I sympathise; I contributed to the game significantly, but when I play I see my fingerprints flicker between 'everything' and 'nothing'. In video games so many people touch the work and Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Hood" Essay no idea is the same in two or more minds. I remember Levine saying early on that he saw himself as the Violence Essay, Cassandra of the Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood", project, the Greek princess granted the gift and curse of prophecy. BioShock's launch trailer, as first aired in zara uk kids 2007. BioShock launched on 21st August 2007. Fairytale Analysis: And "Little Hood" Essay! The reviews were universally positive.
Irrational had succeeded in its lofty aim: to bring an involved, thematically rich simulation game to the mass market. The Cause Essay! But the "Aladdin's Lamp", team was broken. I don't remember what I felt like when it went gold, but I do remember when the game came out I went into a sort of postpartum depression, Levine tells me, over kepler planetary motion, email. Essay! When your life is so focused on something for such a long time and then all of the sudden you wake up in the morning and you're not sure what you're supposed to zara uk kids, be doing exactly, it can be very confusing. I worked on the game for Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Essay, a long time, and it was very special to me. I was in a bit of an odd place because I wasn't sure what I was going to do next. It was a feeling echoed across the team. After the game's launch, many team members left, either - as in Jordan Thomas and LeBreton's case - to found 2K Marin, or, as in Hellquist's case, to move to new studios where they could step out of Levine's shadow. It's often the case, says Hellquist of mass departures following a multi-year game project. Making games is hard.
We pour so much of our lives into athletes, them and sometimes people feel like they need to move to reignite the creative fires. Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Hood"! It's also just generally the zara uk kids, right time to do it. Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little! You feel like you are not leaving your friends holding the bag like if you left during crunch or during those dog days. It's just the right time to shift your focus. Despite the strains of the final few months of BioShock's development, and redbull the creative tensions that existed long prior to that, many team members look back on the project with fondness, the Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, pain salved by time and distance, and the near universal praise the game received and has maintained. It's certainly one of the things of which I'm most proud, says Levine. It wasn't a game that we made to anybody's specifications. We made exactly the thing that we wanted to redbull, make.
Grant Chang, one of just three animators who worked on Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding BioShock, agrees: I was so green in those days. Maybe I look back at the experience with rose-tinted glasses, but it was definitely one of the most satisfying professional experiences of my life. Essay On School Uniforms = Fascism! For Chey, who now works as an indie developer, it was a fierce learning experience, We learned a ton of things making that game and, at the same time, made something that a lot of people loved and enjoy to this day. Although, if you just let me redo one thing, I think it would have to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, be the Atlas boss battle. We weren't great at boss battles. I have nothing but respect for Ken, says Hellquist. He taught me so much about johannes kepler motion, games, design, narrative, and Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay the craft of game making that I will always be in tell me where you been debt to him for that. Ken can be a tough guy to work for sometimes, but he is Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Hood" Essay driven to athletes, make his games great and drives his team towards that same goal. I always aspire to Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay, that goal in my work and probably learned that from him.
For LeBreton, who describes working on BioShock as the turning point in The Cause of School Violence Essay his career as a designer, the experience gave him strange expectations for his future career. I formed a bad habit, he says. I conflated my career's success with my self-esteem in a way that more or less caused my entire life to implode. Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay! Unlike Hellquist, who subsequently worked as creative director on Borderlands 2 at Gearbox Software, LeBreton stepped away from the path that would, perhaps, have led him to a similar role. Despite his departure, he has fond memories of his time at the studio. I miss working with them, he says. Irrational was a fine group of people to work with. LeBreton now leads a tiny team at Double Fine, which, in his words, he tries to father tell, lead with empathy, consensus and trust. We'll see how it goes, he says. Game development makes fools of us all.
PC, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Mac. Follow the games you're interested in and we'll send you an email the instant we publish new articles about Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding, them. Sometimes we include links to online retail stores. If you click on one and make a purchase we may receive a small commission. For more information, go here. Simon Parkin is an award-winning writer and journalist from England, a regular contributor to The New Yorker, The Guardian and a variety of other publications.
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oxfordian essay I was a graduate student in my early 30s when I came upon Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay Charlton Ogburn's The Mysterious William Shakespeare. Planetary! Hardly an impressionable age. In fact, given the events that followed, it is remarkable how unimpressed I was by my peers. Let me explain. (It seems to jump around like hot water on Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding a skillet, but it all comes together, so be patient.) First, my parents never finished high school. I put myself through college over a 10-year period by managing a 7-11 store.
Hardly a background that would make me a snob, in Stratfordian parlance. Actually, I should be quite sympathetic to the by-his-own-bootstraps model of Shakspere. When I came upon Ogburn, I had already been tested by fire by my favorite professor. Father Of Mine Me Where Have You Been! He was a classic 18th-century literature dinosaur who still believed in the old standards of reading literature first, criticism second and rarely, and of grading papers in terms of mastery, not mere competence. In his lower division Brit Lit survey course, I received my first C ever on Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Hood" Essay a paper. I was stunned. At that time I had yet to understand the impact of public education, especially so-called honors courses that allowed us to be creative rather than to one shot marketing study such old-fashioned things as grammar.
In any event, that C grade set me on a journey of discovery. "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding! I respected him, admired him, and recognized by his written comments that I was still a writing and thinking fool. I set out to do whatever was necessary to get an A from this man on one of my papers. By the time I took his upper division John Milton course, I had at least begun to develop the ability to The Cause of School Violence Essay argue a thesis fairly well, but it was in his graduate seminars that the real testing ground awaited me. Each seminar was graded based on Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding one paper and one final exam, a three-hour monster, often with only a single question that opened up a chasm that seemed impossible to bridge. Essay! (Occasionally, a student got up at the beginning of his final exam saying I can't do this and walked out.) I grew to love those finals, because of the incredible original creative compression that I was forced to confront. Analysis: "Aladdin's And "Little! They were exhilarating. In his Austen and redbull athletes Bronte seminar I found the appalling flabby areas in my reading comprehension. (Paper B+, Course B+) In his Classical Rhetoric seminar I was properly introduced to Plato and Aristotle. (Paper B+, Course A-) In Richardson and Fielding I was confronted with the novel and the moral dimensions of the novel. (Paper A-, Course A-). And finally there was The Age of Johnson: The reading list alone was awesome. "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding! Boswell's complete Biography and zara uk kids the London Journal (recommended completion date: the summer before the course). Most of Johnson's Rambler and Idler essays, Rasselas, poems, prefaces. Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Pope's Essay on Criticism, Essay on Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood" Man, and The Dunciad.
Hume's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in zara uk kids France#133;All in a single course#133; I'm sure I left out some. People refused to sign up just based on the reading alone. It was a fabulous course. My paper was on Fairytale Analysis: Hood" Burke's Imagery and marketing was due the last day of Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay class before the = Fascism, Final. I began writing that morning at 6 am and finished by Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little, 3 pm, one hour before the deadline. (Paper A, Course A)
After three years, four undergraduate courses and four graduate seminars, I got that A, and I knew I had earned it. My best friend Scott, a brilliant man who now teaches in a Catholic college in Texas, was also in those courses. Redbull! We were Teaching Assistants. We spoke a common language, drawing on Richard Weaver's and Edward Corbett's texts for teaching real rhetoric, not the fancy usurped watered-down version then promulgated by the Composition Director and the rather sheepish TAs who followed blindly the multi-cultural, let-the-students-evaluate-each-other approach that merely perpetuated the damage initiated by the public schools. I read Ogburn, I'm interested in its argument , I approach my professor with a copy I bought for Analysis: Red Riding Hood" Essay, him because I wanted someone I respected to examine the argument and to discuss its merits with me. The Cause Violence! He dismissed it without examination, a response contrary to Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding all that was implied in his teaching. I left the book with him anyway, somewhat baffled. I approached my best friend. He would not look at the argument either. I was astonished.
Two brilliant, thinking minds who would not even examine the argument, who simply dismissed it out of hand. Later, I discovered my professor had given the book to another graduate student, a protégé. When I finally asked her about what she thought of the argument, she would only of mine me where you been, say that the Stratfordian professors cited were obvious idiots, but Ogburn's rhetorical stance was faulty in places, and besides he disses Sidney and she loved Sidney, her Master's Thesis was on Sidney, so Ogburn's argument had to be untenable. Yes, once again I was baffled. What was it about this topic that so provoked such bizarre responses? If I had been a good graduate student, a properly impressionable graduate student, then I would have dropped Ogburn and gone along with the prevailing view. But I knew enough that, whatever it's faults, Ogburn's argument merited a hearing and that what I saw among my peers was something putrid, sleazy, and absolutely anathema to Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding true scholarship. Thus began my two-year in-the-library checking sources approach to sorting out Ogburn's argument, and my slow and steady conversion from Stratfordianism to Oxfordianism. Ogburn did not persuade me right away because I had to research the other side more thoroughly, but with new eyes. Of School Violence Essay! I would sit in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Essay the library with his book and grab books and volumes and check sources, compare arguments, find out what Ogburn had not addressed, how he was refuted, how orthodox scholars handled dissent. What first got to me was the extent of redbull scholarly fraud.
How much students believe and take for granted, how much professors spread conjecture as truth, theories as fact, fabrications as dogma. It took me six months just to fully grasp how scholars, documentary evidence, arguments, and Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay the tradition of commentary and zara uk kids interpretation symbiotically interact in the arena of Shakespeare. Once I came to terms with my own regard for the role of art and the nature of the Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, great artist, I realized more clearly where the real line was truly drawn, and how impossible it would be to really prove which side of the athletes, line was the truth. Stratfordians tend (not universally) to "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding accept what I call the material/academic Shakespeare. The reductionist scientific view. In effect, Shakespeare wrote Shakespeare until you can prove with actual documentary evidence that Shakespeare did not write Shakespeare. Anti-Stratfordians tend (not universally) to accept the spiritual/artist Shakespeare. The great artist forges in the smithy of his soul his consciousness and cannot help leave a mark of his life and experience on that.
That is not exactly the biographical approach that Stratfordians want to marketing lay on us. But there is probably no use arguing that. The differences boil down to a fundamental perception on the nature of the artist, and and "Little Red Riding all disconnects among Stratfordians and Anti-Stratfordians ultimately, I believe, arise from that distinction. When I read the poems and plays through the lens of Stratford, I get much insight and father tell me where have greatness . but only from the plays themselves. Shakspere the man leaves no mark on the plays as far as I can access. This violates my experience of almost every other great artist I know of. When I read the poems and plays through the lens of Oxford, the "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay, experience is Essay on School, powerful and transformative and true to the experience I have had with other artists. That is Analysis: Essay, not proof for redbull athletes, anyone else but me.
My wife is an executive producer with her own event and video production company. She helps launch software start-up companies, product launches (Apple, Oracle, and others), and even produces commercials for broadcast. She works with Directors of Photography (DPs) all the time. Most DPs love film cameras and merely like video cameras. The main difference is in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay the aspect capabilities of on School Uniforms a film camera: A film camera can focus one aspect of a shot and Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood" allow others aspects to blur.
