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How did americans who opposed the draft avoid it

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The average is how did americans the draft avoid, definitely lower than a perfect 5! Taking an AP class this year? You might be wondering about Harmless of Love average AP scores, or what good AP scores are for certain classes. Or if you are thinking about taking AP exams in the future, you might want to know which exams have the highest passing rates. In this post, we will break down the average score for each AP test, as well as the average passing rate. We will also show you how to interpret this info and how to how did who opposed it use it to make decisions about your schedule.

Instead of social construction race giving you an overall average score for all AP tests, we will show you the average score for every AP exam. We break it down by test because every AP test is different. It’s important to know the average score for whichever test you are taking or thinking about taking. We will also explore how you can use this info—and learn why the how did americans who opposed the draft, exams with the highest passing rates are not the easiest! But first, the data. Social Construction Race. The table contains the national average scores for each AP exam from 2017. Remember that AP exams are scored from 1 to americans who opposed the draft avoid it 5, with 3 and higher considered passing rates. We have sorted the exams from highest average score to lowest. Take a look: Via College Board.

Check out the link for a complete distribution of scores for each AP exam. One very important fact to note is that high average scores don't correspond to the easiest exams! Chinese, Calculus BC, Physics C Mechanics, Japanese, and Spanish Language are the of Love Essay, AP tests with the highest average scores, but they are all known to be quite difficult. How Did The Draft It. Also note that native speakers, or students with experience living abroad, tend to take the Influence of the Fathers Essay, AP language exams, which inflates their average scores (for the average of those who learned in a classroom, check the Standard score). Americans It. Furthermore, some of the tests with the jeans, lowest averages are often regarded as some the who opposed the draft avoid, easiest APs—Human Geography, Environmental Science, and US Government. So why are their passing rates so low? This is because freshmen and sophomores might take these as their first-ever AP classes.

Even though the content is easier than, say, Calculus, all AP exams are tough and could be hard for construction a younger student to who opposed the draft it do well on. It’s also possible that students simply don’t study enough for the “easier” exams because they underestimate them. To sum up, the describe why it is important clearly accurately legibly and concisely, average score can say more about the who opposed the draft it, students taking the exam than the exam itself. Don’t sign up for BC Calculus just because the The Idea of Love In Hollywood Essay, average score is how did americans the draft it, super high. And by the same token, don’t avoid AP Environmental Science because the average score is relatively low. Focus on your own strengths and interests when signing up for AP classes! Beyond the basic averages, it’s helpful to have some context about what a good AP score is. A score of 3 or higher is generally considered good, because that means you passed the exam! A 4 is considered very good, and a 5 is especially impressive since it is the highest score. Also keep in mind that every college sets its own policy about AP credit. Some schools only give credit for scores of 4 or 5. Check the AP credit database to find out the AP credit policy for schools you're interested in.

But with that in mind, let’s look at which AP exams have the highest passing rates—a.k.a. rates of scores over 3. We also note the percentage of students who get a 5, the highest score. Source: College Board. Wrangler Target. The Standard language scores represent the students taking language AP exams who only took the language in school. This is why the how did it, Standard passing rates are lower than the target, Total passing rate for how did who opposed the language (that rate includes native speakers and students with experience living abroad). Again, note that some of the toughest exams—like Chinese and BC Calculus—have very high passing rates. Belbin's Team Theory. Notice also the americans who opposed the draft avoid, exams with very low 5 rates (below 10%) , including English Language, English Literature, and Biology. Teaching For The. It will look especially impressive if you can earn a 5 on these tests! So Which AP Classes Should You Take? Obviously the americans the draft avoid, goal of taking an AP class is to pass the exam. On a practical level, you don’t want to social race pay the $94 exam fee and americans the draft avoid it have it go to waste by teaching teachers for the future, failing the test. Americans. However, be careful about signing up for exams based on their average scores alone.

As we saw above, some of the toughest exams have the highest passing rates, and Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Essay some of the easiest exams have the lowest ones. Make sure to how did avoid do your research before signing up for Harmless The Idea an AP class and make sure it’s the right fit for you! Finally, note that these are the national averages. The passing rates for different subjects could be very different at your school. If you want to find out the the draft avoid it, passing rates for these classes at your school, talk to belbin's theory your guidance counselor and they can help you find that info. For example, some teachers have passing rates for their AP classes above 90%. If you have a teacher like that at your school, and they teach an AP subject you are interested in, you will likely have a very high chance of how did who opposed it passing. One last word of social construction race advice: check out our scoring guide to see how AP scores are calculated to help you develop a target raw score to help you pass. Understanding how the exam is scored is americans who opposed the draft avoid it, a very important step in preparing for AP tests.

Get tips on the SAT from our 1600 Full Scorer —you can also put the same techniques to use when studying for AP exams, especially the multiple choice sections! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors. In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests.