This feature opens the Uniforms = Fascism, door to certain creative uses of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding film. Redbull Athletes! Video cameras, particularly, the new digital cameras, resolve everything in a shot. (This fact accounts for the very real difference you notice on TV between that which is Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, filmed and that which is videoed.) So, a DP with a film camera can focus on the foreground elements and allow the background elements to blur; or the DP can focus on the background elements and allow the foreground elements to blur. Both models of athletes a scene are neutral. Analysis: And "Little Hood"! Where one becomes more appropriate than the other depends upon the particular application. Of course, the appropriateness of the application is one shot marketing, up to the DP or some other creative controlling authority. My approach to the Stratfordian and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Oxfordian models are very much like a DP's approach to film and redbull athletes the foreground and background elements. I liken the Stratfordian model to a focus on the foreground elements that leave the background elements blurred. Analysis: Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Essay! The Oxfordian model is similar to a focus on the background elements that leave the Essay Uniforms, foreground blurred. Analysis: Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay! (I could extend this analogy with more detail, but I leave it to the reader. There are many remarkable correspondences.) This modeling very much touches on the fundamental anchor points that we hold regarding human nature, the nature of the artist, and political and cultural assumptions.
For these reasons, this clash of models resembles a clash of religious interpretive models and provokes similar heat. I am not one who favors squashing the Stratfordian model and replacing it with the Oxfordian one. I do not think either model capable of being the Essay Uniforms, only one. Fairytale! I do object to redbull Stratfordian attempts to Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" squash the Oxfordian model, to keep it forever barred from academic investigation and father of mine tell me where you been support, just as a DP who favors a background focus would object to the DP Committee establishing foreground-only rules and dissing background-focused looks in film. My view of models, then, recognizes that the elements (the evidence, the people involved, the society, the poetics, etc.) can be focused in more than one manner. Red Riding Essay! In this view of models, then, one CAN (at least initially) objectively look through both lenses (the Stratfordian and the Oxfordian) and see how the elements come into focus. During those two years in the library, I had to give up the distorted Statfordian lens that I had (the Folger Library/Chute edition) and discover a *clearer* Stratfordian lens to kepler law of view the elements before I could even properly compare it with the Analysis: "Aladdin's, Oxfordian lens. For a time I did not know what to think#133;I was more or less in a decomposed anchorless objective state, which is the proper place to athletes be when looking through competing lenses. I had to come to terms consciously with my own fundamental values and beliefs regarding the nature of art and the artist (poetics), human nature, political and social history, and even certain spiritual matters. What I saw through the Stratfordian lens defied my arrangement of these values and beliefs.
I knew enough of argument even then to be disgusted with the "Aladdin's Lamp", Satan Manuever argument of Shakspere's supposed *genius-that-explains-everything* that seemed to be the cornerstone of every Stratfordian argument in response to on School Uniforms real difficulties in explaining the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, evidence or lack of evidence. The Satan Manuever is what I call the introduction of any argument that immediately destroys a forum based upon arguing from evidence and reason. The name arises from an father of mine have you been, occasion where an evangelical Christian, when asked how he accounted for the fossils that scientists use to demonstrate that the Analysis: Red Riding Hood" Essay, earth is far older than 6000 years, responded, Satan put them there. Such an argument when introduced clearly destroys the possibility for any opposing argument based on evidence and marketing reason. The Satan Manuever has many manifestations in every discipline. In Shakespeariana, it arrives with the introduction of the mystical, inexplicable genius of Shakespeare. Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Hood"! Consequently, I regard every scholar who introduces this form of the Satan Manuever with disdain, for father of mine tell me where have, poisoning the atmosphere of discussion based on evidence and Fairytale and "Little Hood" Essay reason. Responsible scholars, it seems to on School Uniforms = Fascism me, must develop an interpretive model that does not rely on such poisonous introductions. However, despite its obvious and sometimes even severe problems, I found that the way the elements focused when I looked through the Oxfordian lens (the organizing pattern) made much more sense, held much more consistency and connection with my fundamental values and beliefs, and actually generated a host of new and Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay interesting information patterns.
I should note that anyone can discover patterns when one goes looking for them. Such is the fate of the Baconians who put so much reliance on coding and The Cause cryptograms (take those away and how compelling is the Fairytale, Baconian lens?). So how do you know when you have discovered a genuine, innate pattern? When the pattern organizes the elements in athletes such a way that new information is Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, effortlessly generated that actually enhances the focus in completely unexpected yet integrated ways, AND naturally begins explaining other mysteries and problems in Essay on School Uniforms = Fascism the focus of the elements when viewed through other lenses. The Oxfordian lens does that for me, in Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay revelatory and delightful ways that in no way subtract from the works themselves.
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american essay west This essay will explore the three dominant paradigms in the history of the American West. The first paradigm, the Frontier Thesis, was developed by Frederick Jackson Turner and presented by him at the Chicago World#8217;s Columbian Exposition in July 1893 and "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay was intended to serve as a model for the development of American institutions in general. However, it also greatly impacted the study of the American West. The work of new western historians, especially Patricia Nelson Limerick, is the second paradigm and emphasizes four themes within the field of western history including convergence, conquest, complexity, and continuity. Finally, world-systems analysis will be examined through the Essay, work of William G. Robbins and Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay other historians who argue that the role of capitalism in the development of the American West is kepler planetary motion a necessary and important field of inquiry.
Paradigm I: The Turner Thesis. Background of the Frontier Thesis. In his study of American historical interpretations, Gerald Nash argues that there are several important factors to Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little consider in tracing the Violence Essay, evolution of Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Essay! First, Turner#8217;s personal experiences growing up in a frontier region of Wisconsin between 1870 and zara uk kids 1890 shaped his thoughts and left lasting impressions. Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay!  Second, Turner was influenced by the intellectual climates at johannes kepler law of motion the University of Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, where his instructors shaped his thinking of historical processes. At Johns Hopkins, for Fairytale Red Riding Hood", example, Turner studied under Herbert Adams who taught him the germ theory of American institutions. According to on School = Fascism this theory, American institutions evolved from Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic origins in Europe that were centuries old.  Based on his experiences in Wisconsin, Turner rejected most of Adam#8217;s theory. Turner wanted to focus instead on the forces that made American institutions exceptional. Finally, Turner#8217;s concerns with contemporary events found expression in his professional writings. Turner was concerned about the decline of the agrarian character of the nation in the face of industrialism, the rise of Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay cities, and the changing face of the United States as immigrants continued to arrive in the late 19 th century. These concerns, and others, found an outlet in Turner#8217;s nostalgic writings on father tell me where have, frontier life and the Old West. The Frontier Thesis.
In his highly influential essay, The Significance of the Frontier in American History , Frederick Jackson Turner proposed a paradigm to explain the development and expansion of American institutions. Fairytale Hood"! According to Violence Essay Turner, the development of these institutions could be explained by #8220;the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward.#8221;  There are several important component parts related to the frontier thesis which require discussion. These include American exceptionalism, the frontier as both a process and place, the significance of the frontier for Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp", American history, and of mine me where have post-frontier anxiety. American exceptionalism, the belief that America is the model for Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Hood", freedom and liberty in the world, is a key part of Turner#8217;s paradigm. In the process of westward migration, Turner argues that a unique American identity was created where wilderness conditions gave way to American national vitality. Through their interaction with an on School Uniforms = Fascism untamed wilderness environment, settlers were forced to Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" develop unique institutions to survive. Redbull Athletes! This process resulted in the development of a specific American type, one largely characterized by individualism, pragmatism, and egalitarianism.  In the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, immediate decades following the publication of his famous 1893 essay, many American historians believed that the one shot, Turner thesis explained American development; however, historians today have shown that a number of nations experienced periods of frontier and territorial expansion.  In describing the frontier in his essay, Turner avoided monolithic definitions, choosing instead to describe the frontier as both a process and a place.
Turner argues that the frontier process is illustrated by the struggle with wilderness that turned Europeans into Americans. In adapting to the demands of the frontier, Americans had to be innovative, individualistic, and rugged, among other traits. The frontier was also a place, one that moved westward throughout the early history of this nation. In terms of nailing down a definition of #8216;frontier#8217; Turner argues that it is the place where civilization meets savagery. The collision of Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay different cultures produced uniquely American characteristics and institutional forms; because of this, Turner argues that the center of American history could be found at its edges. As Americans migrated westward, the frontier represented the outer edge of father tell a wave of Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" civilization; this line represented the most effective and rapid force for the Americanization of foreigners. The western environment is central to this theme of transformation and is of great importance for Turner#8217;s overall thesis, which is national rather than regional in explanatory aim.
While the athletes, criticisms of Turner and his essay have been effusive, especially during the last three decades, there are aspects of his paradigm that remain useful today. Foremost among Turner#8217;s key points is a focus on the role of the environment and geography in shaping Americans and their institutions. As William Cronon points out, #8220;it is no accident that much of what we today call #8216;environmental history#8217; has been written in this country under the guise of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay western history.#8221;  Turner believed that the environment or #8216;free land#8217; west of the Mississippi River, exerted a transformative influence on immigrants, turning Europeans into Americans; this is one of the major themes of = Fascism his thesis. Lamp" And "Little Red Riding! Historians were influenced by the Turner thesis for decades following its publication. The work of historians such as Walter Prescott Webb, Frederick Logan Paxson and Ray Allen Billington added depth and nuance to on School = Fascism Turner#8217;s original thoughts. Fairytale Analysis: Lamp"! Theme: The Transformative Power of the Environment. Johannes Kepler Law Of Planetary! Beginning in Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" the early 20 th century, historians including Frederic Logan Paxson wrote extensively using Turner#8217;s model. These historians focused on the American West specifically, while developing and augmenting Turner#8217;s basic thesis. Paxson, for example, did not break with the Frontier thesis; however, after Turner#8217;s death in 1932, many historians began to Essay on School Uniforms reassess the validity and application of the thesis.
One of these individuals was Walter Prescott Webb, who more than Turner, saw the frontier and the West as a place rather than a process. Analysis: Red Riding Hood"!  Webb#8217;s conception of the redbull, American West was centered on the arid plains west of the 98 th meridian. Webb defined the West as a specific and locatable area on "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood", a map, which marks an important difference between him and Turner. Webb was a regionalist while Turner was attempting to offer an explanation for the development of the entire country. There were also similarities between the two men. For instance, both believed that the natural environment was responsible for innovation within American institutions. Webb argues that when Americans encountered the mostly level, treeless, and semi-arid environment of the plains, they were forced to transform their institutions in one shot order to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay settle the region. In adapting to the environmental conditions of the Great Plains, American settlers relied heavily on new technologies imported from the East. Adapting to life on the Great Plains shaped the American character, requiring settlers to of mine tell me where you been be innovative in solving problems while making them stronger in their efforts to cling to and "Little Red Riding Hood" the land in the absence of material comforts. The transportation problem on the Great Plains was solved with the arrival of railroads, a process that intensified following the Civil War.  The significance of the railroad is that it made communication and transportation over redbull athletes large areas possible, while bringing construction materials from the Fairytale "Aladdin's Hood", East that enabled settlers to build communities.  The issue of fencing was resolved with the introduction of Joseph Glidden#8217;s barbed wire invention of 1874.  Webb argues that the invention of barbed wire revolutionized land values on the Great Plains and without it, the plains homestead could never have been protected from the grazing herds of neighboring ranches.  Webb#8217;s emphasis on the natural environment as a field of study links him to new western historians, including Elliott West and others.
The overriding influence in Webb#8217;s work was his focus on marketing, the study of civilizations and cultures from the Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Hood" Essay, physical foundation on which they rested.  In the zara uk kids, late 1940s, Ray Allen Billington began a career dedicated to preserving Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Throughout his long career, Billington modified Turner#8217;s thesis to say that the frontier was not the only factor in the development of American institutions. For example, Turner had long argued that the spread of democracy owed its origins to Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" the forests of New England, one of the earliest frontiers. Billington understood that he would need to compromise with Turner#8217;s critics if he was going to salvage the frontier thesis. Therefore, Billington admitted that there had long been a trend toward democracy in the western world; the American environment was important, but not as important as Turner and other frontier historians had originally argued.
The more Billington was forced to modify the thesis, the more people questioned which aspects were still valid for historical explanation and redbull athletes analysis. Earl Pomeroy offers an Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" excellent segue from old western historians to a discussion of new western historians. Johannes Kepler Law Of Planetary! Long before the Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood", publications of Patricia Limerick, William Cronon, Richard White, and on School = Fascism Donald Worster, Pomeroy called for a reappraisal of the #8220;Turner-Webb environmental-deterministic#8221; paradigm.  Where Turner saw innovative, nation-building frontiersmen, Pomeroy saw class stratification and hierarchies of power. Foreshadowing the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood", new western history, Pomeroy argued against the significance of Turner#8217;s closing frontier. Instead, he chose to stress the continuity of history in the West from the 19 th to the 20 th centuries.  Paradigm II: New Western History. The origins of the new western history movement can be traced to the new social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Redbull!  Many within the post-war generation who grew up in the 1960s became alienated by the crimes of our society, including nuclear testing, the violation of civil rights, the assassination of JFK, and "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay especially the war in Vietnam. Johannes! Practitioners of the new western history generally advocate new perspectives that illuminate the experiences of diverse groups of people. Gender, race, class, and the environment are some of the important lenses western historians began employing in the 1980s. The accomplishments of and "Little Essay four new western historians have added a great amount of depth and zara uk kids clarity to the field; they include William Cronon, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay Patricia Nelson Limerick.
Each of of mine tell me where have you been these historians emphasizes distinct ways to practice the Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood", new western history. In explaining his take on the new western history, William Cronon argues that there remains some value in Turner#8217;s thesis. Cronon believes that one of Turner#8217;s most fruitful suggestions was that invasion, settlement, and community formation followed certain broad, repeating patterns throughout most of North America.  Turner described a large-scale process referred to as parallel historical change through his argument about the ways in which the frontier process repeated itself as it moved westward. Cronon links his conception of western history to Turner while simultaneously striking out on his own by stating that he believes that Turner#8217;s comparative study of parallel regional changes has much to offer the field today, especially in formulating new approaches. According to Cronon, a new approach that stresses the connectedness of frontier areas, as opposed to their isolation, will help to make sense of western history in the broader context of European colonialism.  Richard White argues that the frontier thesis remains a source of environmental history and a window to the popular mind.  For White, the major source of continuity and zara uk kids the source for discontinuities between the old western and new western histories is the Fairytale "Aladdin's Hood", way that each group has formulated the role of the environment in creating a western region.  While both groups of historians acknowledge the importance of the environment, White argues that old western historians continue to wear #8216;frontier blinders#8217; that restrict and narrow their view of the Uniforms = Fascism, past. The narrative of the old western history is the story of a journey, a challenge, and a dual transformation of land and people. However, White argues that new western historians have abandoned #8216;frontier blinders#8217;, choosing instead to focus on three things in constructing western environmental history narratives. First, they look at the contesting groups, second, they examine the various perceptions of the land and ambitions for it, and finally, they examine structures of power that shape these contests over land use that result in environmental change.
While this model goes beyond the simple dichotomy of the old western historians, it does retain the focus of the importance of the environment as a foundational belief. In his book, It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own , White presents a new history of the American West. He argues that the West is a distinct region, however, for reasons other than those presented by Turner, Webb and others. Fairytale "Aladdin's! White argues that the West is characterized by zara uk kids, distinct sets of relationships that set the region apart from other regions in the nation.  Of great importance is the relationship between the federal government and the West, a dual labor system based on race, and Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Hood" Essay patterns of political participation and organization. Taken together, these relationships have combined to zara uk kids make the American West a distinct region. In his book, Under Western Skies , Donald Worster presents his understanding of the goals and direction of the new western history.  Worster argues that with the new western history, we are beginning to get a history that is beyond myth, beyond the traditional consciousness of the white conquerors, and beyond a primitive emotional need of heroes and heroines.  According to Worster, there are four important arguments that the new western history makes. The first argument is that the invaded and "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay subject peoples of the West must be given a voice in the region#8217;s history. The second argument is the admission that the drive for the economic development of the West was often a ruthless assault on nature, and it has left behind it much death, depletion and Essay ruin.  The third argument is that the West has been ruled by concentrated power, though here, as in other places, power has often hidden itself behind beguiling masks.  Finally, the single most important and most distinguishing characteristic of the new western history is its determination not to offer cover for "Aladdin's Lamp", the powers that be#8212;not to become subservient to them, by silence or consent.  While Worster takes Turner to task for his focus on process rather on fixing a specific geographic definition for the American West, he argues that Webb attempted to fix firm coordinates to the West as early as the 1950s. On School = Fascism!  This illustrates the link between old western historians and Worster#8217;s understanding of western history today.
Worster argues that Webb used aridity in Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay defining his West, the area west of the 98 th meridian; an idea that Webb took from John Wesley Powell. Webb#8217;s definition of the West, the law of, region#8217;s aridity, fits with Worster#8217;s own experience of growing up in Kansas and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay California. This experience has led Worster to accept Webb#8217;s definition due in Violence large part to his own understanding of the Fairytale Analysis: Red Riding Hood" Essay, region as a place where people struggle for survival under a variety of Essay on School circumstances, especially aridity. Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood"!  As has been demonstrated, the zara uk kids, new western history coalesced in the 1980s in Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay the writings of William Cronon, Richard White and Donald Worster; however, the one shot marketing, work of Limerick is among the most expressive in terms of defining this new paradigm. Limerick argues that she did not create this paradigm; rather, she was a part of Fairytale Hood" Essay a larger movement of western historians who believed in trusting their own experiences and zara uk kids beliefs and who questioned the authority of the Turner thesis. Limerick articulates her understanding of the new western history in several groundbreaking books and articles.  It is helpful to compare and contrast Limerick#8217;s understanding of the new western history with Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. For Turner, the frontier is both a process and a place; it is the place where civilization meets savagery and it is the process in which settlers wrestle with wild nature and become Americanized. Limerick also sees the West as both process and place. The West is a place, the region west of the 100 th meridian and she stresses both aridity and the natural environment as barriers to negotiate. The West is a process due to the convergence of races, ideas, and environmental factors that come together to form something new. Like Turner, Limerick is making an exceptionalist argument about the West; however, she states that the West has characteristics that make it unique, not better.
Among these characteristics are the border with Mexico, the presence of large Native American populations on their homelands, aridity, and Analysis: Lamp" the fact that the bulk of the land remains under federal control. Law Of! The Four C#8217;s of Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding New Western History. According to Limerick, new west historians employ new terms that reflect new perspectives; among these terms are the four C#8217;s of the new western history: conquest, convergence, continuity, and complexity. Supporters of the Turner thesis utilized a vague definition of #8216;frontier#8217;, in which they envisioned an ever-expanding zone of zara uk kids freedom, opportunity and democracy. Limerick argues that such a definition exempted the United States from global history while attempting to downplay the significance of European actions. Limerick prefers to use the word #8216;conquest#8217; rather than frontier because she believes that this is a more accurate description of Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little what transpired. Using conquest as a lens to study the history of the American West allows historians to make sense of the The Cause of School Violence Essay, seizure of Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay resources, the imposition of colonial dominance, intermarriage, and syncretism and to recognize these events when they see them. Limerick utilizes the theme of convergence to uncover and law of planetary understand how the American West looked historically in terms of race, class, gender, etc.
In the traditional narrative of Western history, the doings of white people, especially white men, controlled center stage. Native Americans were recognized as obstacles or barriers to the big process of frontier expansion, while Chinese and Mexican workers could find relevance only as they contributed to the building of and "Little Red Riding Hood" railroads and the development of agriculture. Contrary to athletes this traditional narrative, the West was a place of and "Little Hood" Essay extraordinary convergence; people from all over Uniforms = Fascism the world met, negotiated for position, and tried to better understand one another. A criticism of the Turner thesis is that this paradigm places too much importance on the closing of the frontier in 1890 as an event that marks the end of Western history. Supporters of the new western history see no gap between the 19 th and Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little 20 th centuries; they argue that narrative and causal ties link the two centuries. For example, there was more homesteading after 1890 than before, major extractive industries saw their principle boom and bust cycles during the 20 th century, conflicts and dilemmas stirred up in the late 19 th century have remained to one shot haunt Westerners in the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. Limerick argues that by stressing continuity within Western history, it will be possible to for Westerners to better understand and navigate through their dilemmas. The final #8216;C#8217; of new western history is aimed directly at many of those individuals who desire to see history in black and Fairytale white; good guys and athletes bad guys. Contrary to many of the myths and romanticized notions, Limerick argues that human behavior in the American West, both past and present, has shown the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood", same level of moral complexity as human behavior in any other part of the kepler planetary motion, planet. Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's And "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay! This is an important theme of the new western history; it is brutally honest, not romanticized. Violence Essay! Limerick goes so far as to state that those who want to preserve their myths enjoy #8220;appealing and colorful legends.#8221; Migration and Fairytale settlement are illustrative topics within the new western theme of convergence.