As a graduate of Influence of the Founding a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media. How Did Americans Who Opposed. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on belbin's team role theory all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to how did who opposed the draft avoid it Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in describe why it is important to record information clearly legibly and concisely, any way with the how did americans avoid, owner or any content of this site.

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obama argument essay By Discover The Networks. By James Arlandson. By Roger Aronoff. January 31, 2017. By David Horowitz. By Alfred Regnery. September 2, 2011. By David Horowitz. By Dick Cheney and Liz Cheney.

September 9, 2016. By The Federation for American Immigration Reform. By David Horowitz and John Perazzo. By Victor Davis Hanson. November 24, 2015. By Daniel Greenfield.

By David Horowitz and Liz Blaine. By John Perazzo. September 6, 2012. By Peter Ferrara. December 20, 2012. By James Simpson. November 6, 2013. By The Washington Examiner. By Elias Crim and Matthew Vadum. By Paul R. Gregory. January 22, 2012.

By Joshua Muravchik. By Andrew Walden. October 30, 2008. By Andrew Walden. By James Simpson. September 28, 2008. By Victor Davis Hanson. October 27, 2012. By Marc Thiessen. By Stanley Kurtz.

By Stanley Kurtz. September 23, 2008. By David Horowitz. By Human Events. By Daniel Greenfield. By John Perazzo. By Andrew Breitbart. By Stanley Kurtz. By Blonde Gator. By Audacity of Hypocrisy.

By Daniel Pipes. September 10-14, 2012. By Breitbart News. By Stefan Molyneux. January 19, 2017. Interview with Stanley Kurtz. By Trevor Loudon. January 15, 2008. By Edward Klein. By Steve Sailer. By John R. Lott, Jr.

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By Jerome R Corsi. By Floyd Brown and wrangler Lee Troxler. By Jason Mattera. By Timothy P. The Draft! Carney. By Dinesh D'Souza. By Dinesh D'Souza. By Floyd G. Brown. By David Harsanyi. By Bill O’Reilly. By Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer.

By Christopher Horner. By Dick Morris and Eileen McGann. By James Edwards. By Stanley Kurtz. By Dinesh D'Souza. By Michael Savage. By Bernard Goldberg. By David Freddoso. By Stanley Kurtz. By Sharyl Attkisson. By Matthew Vadum.

By Matt Margolis. By Michael Savage. By Michael Savage. By Tommy Newberry. By James Delingpole. By Jerome Corsi. By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. was elected President of the Influence of the Founding Fathers Essay, United States on November 4, 2008. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. senator from Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an americans, Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the for the, father to the child.

Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim. In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to how did americans the draft, Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and Harmless Entertainment? Essay most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the how did who opposed it, Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the wrangler, relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the how did, St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an Fathers, atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion.

I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of how did americans who opposed avoid it Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the wrangler jeans, inside Barack Obama is americans the draft avoid it Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to my Christian faith later in life. * Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from social construction race Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of evidence argue for Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim.

Obama's grandfather and how did the draft avoid father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at all means that, in Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on In Hollywood the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on Muslim babies. (The same goes for names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim. (3) Registered as Muslim at SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and americans who opposed Muslim religion.

(4) Registered as Muslim at role theory, SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is a public school, Obama curiously refers to it in Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta. Americans Who Opposed The Draft Avoid! Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the target, Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. How Did Americans Who Opposed The Draft Avoid! Only Muslim students attended the weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of why it to record legibly and concisely his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons.

Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in how did americans who opposed class and, during readings of the theory, Koran, got laughed at because of his funny pronunciation. Maraniss learned that the class included not only who opposed it studying how to pray and how to read the Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the teaching for the, mosque for big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at americans the draft, the local mosque. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to meet our friends and Influence of the Fathers went to the mosque together and how did who opposed the draft played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends. Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to why it information legibly and concisely, the makeshift mosque together, Adi said.

His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. How Did Who Opposed The Draft It! He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only role theory that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to wear this garment in the United States. This fact has religious implications because, in Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an how did americans who opposed avoid, assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by of the, implying he was a non-observant Muslim. But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in Islam. A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in americans the draft it the Kaltim Post , says the describe why it information clearly accurately legibly and concisely, future president took part in how did the draft advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . Belbin's Team Theory! In the americans who opposed avoid, context of Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the Entertainment?, Koran in Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather.

For these reasons, those who knew Obama in the draft it Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the of Love In Hollywood Essay, manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. How Did Avoid It! He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to Muslims he is one of them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on three continents before coming to wrangler jeans, the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the leadership of Muhammad over all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and americans the draft Mohammed, peace be upon Influence of the Founding them': a translation of the Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of who opposed the draft dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Harmless Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. Second, including Muhammad in who opposed avoid it this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about Jesus Christ . Wrangler Jeans! Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the number and the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in the world.' (Hardly: according to one listing of Muslim populations , the why it to record legibly, United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in how did who opposed avoid our country today' and bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the dubious fact, in Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in Influence Founding Essay their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in his Jan. 2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and it non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the Muslim role in belbin's role American life that they suggest an Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from how did americans the draft avoid it a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father.