The massive influx of migrants to athletes the American West during the 19 th and Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding 20 th centuries brought together different races and cultural groups that resulted in one shot marketing distinct challenges for the communities in which they settled.  White Americans and and "Little Essay former slaves migrated West while Asians migrated East and Mexicans continued moving north; at father tell have you been the same time, the prior presence of thousands of Native Americans in the region set the stage for cultural and economic exchange, new understanding, and violence as these groups converged and interacted. Richard White argues that historically, there have been three types of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay western migration, including community or kinship based, utopian (Mormons), and modern. The first two types of migration saw their destination, whether Oregon or Utah, as a site for the re-creation of an existing way of life or for the establishment of a new and better life. Redbull!  The journey to California is an example of modern migration; this was often seen as a temporary migration with the purpose of Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding accumulating portable wealth and property. The question of who took part in western migration remains contentious. White argues that networks of information ultimately determined which communities were likely to send migrants to father you been California, Oregon, and points in between. Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay!  However, Susan Lee Johnson argues that it was the tentacles of capitalism that determined who could and ultimately would migrate to the California gold fields. Capitalist market economies around the globe linked people, places, and products together in the search for wealth; those individuals who ventured to father of mine tell me where have you been the California gold fields were grappling with monumental economic changes.  During the Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Hood", post-Reconstruction period in the South, a mass exodus of former slaves was launched with the hopes of evading the cultures of terrorism and tell me where you been poverty that characterized their existence after 1877. Beginning in 1878, thousands of Fairytale Lamp" Red Riding #8216;exodusters#8217; migrated to Kansas in the hopes of finding their personal Liberia or Canaan. The Cause Of School Violence Essay! This movement was one of the first migrations of African Americans westward and as such, it is an Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Hood" excellent example of the convergence of different racial and cultural groups. According to the historian Nell Irvin Painter, exodusters encountered discrimination in Kansas; however, by = Fascism, 1900, blacks in the state were generally better off economically than their southern counterparts were.
As far as their impact on Kansas communities, Painter argues that the biggest fear many whites held was that Anglo-American migrants would choose to settle in Nebraska or Minnesota once word got out that thousands of former slaves had taken up residence as farmers and laborers in Kansas.  Irish migrations to Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding the copper town of Butte, Montana followed the same general pattern of other mining communities in terms of push and pull factors; however, there were some unique aspects, including the fact that the owner of the Anaconda Mine was born in Ireland. In an of mine tell me where have article on the Irish in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Butte, David M. Emmons argues that the Irish in this mining community were representative of migrants who wanted to gain portable wealth and move on, perhaps back to their hometown or country of origin.  Josef J. Barton demonstrates that European immigrants in the American West also sought to recreate and maintain their traditional ways of life in this country without the intention of going back to their home countries, which was impossible for one shot, some groups.  Barton#8217;s study of Czech farmers in south Texas details the steps taken by this group to maintain decent and secure lives. The history of migration in Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little the American West demonstrates that the 20 th century saw more migration, in on School Uniforms pure numbers, than did the 19 th century. Migration to Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Essay the East Bay in California has been well documented and me where you been discussed by historians. Marilynn S. Johnson traces the development of the East Bay during World War II with an Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" emphasis on how government spending transformed the region. Johnson focuses on the convergence of different races, genders, and generations as new migrants mixed with old settlers and as all of one shot these groups worked and lived in the same area.  The tension between newcomers and old time residents was palpable, as old timers attempted (successfully) to shape public policy decisions on everything from Fairytale Lamp" and "Little housing, to land use and Essay the prosecution of criminals with the goal of maintaining traditional social patterns and limiting the influence of migrants. Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo provides an in depth examination of Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay African American female migrants to the East Bay during World War II. She argues that migrant women were critical agents in the larger migration and settlement process.  Many minority migrant groups faced racism and discrimination as they intermingled with Anglo-American migrants and one shot the older inhabitants.
Santangelo argues that black women were essential to the process of devising coping strategies that enabled themselves and minority males to Fairytale "Aladdin's Hood" Essay adjust to this difficult aspect of on School Uniforms settlement. Central to this strategy were transplanted Southern values, including economic autonomy, hard work, education, worship, family ties, charity, and independent self-help institutions. The hard work of black female migrants resulted in the formation of viable communities that continue to exist today as well as social problems that continue to demand resolution. In Something in the Soil , Limerick discusses how people around the globe see the American West as a place where one can go to escape complexity. "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding! Many individuals, known as tourists, explore the johannes law of planetary, West hoping to find this romanticized and mythologized past still in existence. The reality of the situation, of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding course, is that the West and its inhabitants are as morally complex as any other region and group of people. Essay On School = Fascism! This section will explore the ways in which tourism in "Aladdin's Red Riding the American West both masks and exemplifies moral complexity. Hal K. Rothman sets the tone for the history of tourism in the West by providing a language that gives meaning and coherence to the activities related to father tell me where you been tourism. In his book Devil#8217;s Bargains , Rothman argues that the costs of tourism far outweigh the benefits. The zeal of many western civic leaders who have focused on tourism as their salvation from financial collapse belies a truth about tourism, that the industry transforms local culture into something new and foreign and all the while it may or may not rescue the local economy it was supposed to save. Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay!  Modern tourism conceals the complex nature of father have most western states in several ways.
First, and this is one of the primary functions of tourism, romanticized visions of the past are created and marketed to tourists. Rothman argues that the restrictive building codes in Santa Fe and the romantic imagery of southwestern tribes are examples of how people and places were commodified for the tourist trade at the expense of understanding. Second, the actual costs of Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay tourism are often hidden from tourists who were led to believe that as a region, the West was both unformed and malleable. Violence Essay! Therefore, according to Rothman, the West served as a canvas on which the new nation was constructed following the Civil War. The act of tourism in the West would enable some of the voids regarding the idea of America and its institutions to be filled.  Some Western towns have turned to "Aladdin's Essay gambling tourism to kepler planetary save themselves from financial collapse, which in itself has been a gamble. In communities that traditionally relied on entertaining seasonal tourists with their historic pasts, gambling was seen as a year-round, stable, and dynamic solution to their problems.  The struggle to survive illustrates the complexity of the American West today. Far from being the romanticized West that many tourists envision encountering and exploring, communities throughout the region continue to Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding struggle with the The Cause of School Violence Essay, collapse of the industries responsible for their creation, e.g., mining, and the success of tourism, which has greatly added to the complexity of Analysis: Red Riding Hood" existence in tourist towns. Leah Dilworth confronts the romantic mythology of western tourism in her book, Imagining Indians in the Southwest . Dilworth#8217;s work focuses on the idea of ethnic tourism, specifically involving Native Americans from the Southwest and the ways in zara uk kids which these individuals have been commodified and simplified for tourist consumption.  According to Dilworth, the quest encounters with Native Americans during tours of the Southwest is Analysis: Essay part of the search for simplicity or authenticity that the primitive represents in The Cause of School Violence Essay American culture; however, that simplistic past is unattainable. Tourism constructs a simplified version of history and contemporary life in such a way that it is visible but is never attainable. In the search for what she refers to as the #8220;imperialist nostalgia,#8221; in other words, the Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay, search for a simplistic lifestyle that Americans are complicit in destroying, realistic Indians are undetectable. Complexity is difficult to commodify and package for tourist consumption.
The history of mining in the American West illustrates the Violence Essay, theme of continuity in several important ways. First, the volume of minerals extracted in Western mines increased during the 20 th century. Second, communities and governmental agencies are still dealing with the environmental impact of 19th and 20th century mining operations. Finally, the Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood", mining industry continues to play an important role in Violence communities throughout the American West. These are some of the key connections in Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay the unbroken historical narrative of the American West. Histories of 19 th century mining usually emphasize several key themes, including the role of technology in the extractive process, economic and political struggles, and the transition miners undergo from gold-seekers to wage-laborers as the zara uk kids, placer gold in streams plays out. In his book Mining Frontiers of the Fairytale Analysis: and "Little, Far West , Rodman W. Paul examines both the technological and economic aspects of mining rushes in several western states.  Paul examines the mining movement in its totality through the identification of law of motion two unifying forces that occurred across widely scattered mining settlements. The first of these, the role of miners as they moved from discovery to discovery and in Analysis: "Aladdin's Hood" the process bringing with them extractive techniques and social relationships for the creation of new communities. Paul acknowledges the fact that the development of father of mine tell have you been mining communities set the stage for the displacement of indigenous groups, people of color, and whites; however, it was Elliott West who finally added the story of the displaced to Paul#8217;s narrative.
Paul continues to and "Little develop his theme relating to the impact of new technology on zara uk kids, the industry in his final book, The Far West and and "Little the Great Plains in Transition . In this excellent book, Paul examines the era of rapid change in the West ushered in with the mining advance. The Cause Violence! The impact of new technologies on the mining industry is illustrated by his analysis of hydraulic mining and Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay the changes it brought to placer mining, usually the first stage of mining before more capital intensive hard rock mining begins. Hydraulic mining enabled massive amounts of dirt to be worked on a fast scale; however, it brought with it environmental destruction and waste.  As the surface deposits played out, subsurface deposits were developed; this combination of new technology and = Fascism the necessity for capital in hard rock mining turned gold seekers into wage laborers.  Historians have continued to analyze the Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Essay, impact of the Industrial Revolution not only on the mining industry but also on miners. In his book Hard Rock Epic , Mark Wyman focuses broadly on Western miners as they experienced economic and technological transformations during the Industrial Revolution.  Wyman examines the response of miners to the introduction of a wide range of new technologies, such as the Burleigh drill.  The author reveals that the romanticized image of the miner is completely out of zara uk kids tune with the reality of the situation, which by the late 19 th century was characterized by industrialized techniques and wage-laborers. Mining corporations developed during the Industrial Revolution in this country and most came to dominate the communities and states in Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding which their mines were located. One example of this historical era that straddles the 19 th and 20 th centuries is Butte and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company.  Michael Malone#8217;s narrative focuses on of mine you been, the perspective of competing mine owners within the Butte area as they struggled for control of the Fairytale Red Riding, copper during the late 19 th century. Marketing! Malone argues that miners benefited tremendously in the four-way struggle for power early on; however, with the consolidation of Butte copper mines under the Amalgamated Holding Company in 1899, that all changed.  Not only were miners forced to adapt to new technologies that rendered their skills unnecessary (e.g., hard rock miners) but they were also forced to adapt to new corporate management structures of Fairytale Lamp" Red Riding Hood" concentrated power. In such a relationship, the new face of mining in Butte was one in which the workers and the people themselves, #8220;lay at the mercy of a much more powerful and less sensitive corporation.#8221;  Historians of 20 th century Western mining continued to chart the development of the industry and to demonstrate the continuity of the historical narrative long after the closing of the frontier in Essay 1890.
Historians continue to examine relationships between workers and owners, the Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Essay, influence of both groups in terms of economics, politics, and culture, as well as the impact of changing federal policies on mining communities, among others. James W. Byrkit, in his book Forging the Copper Collar , examines the mining industry in Bisbee, Arizona during the first two decades of the 20 th century.  Bisbee serves as the backdrop to his argument regarding the role of eastern power in sponsoring and manipulating economic, political, social and cultural life in the American West. Byrkit#8217;s book details the ways in which Arizona#8217;s early statehood period was dominated politically and economically within a colonizer/colonized relationship. This book represents an excellent narrative bridge between the redbull, Industrial Revolution and the Wagner Act of the New Deal, which gave labor the right to organize. Reflecting the new western history#8217;s desire to uncover the history of previously ignored groups, Mary Murphy#8217;s Mining Cultures explores the social clubs, barrooms, sporting life, and other aspects of public leisure within Butte.  Similar to the narrative told by Byrkit, Murphy argues that during the interwar years, labor lost a great deal of their power. They occupied a world in which their working lives, political choices, and Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay economic outlooks were constrained by the Anaconda Company. Father Of Mine Me Where Have! However, Murphy argues that Butte was different from other mining towns in which the controlling company would build towns and seek to control the morals of the workers. Because of this, a male-centered social landscape developed during the late 19 th century in Butte. The changes to that landscape are the focus of this book, as Murphy discusses the re-creation of Butte as part of the struggle between women and men to adjust to new gender roles after World War I.  That Western mining is an example of continuity should be clear by Lamp" Hood", now, especially when the history of uranium mining communities are examined and compared to older mining communities. Kepler Law Of Planetary! In his book Yellowcake Towns , Michael Amundson analyzes and compares the impact of changing federal policies on four uranium mining and milling communities in the states of Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado.  As Amundson argues, yellowcake towns are excellent examples of continuity in the West for Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, several reasons, including the remoteness of the places in which the Essay on School Uniforms, mining took place and Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay the lack of control those distant communities had on the trade networks that controlled the boom and bust nature of the industry. Similarly, male prospectors often first settled yellowcake town sites and zara uk kids only later would their families join them.
In short, Amundson argues, #8220;the persistence of continuity suggests that as unique as the history of uranium mining and yellowcake towns appears, strong undercurrents link them to Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay major themes in the history of the American West.#8221;  The theme of of School Violence conquest includes a wide range of Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay behaviors, including the conquest of the natural environment and zara uk kids extraction of resources. A definition of resources could include animals, crops, and minerals; the cattle, logging, and copper mining industries are examples of the diversity of conquests that have taken place in the American West. Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Hood"! Conquest also refers to the colonial dominance of minority groups in the West, including Asians, Mexicans, African Americans, and Native Americans. The conquest of humans in of mine have the American West will be the focus of this section of the Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, essay. In his groundbreaking work of Native American history, The Roots of Dependency , Richard White examines the economic structures of three tribes in order to better understand why their economies eventually failed to meet their basic subsistence needs by the late 19 th century. White studies agricultural systems, hunting methods, as well as their work as ranchers in athletes attempting to explain the economic conquest of the Choctaw, Pawnee, and Navajo.  The conclusion which White draws from his examination of the changing Indian economies is that attempts by Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood", whites to bring indigenous resources, land and labor into the market was the primary cause of the of School Violence Essay, resulting economic dependency and conquest by Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's, the United States. In arriving at zara uk kids this conclusion, White attacks the traditional belief that military supremacy and force were responsible for these changes.
Jeffrey Ostler#8217;s work on the history of Lakota-U.S. interactions during the 19 th century, culminating in the massacre at Wounded Knee in Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay December of 1890 provides an excellent example of the new western history#8217;s focus on conquest and indigenous perspectives.  Ostler utilizes colonialism as a lens through which to view Indian agency and resistance at a time when the motion, Lakota were experiencing many political, social, and cultural changes. Ostler explains the Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Essay, development of U.S. colonialism among the Lakota while also discussing the ways that the father of mine have you been, Lakota developed policies and thereby were not simply acted upon by outside influences. An example of Lakota agency was the way the tribe reacted to Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Essay the invasion of their lands by redbull, Euro-American settlers using the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. According to Ostler, the Lakota began to feel the indirect effects of agrarian expansion in the 1840s as settlers and cattle destroyed or consumed the food supply of indigenous animals, especially the buffalo. In retaliation, the Lakota decided to charge settlers for the damage they were doing to their economy; this was a good policy in terms of holding those responsible for the damages responsible for fixing them, but the normal reaction of the United States was to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding call out the cavalry and attack local Lakota villages for #8220;harassing#8221; settlers. By discussing the redbull athletes, various ways in Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay which the Lakota formulated responses to colonialism and johannes law of planetary attempts to conquer their land, Ostler strips away the myth that their demise as a power on the northern plains was inevitable. Tearing down myths is one of the goals of the new western history and this book is an excellent example of Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay how it should be accomplished. Conquest and The Cause of School Violence dispossession also occurred during the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, early conservation efforts within the American West, but for reasons other than seizing land for agriculture or ranching. In his excellent book, Dispossessing the Wilderness , Mark David Spence states that wilderness preservation went #8220;hand in hand with native dispossession#8221;.  Spence#8217;s argument is based on the experiences of a handful of law of motion Indian tribes that were dispossessed from certain parts of their traditional homelands by the federal government so that national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite and Glacier) could be established.
These tribes include the Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood", Bannock, Shoshone, Crow, Yosemite, and Blackfeet. Spence argues that #8220;uninhabited wilderness had to be created before it could be preserved#8221;.  The reason that these tribes were dispossessed had a great deal to do with changing American perceptions about wilderness, including debates on how to define it and how it should be preserved. According to Spence, in the first half of the 19 th century, nascent conservationists such as George Catlin, Washington Irving, Henry David Thoreau, and John Audubon believed that Indians and one shot wilderness areas should be set aside from the influence of civilization. Spence explains that antebellum America did not conceive of wilderness and Indians as separate, but saw them as fundamentally linked.  All of that changed, however, in the years following the Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Hood", Civil War. Spence believes that frontier hostilities between the army and Indian tribes located throughout the Great Plains was one cause for America#8217;s changing perceptions of zara uk kids Indians to the popular belief that they were #8220;evil savages#8221;. Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay! No longer seen as living in harmony with nature, due to the fact that they were impeding America#8217;s manifest destiny, setting fires in forests, and hunting game in areas intended for protection, conservationists of the second half of the 19 th century began to reconsider the ideas of earlier conservationists, that is, placing Indians in protected wilderness areas. At the same time that Indians were forced off of their traditional homelands onto reservations in order to make the marketing, land uninhabited so that it could be preserved, a myth began to circulate that Indians had not inhabited the now-protected wilderness areas located throughout the West for decades. Spence provides evidence linking Indian tribes to each of the Analysis: and "Little Essay, three national parks discussed in this book, detailing how that land was used over The Cause of School Violence several centuries and the ways that the various tribes attempted to preserve their treaty rights to practice religious customs and economic tasks in those parks today, long after their ancestors were dispossessed. Paradigm III: World-Systems Analysis.
The final paradigm examined in this paper is world-systems analysis. Immanuel Wallerstein developed this mode of analysis during the 1970s; however, within the Fairytale and "Little, discipline of history, William Robbins has been one of the most vocal advocates for zara uk kids, its use and acceptance. According to Wallerstein, at its most basic level, world-systems analysis characterizes the Analysis: Lamp" Essay, global world-system in which we live as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. In his terminology, Wallerstein describes a #8216;core#8217; as a developed, industrialized part of the world and a #8216;periphery#8217; as an zara uk kids underdeveloped, raw materials exporting, poor part of the world. Core regions exploit periphery regions through the functions of the market.  In a series of books and articles, Robbins has built an interpretive model of Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" history which states that the best way to The Cause Violence Essay understand change and interactions in the American West is through a capitalist framework. The key is his definition of capitalism, which he defines as a system of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Essay social relations expressed in characteristic class structures, modes of consciousness, patterns of authority, and relations of power.  Robbins#8217; work bears some similarities and shares some intersections with both old and zara uk kids new western historians. Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay! Like new western historians, Robbins rejects the idea of American exceptionalism.  Robbins sees the region as a unique arena for scholarly endeavor, insisting that the American West can be seen as a prototype for modern capitalism.  In his emphasis on the association between capitalism and its revolutionary consequences for a particular place, Robbins#8217; work can be seen to closely resemble that of Donald Worster, ( Dust Bowl , Rivers of Empire ); William Cronon, ( Changes in tell me where have the Land , Nature#8217;s Metropolis ); and Richard White, ( Roots of Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay Dependency ). However, Robbins pursues a global perspective on events in the American West by advancing two interrelated themes throughout much of his work.
First, the history of the kepler law of, West should be examined as a part of the worldwide expansion of corporate capitalism. Second, outside managers, financiers, and capitalists often dictated the Analysis: and "Little Red Riding, fates of zara uk kids western communities and determined the Fairytale and "Little Hood", fortunes of Essay on School Uniforms = Fascism western residents. In short, Robbins is Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood" arguing that the development of the West is the story of the region#8217;s integration into a global economic system. As Robbins explains, the fur trade, settler movement, mineral rushes, and the transportation revolution were all manifestations of the influence of global capitalism. In seeking to break from the tell me where you been, exceptionalist narrative of western history, Robbins again finds common ground with new western historians. Like Limerick and White, Robbins discovers a West characterized by relationships of power and dependency. The celebrated freedom and autonomy of the West, if it existed, was the province of the few, of those individuals with power, influence, and especially capital. The adoption and use of world-systems analysis in the writing of western history has produced several admirable volumes, two of which will be discussed in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" this section. The first, William G. Violence! Robbins#8217; Colony and Empire has already been briefly mentioned. Robbins#8217; analysis stretches from the mid-nineteenth century to Analysis: Lamp" Hood" the present, and takes on the entire West, from the 98th meridian to the Pacific, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, but inclusive of the Mexican and Canadian borderlands. This is a macrocosmic study divided into four parts in which the author makes his case by outlining the complexity of capitalist networks in the West, the relationship of hinterlands to metropolises, and of eastern and foreign capital to western development.
As Robbins makes clear, part of kepler planetary his rationale for writing this book is Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay that scholars have yet to father tell me where forge an analytical tool to explain the transformation of the American West from an area dominated by pre-industrial societies to Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" a region that is an integrated segment of a modern world capitalist system.  The basic, broad framework advanced by Robbins reads as follows: the penetration of market forces in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries, the of mine tell have, subjugation and colonization of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Essay native people between 1840 and 1890, the re-peopling of the western landscape during that same period, and the progressive integration of the West into national and international exchange relationships.  In his book, Capitalism on the Frontier , Carroll Van West provides a microcosmic analysis of the Clark#8217;s Fork Bottom region of the Yellowstone River Valley; a 25 mile long region including the city of Billings, Montana. The focus of Van West#8217;s study are the revolutionary impacts of capitalism in transforming the landscape from a pre-industrial site of economic activity to its absorption into the mainstream of American capitalism.  There are parallels between the works of Robbins and Van West, including their examination of the kepler law of planetary, impact of outside capital on the West. Also, both authors chronicle boom-bust cycles and document the late 19 th century transition from an individualistic capitalism to an impersonal corporate capitalism by the turn of the 20 th century. However, Van West#8217;s narrative actively seeks out the human element, the people, institutions, and "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" economic forces that guided the settlement and zara uk kids development of Billings through the end of the Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay, century.  When Frederick Jackson Turner wrote his famous essay in one shot 1893, he was seeking to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" Essay explain the kepler law of motion, development of American institutions and history, not the American West specifically. Such a lofty goal, broad historical synthesis, omitted some groups and privileged others. The work of new social historians during the Analysis: Lamp" and "Little, 1960s can be seen as an tell have attempt to broaden the focus of historians by increasing the number of research lenses to include topics such as race, gender, and class. While new social history theories were brought to the field of western history only in the 1980s, well after other regional specialists began using them, the Fairytale Analysis: Essay, impact was widely and immediately felt. The final paradigm discussed in this essay, world-systems analysis, provides a further conceptual tool for western historians, capitalism. Supporters of The Cause Violence this model argue that the Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, margins and peripheries of our stories lack coherence because they lack an interpretive synthesis to unify them.  Both new western historians and supporters of world-systems analysis argue that we need to move beyond American exceptionalism as a form of interpretive synthesis.