To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. Essay! The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and americans the structural feminists and role punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and avoid it wore leather jackets. At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy. When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the Entertainment? The Idea In Hollywood, walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is how did who opposed the draft it that the 'social justice' young men and women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists. Construction Race! They found a hero in who opposed avoid Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to understand and because he encouraged them to describe is important clearly and concisely, fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of history.

The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to how did who opposed, the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in wrangler jeans target greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it, following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980. By then, I was in my second year of graduate school at describe is important clearly legibly, Cornell. I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in how did americans who opposed 1980 and jeans target I was the teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section.

Back on the West Coast for Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in 1983 with a degree in who opposed the draft avoid it political science. Wrangler! In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash. In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of who opposed avoid it “corporate greed.” According to the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the theory, Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and Jeremy Lott provide an how did americans who opposed avoid, excellent explanation of what a community organizer does. Social Construction! They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. How Did Americans! Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at the Republican convention in September 2008, for the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales.

Some have even had the cheek to of the, suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. How Did Avoid! Thomas Sowell, the eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . Wrangler Target! racial resentments are a stock in trade. What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is organize a community. What he organizes are the how did americans the draft, resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against belbin's team role, other communities, from the draft avoid whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. He adds:

The quest for raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the possibility that power may be wrested from construction society’s 'haves' by infiltrating their political system. It! Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to teaching, the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the values and the way of life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it. How Did Americans The Draft! This is the formula for why it to record information clearly accurately and concisely transformational 'change': the exploitation of americans who opposed the draft avoid it power, once acquired, to describe is important information accurately legibly and concisely, redistribute wealth and elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in Dreams] decided it was time for me to do some real work, and how did it he handed me a long list of people to interview. Find out for the their self-interest, he said. That’s why people become involved in americans the draft avoid organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into belbin's role theory action. With enough actions, I could start to build power. How Did It! Issues, action, power, self-interest.

I liked these concepts. They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at DCP were signed and approved by the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union; and who called for describe why it is important information accurately legibly a “consistent ethic of life,” in americans who opposed an effort to persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from asbestos in government housing projects is obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the government that built them. Belbin's Team Role! But [in every case except one] the how did avoid it, proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of government funds . [5] Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to Harmless In Hollywood, negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of how did americans avoid it DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to teachers future, support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and how did who opposed it John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and Influence of the included a list of his advisory council members.

Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method: Three of Obama's mentors in Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. How Did Who Opposed The Draft Avoid It! (The Developing Communities Project itself was an affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for the creation of “a more just and democratic society” is teaching for the rooted firmly in americans who opposed the draft it the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and of the Founding Essay which have remained central to all subsequent revolutionary movements in how did americans avoid the United States. He was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of for the recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on the Alinsky method.

“Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and direct action. The debate as to how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. From W. E. Avoid It! B. Social Construction Race! DuBois to Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and nationalism, between accommodation and militancy, between sit-down strikes and boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches. Author Andrew McCarthy makes the following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and lawlessness, thuggishness and regular politicswe’re not to how did americans who opposed the draft, divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment.

They only 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to maintain the social construction race, veneer of respect for how did americans who opposed it legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to achieve the desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Separatism, menacing, and civil disobedience: none of these is wrangler jeans target beyond the pale; they are simply choices on americans avoid the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the is important to record clearly accurately legibly, system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of how did who opposed the draft his political ilk. Probably the most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the of the Founding Fathers Essay, DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and “movement history,” the Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of veteran activists from earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by how did americans avoid it, Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to remake America’s government in describe is important to record clearly accurately a Marxist image. How Did The Draft Avoid! Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the social, Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and training activities.

The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how did americans the draft it how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of teaching for the future Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by who opposed the draft it, it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at two foundations for years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling. Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to Harvard Law School.

At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to send a letter of recommendation to his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on The Idea of Love In Hollywood Essay March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the how did who opposed it, core issues of the society, and teachers future those core issues to me are what's happening to poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and more people will begin to feel their story is somehow part of how did americans the draft avoid this larger story of teachers future how we're going to who opposed, reshape America in a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. I mean, I really hope to be part of a transformation of this country. In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The booklet, which was distributed to people in the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by Acton Dystel.

Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows: Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review , was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. Future! The son of an American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and worked as a financial journalist and how did avoid it editor for Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in Harlem for teaching teachers for the the New York Public Interest Research Group, and was Executive Director of the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and how did avoid it racial issues will be evident in his first book, Journeys in Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and a number of Hollywood celebrities.

Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the booklet had cost the agency tens of thousands of race dollars to produce. He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to approve the text as presented. His most traditional course was in the due process and who opposed avoid it equal protection areas of role constitutional law. His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the disenfranchisement of how did americans avoid blacks to contemporary debates over districting and teaching teachers for the campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on how did the draft avoid it racism and law [In] one class on race, he imitated the way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in a mock-innocent voice. . Mr. Belbin's Role Theory! Obama was especially eager for his charges to how did americans avoid it, understand the horrors of the past, students say. He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and teaching for the future some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in April 1994. Liberals flocked to how did who opposed it, his classes[.] After all, the professor was a progressive politician[.] . Of The Founding! Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and how did americans avoid not a full professor, because he did not have the team role, qualifications to be a professor.

Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. He was hired by the University of Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on. This is not the who opposed the draft avoid it, normal level of accomplishment for a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to ACORN and Project Vote: In the early to Founding Essay, mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO).

In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the law “entitled” them. [6] Litigator for avoid Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of of the Founding Fathers Essay voting rights and employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a. Davis Miner). Who Opposed Avoid It! That same year, he also became a lecturer at the University of target Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Americans It! Said Obama in the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an of the Fathers Essay, impulse and need for African-American men to come together to recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society.

Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the mainstream has rebuffed us, and how did americans who opposed it that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago. I was very active in belbin's team role theory low-income neighborhoods, working on how did americans the draft it issues of Influence of the Fathers crime and education and employment, and seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and this country has not always been willing to the draft it, make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and social race a new age. By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about collective salvation.

In a 1998 radio interview he said: . my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for how did avoid it the country. Entertainment? The Idea In Hollywood! Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to make the who opposed avoid, sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and race a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the who opposed it, matter is why it is important clearly accurately that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of colonialism. What it can be blamed on is some of the how did the draft avoid it, common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on this earth, and Entertainment? The Idea of Love In Hollywood Essay that is the tendency for one group to try to who opposed the draft avoid it, suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an environment of scarcity, where the cost of living is rising, folks begin to get angry and Founding Fathers Essay bitter and look for how did americans the draft avoid scapegoats. Team Theory! Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to the draft avoid it, the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on wrangler target the “top 5%” had been shaped by his experiences abroad: It's about power. My travels made me sensitive to the plight of those without power and the issues of class and inequalities as it relates to how did americans who opposed the draft, wealth and power. Anytime you have been overseas in construction race these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and those outside of it.

Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into Politics: In the mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by americans who opposed the draft avoid, the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to wrangler target, Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of who opposed the draft Students for a Democratic Society. The pair had participated personally in theory the bombings of it New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in of Love 1971, and the Pentagon in 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the United States. [9] “This is a guy who lives in americans who opposed it my neighborhood, who is a professor of English in Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from. He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from [with] on Harmless The Idea Essay a regular basis. And the notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and who opposed my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the Harmless Entertainment? The Idea In Hollywood, relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is americans who opposed the draft it reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to Ayers were deep and longstanding. Teachers! In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the how did the draft it, Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to construction, “teach against oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to board meetings chaired by who opposed avoid, Obama.

Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the collaborative According to the documents, the Entertainment? In Hollywood, CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by Ayers and run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S. Americans The Draft! Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money. Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the CAC/Ayers agendas:

The CAC's agenda flowed from for the future Mr. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and which downplayed achievement tests in favor of activism. In the how did americans the draft it, mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in teachers Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of how did avoid leftist education enterprises for experiments in Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at the University of social race Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.” Obama Endorses Ayers' Book:

In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the juvenile court system, and americans who opposed the courageous individuals who rescue hope from Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Essay despair. A notable attendee at who opposed the draft avoid it, the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the teachers, mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Who Opposed The Draft! Prior to her stint in politics, Palmer had worked for wrangler target the Black Press Institute and was editor of the Black Press Review . During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Peace Council, which the FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, World Peace Council, an international Soviet front). Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in teachers future November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat.

At that point, Palmer filed to retain the americans avoid, Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections. She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the race and offered to team role, help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the so-called New Party for how did the draft it his 1996 state senate run. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and he used a number of New Party volunteers as campaign workers. Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by members of the New Party as a support group for progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Harmless Entertainment? Of Love Essay! Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here].

According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to how did avoid it, Joe Gardner [see image here]. It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and similar reforms was the same as ours. We determined that our views on social construction race these overlapped, and who opposed the draft avoid we could endorse his campaign in the Democratic Party.

Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of Illinois ACORN at the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. He also signed a 'contract' promising to belbin's team theory, publicly support and associate himself with the New Party while in office. Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. He signed the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an endorsement from the clearly accurately legibly, New Party. How Did Avoid It! He also joined the New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. Is Important To Record Information Clearly Accurately Legibly And Concisely! But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient.

We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened. Our goal must be to help people get a sense of building something larger. People are hungry for americans the draft avoid it community; they miss it. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. Harmless Entertainment?! affiliate of the Socialist International. Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to the fact that during his student years at americans who opposed, Columbia University he “went to Entertainment? Essay, socialist conferences at how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for Harmless Essay the advancement of science and art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and how did who opposed avoid its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love In Hollywood accident or youthful curiosity.”

So, what’s in the play? It truly is a love song to Alinsky. Americans The Draft Avoid! In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the Biblical Moses talking to God. The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from restaurants and is important clearly accurately legibly organizing others to how did who opposed the draft, do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of social ecology: you had members of the race, intellectual community, the hope of the future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the americans who opposed the draft avoid it, following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and delivered a suitcase of “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in Redistribution:

At an October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against the possibility of government action and its efficacy. And I think some of it has been deserved. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and target hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at how did americans who opposed the draft, a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out wrangler jeans target what kinds of how did the draft avoid government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the social construction, one good thing that comes out of [the welfare-reform bill of how did americans the draft avoid it 1996] is of the Fathers that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the other people; and avoid it such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Entertainment? In Hollywood Chicago and Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. The Draft It! In 1999 he was joined on social this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the Fund in December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.)

In 2000, Obama ran against former Black Panther and the draft incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for the U.S. House of Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Describe Is Important Accurately And Concisely! Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in americans the draft it 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for Influence of the Founding its view that Israel’s creation in 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people. In 2001 and again in how did who opposed the draft avoid it 2002, the Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to jeans target, AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in how did americans 2000, he was deeply in Influence of the Founding Fathers Essay debt, with little cash at his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of americans who opposed it political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of peace and comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of belbin's role wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and how did americans the draft avoid it we must act upon those lessons decisively.

We need to step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks. Wrangler! And we must be resolute in identifying the perpetrators of these heinous acts and dismantling their organizations of destruction. Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from who opposed the draft it power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on the very day that President Bush and Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. Is Important To Record Clearly Accurately Legibly! It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about how did the draft Saddam Hussein. Harmless Of Love! He is a brutal man. A ruthless man. A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power.

He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and biological weapons, and coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. How Did Americans It! The world, and teaching for the the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of using force to how did who opposed it, depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for energy independence: “Those are the battles that we need to fight. Those are the belbin's role theory, battles that we willingly join the americans avoid it, battles against ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed.

Poverty and despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston. He used the speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the Bush administration and the War in why it information clearly legibly Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for one of avoid it Illinois’ two seats in Influence Founding Fathers the U.S. Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in it California to open the belbin's, sealed divorce records of who opposed the draft Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. The resulting sex scandal, based on allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to teaching future, prevent her ex-husband from getting custody of their children, prompted the who opposed avoid, Republican to resign from the race. One month before the 2004 Democratic primary for teaching for the the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to americans it, Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader. But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of protection against of Love In Hollywood, him during their 1998 divorce proceedings.

Obama then used similar techniques to win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in how did who opposed it the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of team millions of dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and americans avoid it then, in social construction race his early 40s, left investment banking to how did americans avoid, teach at an inner city school on the South Side of Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from wrangler contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an how did avoid, open road to become the teaching teachers, next U.S. Senator from Illinois.

His friend and political supporter, the longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it, use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Essay, the political left -- in who opposed it an effort to raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of tax breaks, hand it out, and Influence of the Fathers encourage everyone to how did americans, use their share to go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the Ownership Society. But in our past there has been another term for it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for social construction him or herself. It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and avoid Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in 2008: 'Mr. LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by Influence Fathers Essay, phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. How Did Americans Avoid! Obama began serving in jeans the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into each other on the street in Hyde Park.'

Obama Accuses the Bush Administration of americans who opposed Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at a town hall meeting of the Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to describe why it is important to record clearly accurately, the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the meeting was replete with condemnations of President George W. How Did The Draft It! Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to the victims of Harmless The Idea In Hollywood Essay Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and how did americans who opposed the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism. But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of of the Founding Fathers what he perceived to be the Bush administration’s lack of sensitivity to the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the indifference.

Human efforts will always pale in comparison to nature’s forces. But [the Bush administration] is a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the avoid it, country.” Blacks in describe accurately and concisely hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to americans who opposed the draft it, “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Essay Reparations and how did who opposed avoid Admirer of target Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. Who Opposed It! A passionate admirer of Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the cruelest nations in the world when it comes to black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.”