The frontier thesis encourages triumphalist narratives and obscures the connections between regions and Violence Essay nations. The theoretical lenses used in new western history and world-systems analysis for the production of historical narratives should provide a powerful new synthetic model to challenge American exceptionalism.  Gerald D. Nash, Creating the West: Historical Interpretations, 1890-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 6-7.  Ray Allen Billington, ed., The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 9-20.  William Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 18 (Apr., 1987): 157-176.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding the New West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000).  Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; 171.  William R. Jacobs, John W. Caughey, and athletes Joe B. Frantz, Turner, Bolton, and Fairytale Lamp" Essay Webb: Three Historians of the American Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), vi 83-85.  Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931), 273-280.  Richard Etulain, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 320.  Gene M. Gressley, ed., Old West/New West: Quo Vadis? (Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company, 1994), 3-4. Essay Uniforms = Fascism!  William Cronon, et al., ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America#8217;s Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1992), 6.  Michael Steiner, #8220;From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History,#8221; The Pacific Historical Revew 64 (Nov., 1995): 500.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward A New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 27.  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217;: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).  Donald Worster, Under Western Skies: Nature and Fairytale Red Riding Hood" Essay History in the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). Father Of Mine Tell Me Where Have You Been!  See, for example, her books, The Legacy of Conquest and Something in the Soil .  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217; , 183-211.  Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding, California Gold Rush (New York: W.W. One Shot Marketing! Norton and Fairytale Analysis: Essay Company, 2000), 58-59.  Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1979), 258-260.  David M. Emmons, #8220;Irish Miners: From the Emerald Isle to Copper Butte,#8221; in European Immigrants in the American West: Community Histories , ed.
Frederick C. Luebke (Albuquerque: University of Essay on School Uniforms = Fascism New Mexico Press, 1998), 49-64.  Josef J. Barton, #8220;Czech Farmers and Mexican Laborers in South Texas,#8221; in Ethnicity on the Great Plains , ed. Frederick C. Luebke (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 190-209.  Marilynn S. Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in Lamp" Red Riding Essay World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996) .  Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).  Hal K. Rothman, Devil#8217;s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence: University Press of Essay = Fascism Kansas, 1998), 10.  Katherine Jensen and Audie Blevins, The Last Gamble: Betting on the Future in Four Rocky Mountain Mining Towns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), 72.  Leah Dilworth, Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent Visions of Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding a Primitive Past (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 78-82.  Rodman W. Paul and Elliott West, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880 (Albuquerque: University of johannes planetary New Mexico Press, 2001).  Rodman W. Paul, The Far West and "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay the Great Plains in Transition, 1859-1900 (New York: Harper and zara uk kids Row, 1988), 35-38.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988), 106.  Mark Wyman, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).  Michael P. Malone, The Battle for Butte: Mining and Fairytale and "Little Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981). Zara Uk Kids!  James W. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona#8217;s Labor-Management War of 1901-1921 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982).  Mary Murphy, Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997).  Michael Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002). Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding!  Richard White, The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983).  Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and Essay on School Uniforms = Fascism U.S.
Colonialism From Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay!  Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3.  Immanuel Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2004).  William G. On School = Fascism! Robbins, Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994).  William G. Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 20 (Nov., 1989): 429-449.  Robbins, Colony and Empire , 19. "Aladdin's Essay!  Robbins, Colony and redbull Empire , 11-12.  Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; 434. Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay!  Carroll Van West, Capitalism on the Frontier: Billings and zara uk kids the Yellowstone Valley in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 2.  William G. Robbins, #8220;In Pursuit of Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Knowing the American West,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1999): 277-293.
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essay on Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Essay, hvtn 505 The path forward to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will be expedited via the analysis of immune correlates from past and future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Approaches that aim either to improve upon current findings from a partially efficacious vaccine strategy or approaches toward the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies by rational immunogen design strategies are likely to law of, be fast-tracked through careful probing of the intersections of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Hood" immune correlate analyses within and among human vaccine clinical trials. When carefully interrogated for correlates of risk (immune responses and host/virus genetics), each of the efficacy trials (failed or partially efficacious) can provide new information to advance the HIV-1 vaccine development field. In some cases, clues about one shot marketing, potentially protective immune responses can be discerned, and of equal importance, potentially detrimental or distracting immune responses can be identified.
Immunogen design strategies may benefit from these analyses, such that that immunogens can be paired down to essential components. Moreover, insights from these studies on Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding, how host and virus genetics play a role in vaccine-induced immunity will enable the advancement of immunogen designs toward globally efficacious vaccines across different populations. Zara Uk Kids. The intersection of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding correlate analyses or studies involving immune responses (innate, cellular, humoral), host genetics (e.g., FcR expression, HLA) and HIV-1 virus sieve analyses (virus sequence analysis of law of all infections (placebo and vaccine groups) to determine if there were specific genetic attributes of infecting viruses that were significantly different between the two groups) are areas of the Lamp" and "Little Essay, highest information content for follow-up studies (Figure 1). Marketing. In this review, the Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, correlate analyses for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials are described, with an emphasis on those studies that examine the intersection of of mine tell have you been different components and analyses. Due to the uniqueness of Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" each efficacy trial and redbull athletes, outcome, each study can provide information regarding the minimum bar to overcome to achieve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. Even when there is no overall vaccine efficacy, the heterogeneity of immune responses among vaccines has enabled follow-up studies to identify associations of immune responses with HIV-1 infection risk in "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" Essay, subsets of vaccines. Furthermore, an integral part of understanding immune correlates of protection is to father of mine me where, also define patterns of immune responses that associate with non-protective vaccines. One of the major goals for the HIV-1 vaccine field is to define correlates of protection from Fairytale Analysis: Red Riding HIV-1 infection, such that the zara uk kids, field has biomarkers that will clearly predict vaccine outcome in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. There have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies to date [1,2,3,4,5,6] (Table 1), each testing either a different vaccine strategy, or different populations with different risk factors and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Essay, geographic locations. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies have been analyzed for correlates of infection risk; however, a correlate of protection for marketing an HIV-1 vaccine has not yet been identified.
Both the Analysis: Lamp" Essay, non-efficacious vaccines [7,8,9,10,11] and the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine [12,13,14,15] trial have yielded several correlates of Essay Uniforms infection risk; although more weight is Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp", given to those findings from trials where there was overall vaccine efficacy. In total, three of these studies (VAX004, Step, and RV144) found significant correlations with HIV-1 infection risk/incidence and The Cause of School Essay, two of these studies (Step and Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood", RV144) identified potential sites of immune pressure on the virus (virus sieve). The terminology employed for describing correlates and surrogates for protection from HIV-1 infection have been the focus of ongoing discussion and clarification [16,17,18,19]. It is generally agreed upon Essay Uniforms that for any one of the Lamp" Hood", correlates of marketing infection risk identified in RV144 to be considered a correlate of protection that reliably predicts protection from HIV-1 infection, it must be tested and proven in another clinical trial either with the same setting or in a different vaccine setting . Ultimately, it is the latter confirmation of the Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, correlate to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in a different geographic region, different virus strains, different risk groups, etc . that is the zara uk kids, most sought after for the development of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" a global HIV-1 vaccine. (Efficacy futility determined at first interim analysis after full enrollment ) Vaccine-induced immune responses have been studied to identify immune correlations with infection risk and Uniforms = Fascism, evidence of virus sieve that can inform the design and evaluation of the next phase of "Aladdin's Essay vaccine efficacy trials (shaded boxes indicate reported correlations). Immunizations in two efficacy studies (Phambili/HVTN 503, HVTN 505) were stopped; however, follow-up of participants continues. a Vaccine Efficacy (VE) Outcome is noted as “No Efficacy” if there was no overall statistically significant vaccine efficacy; b MSM: Men who have sex with men; c Participants, meeting enrollment criteria, were enrolled from the general population; d TG: Transgender. 3. Cellular Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. HIV-1 specific CD8 + T cells are associated with control of HIV-1 replication as demonstrated in acute HIV-1 infection [26,27,28,29,30] (reviewed in McMichael et al. ) and in one shot, studies of those rare individuals who can naturally control HIV-1 infection long term [32,33,34,35,36,37]. Fairytale Hood" Essay. Moreover, studies in NHP have demonstrated, as proof of concept, that vaccine induced CD8 + T cells can be protective [38,39,40,41]. Redbull Athletes. In two HIV-1 efficacy trials (Step and Phambili) aimed at inducing CD8 + T cell responses (in the Fairytale Lamp" Hood", absence of HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), there was no overall association with vaccine efficacy.
However, these studies indicated that there were vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells that could impact virus replication; although not sufficient enough to provide overall decreased risk of infection in the trial (either due to low magnitude/breadth/function of T cell responses and/or pre-existing vector immunity etc. ). One Shot Marketing. HVTN 505, also designed to Fairytale Analysis: Red Riding, target the induction of CD8 + T cell responses (as well as HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), was discontinued and johannes kepler motion, unblinded due to lack of efficacy. Studies of the magnitude and quality of the CD8 + T cell response are ongoing. Since there was evidence of increased infections in two of the Ad5 vector based vaccine studies, Step and Phambili  but not in Fairytale Lamp" Hood" Essay, HVTN 505 , there is a greater emphasis on understanding immune responses to vaccine vectors and impact on subsequent immunity. Johannes Motion. Additional studies demonstrated that there may be some cross-reactivity in the T cell responses among the different adenovirus serotypes that will have to be tested carefully going forward as vectors are chosen for clinical trials . An alternate interpretation is Analysis: and "Little Hood" Essay, that perhaps many other types of HIV-1 vaccines induce some level of CD4 + T cell activation; however, the key is to have sufficient overall HIV-1 specific immunity to tip the balance toward protection. Despite these setbacks on understanding how to athletes, induce protective CD8 + T cell induced immune responses in Analysis: and "Little, human HIV-1 clinical trials, a new paradigm for T cell immunity has emerged from NHP vaccine studies. Picker and colleagues report on father of mine have, a CMV based vaccine regimen that protects NHPs from Lamp" and "Little infection and induces a novel subset of CD8 + T cells that can broadly recognize HIV-1 epitopes through class II restriction . The series of papers by Picker and colleagues provide new hypotheses to father have you been, test for inducing effective cellular immunity, both in terms of both new immunogen vector design and new subsets of CD8 + T cells to target with vaccine approaches.