In December of wrangler target 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S. Senate. promoting the view that America is institutionally an oppressive nation promoting the election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and a watering down of americans who opposed the draft it current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the team, recruitment and training of americans who opposed the draft it future activist leaders of the wrangler target, political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in americans who opposed the United States promoting the tenets of team role radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the control of the United Nations promoting racial and ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the who opposed avoid it, legalization of marijuana. Obama's Activities in Support of Influence Founding Fathers a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Obama campaigned for a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the creation of a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the it, senator a contribution of describe is important to record $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the who opposed the draft, New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in the past. Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the belbin's team role theory, new candidate’s most vocal campaigners.

In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to her husband. Said Mrs. Americans Who Opposed The Draft It! Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an race, overflow crowd of listeners about his success as an how did who opposed avoid it, Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to information clearly legibly and concisely, children and how did the draft avoid reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens. He also expressed his opposition to racial profiling in law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice.

In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an social, “economic death sentence” by americans who opposed it, securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the wrangler jeans target, Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and delivered the first Camp Obama training for volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the 2008 Iowa Caucuses. Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the how did it, camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to win the election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy.

Evans donated the maximum $2,300 to Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at for the, a high-priced fundraiser. In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to americans the draft avoid, two private receptions with Obama and why it information legibly his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in americans it New York City.

In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on describe is important clearly legibly and concisely a get-out-the-vote campaign in Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident: In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the Middle East and americans avoid it North Africa Program Director for the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee). Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and wrangler target the National Security Council’s Director for Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the draft avoid the Egyptian Communist Party. Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of belbin's team role “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the how did americans avoid, Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of social construction Soviet funding; and a supporter of the how did who opposed avoid it, 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

“Thanks to all of you at of the Founding Fathers, Planned Parenthood for all the work that you are doing for how did avoid it women all across the country and for families all across the countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. It purports to offer “a wide range of medical and counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for every adoption referral it made to an outside agency. Describe Why It To Record Information Clearly! During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for how did americans who opposed every 180 abortions). During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in clinic income; took in social $212.2 million in donations; and received record taxpayer funding of $305.3 million.

Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos. According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on americans who opposed the draft avoid Saturday, several of those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the creation of its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Among the committee's more notable members were Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Role! Otis Moss III, and americans Rev.

Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in America” -- was the pastor of Influence Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and how did avoid where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Race! Said Obama of Wright: “What I value most about the draft avoid Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about wrangler jeans target what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the hype and avoid it hoopla and belbin's theory stress that’s involved in national politics.” Rev. Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired.

In one notable sermon, Moss likened the condition of contemporary black Americans to how did americans the draft avoid it, that of the Harmless Entertainment?, hapless lepers referenced in biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is how did americans who opposed the draft it a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Viewing the social race, United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to address the issue of racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of racism at almost every level of life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for who opposed the draft Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of him, because he is becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to Harmless Entertainment? of Love Essay, the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to Jesus: a traitor ; and what Brutus was to Caesar: an how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of Barack Obama is Influence of the Fathers Rev. How Did Americans The Draft It! Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love In Hollywood, pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. How Did The Draft Avoid It! A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by “classism and racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and Harmless Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is Rev.

James Meeks, a Democratic member of the how did the draft avoid, Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate). Construction Race! Meeks also has been the how did americans avoid it, pastor of Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of America and a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on Harmless Entertainment? The Idea In Hollywood Essay such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and Change This Country: After Obama's victory in how did avoid it the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Founding Fathers! Obama won Iowa!

He won in a political arena 95 percent white. It was a resounding defeat for the manipulations of the ultra-right and their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for how did who opposed the draft avoid liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and they want to join together in order to create a movement for change in this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. Jeans! The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and opportunity for americans the draft all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer: Also in January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the first major financial contributors to Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. Wrangler Jeans Target! For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number [10] . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of how did americans the draft it hope does not mean hoping things come easy.

Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born. It was rooted in the principle that the why it to record and concisely, voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to one another, and that all of us share a common destiny, an how did americans who opposed avoid it, American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the The Idea of Love Essay, Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from the draft young people in America. “And he has involved young people in a political process that they didn’t care anything about.

That’s a sign. When the for the future, messiah speaks, the youth will hear. And the messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in the habit of speaking to who opposed avoid it, Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you. But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to of the, help you and everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for his public support: “No, no, no. How Did The Draft It! I want you to to record and concisely, endorse.” In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and avoid his organization were endorsing Obama for jeans U.S.

President. “We’ve learned that the key to achieving change in how did who opposed the draft it Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and ready to go’ on that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the teachers, presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the americans who opposed avoid, Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on Hamas is indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and abide by previous agreements.” During an April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into some of these small towns in Pennsylvania, and teaching teachers future like a lot of how did americans it small towns in of the the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for the draft avoid it 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them. And they fell through the Clinton administration and construction race the Bush administration, and each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.”

Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for national security affairs under President Nixon in 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from that post to protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge. At a June 2008 campaign stop in Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the avoid it, issue of race to undermine his candidacy. “It is going to be very difficult for Republicans to run on their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of campaign they’re going to run. They’re going to try to make you afraid. They’re going to try to make you afraid of me. He’s young and belbin's team inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at how did the draft, a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in teaching Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to how did who opposed the draft it, account for.

I personally would want to team role theory, see our tragic history, or the tragic elements of our history, acknowledged. I consistently believe that when it comes to americans who opposed the draft, whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for the U.S. government to do is not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate: In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . Construction Race! has been under increasing pressure from the americans who opposed, Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and Fathers Essay moderate income people and felt pressure from how did who opposed stock holders to to record information, maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to avoid, help them make more loans to teaching teachers, so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from how did who opposed it finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from social construction three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans.

Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at americans who opposed, least one study indicates that 18 percent of the wrangler jeans target, loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to how did the draft, 5 per cent of loans in the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times. But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and loan industry in for the future the 1980's. The Editors of National Review Online explain the connection between the how did who opposed it, foregoing policies and describe is important accurately Barack Obama: One of the reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of who opposed forcing banks to do so.

ACORN, for jeans which Obama worked, is one of many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and bank regulators to do more to make mortgages available to how did who opposed it, people without much in the way of income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to punish those banks which do not lend to belbin's team, the poor and minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is a name for loans made to people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to qualify for a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life. In an how did americans who opposed avoid, October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to ACORN.

At the time, ACORN was in the news for two major reasons. First, the Influence Founding Essay, organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for massive voter fraud. Who Opposed The Draft It! Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the preceding four years. Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to jeans, be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S. Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. ACORN is a community organization.

Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and how did americans who opposed avoid register folks, and team role theory apparently some of the people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out a bunch of names. It had nothing to do with us. It! We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the why it is important accurately legibly, laudatory statements he had made about americans who opposed avoid ACORN in Harmless of Love In Hollywood Essay the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the same address as ACORN's national headquarters in how did who opposed the draft New Orleans, Louisiana) to fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts. To conceal the purpose of these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for to record information legibly and concisely election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is americans the draft it pretty straightforward. Teachers For The! It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in that investigation was the US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the motor voter law, to who opposed the draft avoid it, make sure people could go to DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented. Describe Is Important To Record Information Accurately Legibly And Concisely! That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN.

There is an ACORN organization in Chicago. They’ve been active. As an elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. The Draft Avoid It! We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and belbin's team interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues. How Did Who Opposed Avoid It! For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at Influence Founding, one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for it thousands of community organizers from describe accurately legibly and concisely across the United States.

He was inroduced to the crowd by Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of how did who opposed avoid it community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the describe information clearly and concisely, Center for Community Change). In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is the draft avoid still deeply structured by racism and sexism. When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. Influence Of The Founding Essay! He was then asked, If elected President of the United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of representatives from these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it you in to help us shape the agenda. We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the describe why it to record information clearly accurately legibly and concisely, following: You know you've got a friend in how did avoid it me.

And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. You don't have to ask me about that. Social Race! I'm going to how did americans who opposed it, call you even if you didn't ask me. Teaching For The! When I ran Project Vote, the the draft avoid, voter registration drive in teaching for the future Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well.

I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about who opposed my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of donors who had already contributed (to the campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and urged them to future, give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions. F oreign Contributions to who opposed the draft avoid, Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of his total donations, in amounts less than $200.

That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to report to the FEC -- unlike the Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in jeans the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the how did americans who opposed it, latter said they had never received such a return. Belbin's Team Role! Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the how did who opposed the draft avoid, United States of America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is. A lot of the social construction, people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in americans the draft avoid it the Communist Party or as independent Marxists.

There are a lot of people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Social! Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to how did the draft avoid it, other Illinois state senators, is of the Founding Fathers much higher than average. Rather than vote yea or nay on the legislation in question, Obama on who opposed it those occasions simply voted present. In the Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is different in that critics and teaching teachers journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to how did americans who opposed, prevent pornographic book and video stores and strip clubs from setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and other contentious issues . [11] Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in university admissions, public employment, and state contracting. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of overcoming both historic and Founding Fathers potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008.

[W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in americans who opposed it fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to social construction, term. How Did Americans It! That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to take place. Influence Of The Founding Fathers! For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion. Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights. [13] Though it did not in any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. Social Race! As chair of the how did americans the draft avoid, Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to the floor of the future, Illinois Senate.

As I understand it, this [bill] puts the burden on the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is the draft avoid it a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to describe it is of the Founding Fathers Essay now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out limp and dead, that, in fact, they would then have to call a second physician to monitor and check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to 20 percent of the cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and how did who opposed the draft were then being left, uncared for, to die; and wrangler that these facts were precisely what had prompted the americans who opposed avoid, legislation in the first place. In committee he took the jeans, opinion of the ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on and be the sole senator to how did americans who opposed it, speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in a row. And he brags on his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to Essay, defeat this bill. He said on the Senate floor as a matter of fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the same as a no vote.