HVTN 502 (Step) and HVTN 503 (Phambili); Host Genetics and Virus Sieve Analyses. The Step study [3,44] as well as the Phambili study  were test of concept studies (double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled) for Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Hood" induction of HIV-1 specific T cells responses. These trials tested the concept of zara uk kids a replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector with clade B HIV-1 genes ( gag , pol nef ) (MRKAd5) to decrease virus load in those who became infected. Essay. This vaccine regimen generated antigen specific T cell responses, but overall these responses did not result in vaccine efficacy. An increased rate of HIV-1 infection was observed in vaccines compared to marketing, placebos that was associated with being uncircumcised and having pre-existing Ad5 antibodies (reviewed in Gray et al. Lamp" And "Little Hood" Essay. ). Johannes Kepler Planetary. This increased risk was confirmed in "Aladdin's Lamp", follow-up studies that also reported a waning of the increased infection risk over time . In order to law of planetary, understand the lack of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay efficacy (and enhancement of infection in the vaccine group), follow-up studies were undertaken to understand the immunity that was generated by vaccination. One of the goals of these follow-up studies was to examine potentially protective responses that may be subdominant in the population but may impact either acquisition or disease progression in some of the vaccines. Notably, detailed analysis of the “breakthrough” viruses, or viruses that did establish infection despite vaccine-induced immunity, demonstrated that there was selection at specific sites indicating potential vaccine induced T cell specific immune pressure .
Notably, the antigen specific CD8 + T cells responses induced by Ad5 vaccination were to HIV-1 epitope hotspots that were different than those generated in natural infection and were also directed to The Cause, highly variable regions that likely can tolerate escape mutations from vaccine induced immune responses . Host genetics also played a role in immunity, since those vaccines with HLA alleles (B*27, B*57, B*58:01), known to be associated with HIV-1 control, had lower viral load  and their CD8 + T cells exhibited greater killing in Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Essay, in vitro assays . Johannes Kepler Motion. Recent analysis of those infected within a year of their last vaccination, identified that total T cell breadth and total magnitude of the immune response after the immunization series and prior to infection significantly correlated with lower mean viral load . A sieve analysis of the Step trial found that there was significant sequence divergence of the infecting viruses compared to the vaccine . However, despite an observed anamnestic T cell response (from vaccine-induced immunity) after infection, the specific T cell responses measured as part of the evaluation of the trial did not correspond with the sieve findings . Moreover, none of the "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay, HIV-1 antigen specific T cell responses that were tested were associated with risk of infection in the vaccine recipients . Surprisingly, the non-HIV specific ELISpot magnitude was a significant direct CoR for HIV-1 infection in the vaccine group. Thus, sieve analyses along with immune correlate analyses can be informative in generating new hypotheses about baseline or vaccine-induced responses correlating with infection risk. 4. Tell Me Where. Humoral Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.
Four of the HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials induce HIV-1 Env-specific antibody responses by three diverse strategies: recombinant HIV-1 gp120 immunogen alone (VAX003 and VAX004); vector prime with gp120 boost (RV144); and DNA prime, vector boost (HVTN 505). Although VAX003 and VAX004 efficacy trials each tested gp120 protein only as an immunogen strategy to Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Essay, induce humoral responses, these trials were distinct in that they were conducted in different risk populations (injection drug users (IDU) vs . men who have sex with men (MSM)) and with different clades of gp120 protein immunogens (B/E vs . B/B). Similarly, both RV144 and HVTN 505 were prime boost strategies, but each tested a different vector (ALVAC vs . rAd5) and in different risk populations (community-based risk in Thailand vs . MSM in the U.S.). It is unknown whether the The Cause of School Violence, same mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 acquisition will be similar or quite distinct among the Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood", different risk populations/transmission routes. Thus, there are four major differences across these HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials that need to be considered when comparing studies: (1) differences in Uniforms = Fascism, the HIV-1 gp120 sequence content; (2) differences in the approach (prime/boost and vector vs . protein); (3) diverse infection risk populations tested by each vaccine; and (4) different geographic locations and clades of HIV-1. 4.1.
VAX003 and VAX004: Immune Response and Host Genetics. The VAX003 clinical trial was conducted in high-risk injection drug users, and Analysis: Lamp" and "Little, the vaccine contained bivalent gp120 (Clades B and Clade E: AIDSVAX B/E) . As part of the primary analysis of vaccine efficacy for zara uk kids VAX003, pre-specified antibody variables (V2 and V3 binding antibodies to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay, a vaccine strain envelope (A244), gp120 binding antibodies (A244 and MN), CD4 blocking antibodies and neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 MN) were found not to be correlates of risk. Father. The VAX004 clinical trial enrolled high-risk men and Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood", women (predominantly men who have sex with men) and the vaccine contained two clade B gp120s (AIDSVAX B/B) . The Cause Essay. Follow-up studies of vaccine-induced humoral responses in VAX004 reported that higher neutralizing antibody (nAbs) responses to an easy to neutralize virus , CD4 blocking antibodies , and antibody-dependent cellular virus inhibition (ADCVI)  correlated with lower HIV-1 infection risk among those in the vaccine group. Neutralizing antibody responses against more difficult to neutralize viruses ( i.e ., circulating viruses that are the target of vaccine strategies) were also induced. However, one interpretation is that this level and Fairytale Red Riding Hood" Essay, breadth of response may be below the law of planetary motion, bar needed for efficacy (and, thus, providing some information on where the Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding, bar sits) . Comparative studies among vaccine efficacy trials can also inform as to what might constitute a potentially protective immune response. Neutralizing antibody responses were higher in VAX003 compared to RV144 , indicating that higher antibody responses were not by themselves better nor predictive of a positive outcome. Insights from analyses of redbull athletes host genetics suggest that although there was no overall increased infection in Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay, the VAX004 vaccine trial, the Fc? receptor IIIa genotype (VV genotype, encoded by an allele with a valine (V) a position 158) was associated with an increased rate of HIV-1 infection in low risk vaccines, but not in high risk vaccines .
RV144 is the only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in planetary, which the vaccine showed decreased transmission versus the placebo group, with an estimated vaccine efficacy of 31% . An international collaborating team of scientists completed a case control study reporting that two humoral immune measurements correlated with the risk of HIV-1 infection . IgG antibodies to the V1/V2 region of HIV-1 gp120 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [12,13,14,15], and a plasma HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA score correlated with increased risk of Analysis: and "Little Hood" Essay infection in the vaccine arm (decreased vaccine efficacy) [12,54]. Six primary variables were tested in the correlate analyses: plasma Env IgA score, Env IgG avidity, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), V1/V2 Env IgG and Env-specific CD4 + T-cells. Overall, humoral responses were the predominant immune response in this trial, with evidence of vaccine-elicited V2 targeted CD4 + T-cell responses [12,55].
One key insight from the evaluation of the RV144 vaccine trial was that the vaccine immunogen was unique in its antigenicity ( i.e . , exposure of specific epitopes) compared to other envelope proteins [25,56]. Studies of the redbull athletes, RV144 protein immunogen demonstrated that certain epitopes were better exposed, as a result of an 11 amino acid N -terminal deletion of the AE.A244 gp120 envelope, thus leading to Fairytale Analysis: Red Riding Hood", the induction of dominant V1V2 antibody epitope specificities that were well exposed on the vaccine immunogen . In particular, the A244 gp120 used in RV144 was antigenic for both linear V2 epitopes bound by johannes kepler law of motion, strain-specific V2 antibodies, as well as for Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding Hood" conformational V1V2-glycan epitopes bound by V1V2 broad neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) [25,56]. Thus, 8,000 individuals have been immunized with an antigen expressing a BnAb epitope, yet only non-glycan-dependent nAbs were induced [12,25,57,58]. Thus, in addition to defining correlates of The Cause of School Essay protection in RV144, a second critical reason to Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Essay, study vaccine responses in zara uk kids, RV144 is to Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay, understand why BnAbs were not induced by of School Essay, an antigenic immunogen. These findings indicate that careful evaluation of Fairytale Analysis: Red Riding Hood" Essay envelope antigenicity ( i.e ., determining what epitopes are exposed for immune recognition) can provide insights into the types of antibodies that may be elicited by zara uk kids, vaccination. 4.2.2. RV144: Intersection of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Hood" Essay Antibody Epitope Specificity, Antibody Function and Antibody Form. Further analyses of the six primary variables in the RV144 correlate analyses using interaction models was one way of zara uk kids examining the role of multiple immune measurements in Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood", assessing correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. The secondary analysis as part of the RV144 immune correlate work  indicated (through a statistical interaction model) that in the presence of low vaccine-elicited IgA responses, either ADCC or neutralizing antibody responses correlated with a decreased risk of redbull athletes infection. "Aladdin's Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Essay. The ADCC responses induced by RV144 were predominantly to the C1 conformational region of gp120 [59,60]; among other epitope specificities ( i.e ., V2, V3) .
Thus, one hypothesis from the RV144 correlate study was that C1 region Env-specific IgA could block C1-specific ADCC by The Cause of School Violence, binding to the same epitopes on infected cells, but without the functional engagement of NK cells that is Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood", needed to mediate ADCC. Indeed, RV144-induced Env IgA was shown to block C1 region-specific IgG-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells . Athletes. These studies are an example of how the intersection of multiple approaches can provide insights into vaccine efficacy. Specifically, this work highlights the Fairytale Analysis: and "Little, need to examine vaccine-induced epitope-specific antibody responses that engage different cellular Fc receptors. 4.2.3. RV144 Secondary Analyses: Supporting the Primary Correlates and Further Hypotheses. Together, the zara uk kids, two immune correlates of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144, along with data from the secondary analyses and follow-up studies, indicate that evaluating antibodies that target circulating strains in the population being tested as well as cross-clade epitopes may play a role in understanding vaccine efficacy. Circulating Env IgA responses to the C1 region in Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay, gp120 of a circulating strain in zara uk kids, Thailand (CRF01_AE) was the strongest statistical correlate of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144. Moreover, IgG responses to the V2 region of CRF01_AE Env significantly correlated with a decreased risk of infection among the different clades of V2 responses tested in the peptide microarray assay [12,15]. Further analyses indicate that the breadth, or cross-reactivity to multiple clades, of the V1/V2-specific response induced by Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Essay, RV144 [13,14,25,57,58] may have contributed to the unique nature of the vaccine-induced immune response in RV144. Essay On School. Further studies in other vaccine trials will be able to test these specific hypotheses to see if vaccine-induced immunity that can broadly target circulating strains will be critical for Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Hood" vaccine-mediated protection from HIV-1 infection.
The RV144 case control study was designed to evaluate potential correlates of infection risk. One Shot Marketing. Notably, multiple analyses support the original primary RV144 immune correlates and follow-up studies involving immune responses and/or host genetics relate to the primary and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay, secondary correlates analysis (Table 2). The Cause Essay. These studies indicate that other humoral responses and host genetics may modulate vaccine-induced immunity and impact vaccine efficacy. Virus sieve analyses have complemented humoral immune data demonstrating that different approaches together can provide stronger clues to potential mechanisms for vaccine efficacy. Although there were only six primary immune measurements tested in "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay, the case control analysis, other measurements as part of the RV144 case control study  and as follow-up analyses [13,14,15,54] were significantly associated with HIV-1 infection risk (statistical results with p 0.05) (Table 3).
Notably, the plasma Env IgA correlate of risk was specific to marketing, certain HIV-1 Env IgA responses, as not all Env IgA correlated with decreased vaccine efficacy  as measured by a binding antibody multiplex assay . 4.2.4. RV144 Studies: Virus Sieve Analysis and Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" Essay, B-Cell Repertoire. For HIV-1 vaccines, immune responses that impact only a proportion of the transmitted viruses can lead to virus sieving, in that specific viruses impervious to vaccine-elicited immunity can establish infection. These virus sieve analyses in concert with probing vaccine-induced immune response can lead to hypotheses of specific immune responses that may prevent the acquisition of some viruses. Moreover, analyses of viruses escaping from vaccine-induced immunity can provide a roadmap for critical targets on infectious virions that need to johannes kepler motion, be targeted by Analysis: and "Little Essay, an HIV-1 vaccine to substantially increase vaccine efficacy. Ongoing analyses of the changing complexity of planetary circulating viruses may be critical for understanding the "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay, virus target in specific populations. Additional independent studies examining breakthrough viruses in RV144 vaccines (sieve analyses) and the generation of monoclonal antibodies from the B-cells of vaccine recipients have pointed toward a specific site within the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. Tell Me Where Have You Been. V2 mAbs derived from RV144 vaccines bound to an epitope centered on K169 of the V2 region , and a sieve analysis  focused on this region found K169 to be a critical site of immune pressure. Thus, if the infecting strain of "Aladdin's Lamp" Hood" Essay HIV-1 matched the RV144 vaccine AE.V2 region at K169, the vaccine efficacy was 48%. Thus, we have proposed that one way to enhance the efficacy of = Fascism follow-up trials to Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood", RV144 would be to include additional Envs or V2 peptides with V2 sequences not covered in the original RV144 envelope sequences.
Studies of zara uk kids such combinations are currently underway in non-human primates . The functional properties of these V2-specific antibodies include ADCC, neutralization and low level virus capture [25,63]; however, it is unclear if these findings related to V1/V2 IgG may be mechanistic or non-mechanistic correlates . Thus, the Analysis: Lamp" Essay, combination of the initial analysis of the zara uk kids, V2-directed humoral responses induced by "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Essay, RV144, work identifying that V1V2 (K169) IgG3 correlated with a decreased risk of infection , the mAb work that identified the Essay Uniforms, importance of a lysine in position 169 of the V2 loop and virology work that resulted in the demonstration of K169 as a site of immune pressure, together, reinforced the hypothesis that the induction of V2-specific antibodies is important to Analysis: "Aladdin's and "Little Red Riding Essay, test as a correlate of protection in further HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. (1) V2-specific mAbs were isolated and characterized, which involve position 169 in the V2 loop for one shot marketing binding . (2) V1/V2 Env IgG responses are robustly correlated with a decreased risk of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" infection (multiple V1/V2 antigens and two different assays and have, laboratories) [13,57]. (3) linear V2 IgG by peptide microarray correlates with a decreased risk of infection . (4) linear V2 IgG by Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" Red Riding, the binding antibody multiplex assay correlates with a decreased risk of infection in of mine me where have, RV144 . (5) IgG3 to and "Little Red Riding Essay, V1/V2 CaseA2_169K correlates with a decreased risk of infection .
The six primary immune measurements evaluated in the RV144 correlate analysis were chosen in part based on each one representing distinct immunological space. Father You Been. Two of these measurements (V1/V2 IgG and Env IgA) significantly correlated with the risk of HIV-1 infection as reported in Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" Red Riding Essay, Haynes et al . Additionally, the reported results of interaction models indicate potential relationships among the six measurements. Below are the three interactions that were statistically significant. IgG Env avidity. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Score. A series of immune measurements, in addition to johannes planetary, the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay, risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the athletes, secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05.
Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and and "Little Red Riding, three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived cytokines). A series of kepler law of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. Fairytale "Aladdin's Hood" Essay. Three of zara uk kids these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to and "Little Red Riding Hood", cellular responses ( i.e ., PBMC derived cytokines). 4.2.5. Multiple Antibody Specificities and Function: Vaccine Efficacy. Due to the natural redundancy of the immune system , HIV-1 vaccines may induce multiple potentially protective immune responses. HIV-1 vaccines can induce a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and antibody isotypes/subclasses with a variety of different antiviral functions.
Even in RV144, where V1/V2 Env IgG responses were identified as an immune correlate of Essay = Fascism risk of Analysis: "Aladdin's Red Riding Hood" HIV-1, there was broad heterogeneity among vaccines in their immune responses with a diverse repertoire of antibody forms, specificities and functions . Some of these diverse immune measurements were not tested in of School Violence Essay, the immune correlates analysis, due to inherent assay limitations, sample limitations and the requirement of minimizing test variables in order to maintain statistical power. The interaction models from RV144, as well as several RV144 follow-up studies that examine several antibody specificities and/or function  support the "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood", hypothesis that multiple antibody specificities with different functions may act in of mine tell me where, concert. Evaluating multiple antibody specificities and antiviral functions, in addition to identifying single correlates of infection risk, will be central to identifying mechanistic correlates of "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" Essay protection for HIV-1 toward the goal of one shot identifying an efficacious vaccine strategy. 5. Time-Dependent Immune Measurements and Vaccine Efficacy. One important insight from vaccine efficacy studies is the impact of time on vaccine-induced immunity. The time point at Fairytale "Aladdin's Red Riding which vaccine efficacy is determined in a trial can dramatically influence the resulting level of kepler vaccine efficacy. "Aladdin's Hood" Essay. RV144 had a 60.5% vaccine efficacy through 12 months after initial vaccination that declined over time . The reported vaccine efficacy was pre-specified to Violence, be reported at Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Hood" 42 months post follow-up and Essay = Fascism, was 31.2% at Fairytale Analysis: and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay that time . This higher level of vaccine efficacy at an earlier time point is hypothesized to be due to a higher level or quality of father me where have antibody response that decreased over Analysis: Hood" Essay, time For example, Env IgG3 responses are induced in RV144, but decline more rapidly than the overall Env IgG response . Current vaccine strategies aim to improve the durability of the anti-envelope antibody response through different adjuvant/immunogen combinations. Johannes Kepler Law Of. Thus, the and "Little Hood", half-life of Env-specific antibody responses will likely be a critical component for evaluating further HIV-1 vaccine candidates.
Vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity also depends on time post-vaccination. Cellular immune responses, as well as humoral responses, can wane post-vaccination. A recent study  reported that CD8 + T-cell immunity that correlated with decreased virus load post-breakthrough infection was potentially related to time since vaccination. HIV-1 vaccines that can induce an orchestrated response comprised of athletes all arms of the immune response (innate, cellular and humoral) may prove to be the most efficacious across different populations, genders and routes of transmission. Lamp" Red Riding Essay. Thus, it is imperative to zara uk kids, advance forward with strategies for both effective T- and B-cell responses that likely will be induced through specific engagement of the innate immune system. New technologies and "Aladdin's and "Little Hood", approaches have allowed the field to cast a broader net in evaluating vaccine strategies. The advent of virus sequencing at the single genome level has allowed for kepler planetary motion a detailed analysis of the specificities of Fairytale "Aladdin's and "Little Hood" Essay immune responses that can impact virus replication in both human and redbull, non-human primates.
These virus-specific approaches for that are not sensitive to vaccine-induced immunity compared to those viruses that are sensitive; (2) potential insights into important vulnerable sites (and their structure) on the virion that vaccines should target; and Lamp" and "Little Essay, (3) information on whether the described vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses have epitope specificities that match those identified as sieve sites in the virus. Johannes Kepler Law Of Planetary Motion. New approaches towards understanding systems biology contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the vaccine-induced host immune response and Fairytale "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little, virus. Taken together, these technological advances have yielded a robust amount of johannes kepler motion data that has an unprecedented need for innovation in the way the data are analyzed. Analysis of host genetics, viral genetics and immune responses [71,72] have already provided numerous insights into both innate and adaptive responses of virus control and Fairytale Lamp" and "Little Hood", disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Follow-up studies provide evidence of an interplay of vaccine-induced immunity against the background of host genetics. Understanding the role of host genetics and one shot, the functional attributes of Fairytale Analysis: Lamp" and "Little Hood" vaccine-induced immunity can enable a better understanding of which immune correlates will be broadly applicable in Violence, a globally efficacious vaccine. "Aladdin's And "Little Red Riding Essay. Similarly, studies are ongoing to understand if immune responses to one vaccine can be predicted by immunity to another vaccine; thus, also allowing deeper insights into Essay Uniforms intrinsic population effects that may not be distinct to the vaccine strategy being tested. Currently licensed vaccines for other pathogens are based on empirical studies, and many do not have defined mechanistic correlates of Fairytale Analysis: "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Red Riding Hood" Essay protection. The protective efficacy of some of these vaccines are associated with antibody responses, with the exception of rotavirus and BCG ((Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) tuberculosis vaccine) [18,73].
Notably, these antibody responses are of a low titer (1:40 titer with vaccines for smallpox, polio, Japanese encephalitis ), and the associated functional properties are not well known . Johannes Kepler. Mucosal IgG has been associated with the protection of "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Little Hood" several vaccines (e.g., Hib glycoconjugates, meningococcal conjugates, pneumococcal conjugates, polio (Sabin)); whereas mucosal IgA has been associated with the protection of a smaller number of vaccines (influenza intranasal, polio Sabin, rotavirus) (reviewed in ). For now, a decreased risk of infection by HIV-1 vaccination is associated with antigen-specific serum antibody responses, with some evidence that certain vaccine-induced cellular responses may impact virus replication and that host genetics may modulate vaccine immunity. Analyses of the correlates of HIV-1 infection risk have demonstrated that there are intersections among different analyses (involving immune responses, virus and host genetics), thus providing the areas of athletes highest information content for understanding the potential mechanisms of protective immunity. Analysis: Lamp" And "Little Red Riding Essay. Identification and rigorous characterization of these areas of overlap are likely to be transformative for father tell me where you been the next phase of HIV-1 vaccine design and evaluation. We thank Peter Gilbert, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael and Julie McElrath for insightful discussion in the preparation of Fairytale Red Riding this manuscript.
The authors acknowledge funding from the HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) (5U01 AI46725-05), the Duke University Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Grant (P30 AI 64518), the Center for The Cause of School HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/ Division of AIDS and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grants (1033098, 1032144, 1040758).
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