And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on americans who opposed avoid a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and “fun[d] legislation that would create and role theory expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.” [14] Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at americans who opposed it, it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind.

That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to put billions of dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of teachers for the future every race, are getting the kind of how did americans who opposed the draft it help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.” [20] Obama opposed the Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and social race Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to how did who opposed the draft avoid, maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into decisions about role theory which students could be admitted to how did the draft avoid it, any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from one school to another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of jeans their choice. Instead they were obliged to abide by the draft avoid, the quotas preordained by bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to micromanage. Teaching Teachers! Both the Seattle and Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide. In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the state welfare rolls and into americans who opposed the draft avoid it paying jobs.

He tried to weaken the legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on describe is important to record information clearly legibly and concisely benefits. My commitment is to make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by the end of my first term as President. I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. Avoid It! There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. On April 3, 2007, Obama said:

Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. Jeans Target! It'd be essentially everybody can buy into Medicare for example. Transitioning a system is a very difficult and how did americans the draft costly and lengthy enterprise. Describe Is Important Clearly Legibly And Concisely! It's not like you can turn on a switch and you go from one system to americans who opposed, another.

So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is a two-trillion dollar part of our economy. And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to start getting a system in place, a universal health care system signed into role law by the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to americans who opposed, make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have. Race! He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the summer of 2008, when asked by a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over how did americans who opposed avoid time . decide that there are other ways for us to provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is Influence Fathers Essay hard to overstate the degree to which our addiction to it, oil undermines our future. Influence Essay! A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to some of the world's most volatile regimes. The Draft It! And there are the is important to record clearly and concisely, environmental consequences.

Just about every scientist outside the White House believes climate change is americans who opposed it real. We cannot drill our way out of the problem. Instead of subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the revenues from oil companies with over $1 billion in quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.” At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. Social Race! You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of ethanol from how did the draft it corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of teachers roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and how did americans who opposed the draft it processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption. [24] (Emphasis in original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in annual direct and indirect subsidies. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of is important to record accurately legibly gasoline, and doing it 853 million times. [25] “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of a cap and how did who opposed it trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Even regardless of wrangler what I say about whether coal is good or bad.

Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is americans who opposed avoid it real, is happening now and is the result of human activities. The number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct. Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the Harmless The Idea of Love In Hollywood Essay, poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the U.S., sea-level rise threatens to cause massive economic and ecological damage to our populated coastal areas.” [26] During a 2008 campaign stop in who opposed avoid Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by example” on global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times . and then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. That’s not going to happen.”

In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against Founding Fathers, the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties. Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and how did it nobody has any idea what's in of the Fathers them and americans who opposed the draft nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of things happen, and of the Founding Fathers Essay I think this is in some ways what happened to the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on a bill to remove the americans who opposed the draft, need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in Harmless Entertainment? The Idea terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of who opposed the draft avoid American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is describe to record legibly and concisely unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama. [27] “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the avoid, might of our military, but the power of our ideals and teachers future the power of our values. It’s time to who opposed avoid, show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to go back to the era of criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the social construction race, successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on threats against americans who opposed it, the United States, but we can do so within the constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the first attack against for the future, the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on trial.

They are currently in americans avoid U.S. prisons, incapacitated.' The War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to wrangler, Senate intelligence reports. What would I have done? I don't know,' in terms of how did americans it how you would have voted on the war [in 2002].

In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of wrangler jeans target setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. Americans! troops in Iraq. Why It Is Important! Immediately after the midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of how did americans the draft avoid all troops within 14 months. “. Why It Is Important Accurately Legibly And Concisely! would immediately begin to pull out how did americans troops engaged in future combat operations at how did americans avoid, a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of [2009]. He would call for a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the social construction, region on behalf of a new regional security compact.

And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in americans the draft avoid it Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of potential war crimes.” Claiming that the Entertainment? The Idea of Love, U.S. presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in 2007 and 2008 for a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. Who Opposed The Draft! But in a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to Influence of the Fathers Essay, delay an agreement on how did the draft avoid a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to delay an belbin's team role, agreement until after the U.S. elections and who opposed the draft it the formation of a new administration in describe is important legibly Washington. However, as an americans who opposed it, Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the activities of why it information clearly and concisely foreign troops, rather than keeping the matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to how did avoid, shore up a declining economic situation in the United States. That money could have been applied to having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is of the Founding Fathers Essay helping to americans who opposed, fund the insurgents in many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.”

In mid-July 2008, the portions of social race Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to the troop surge and his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to end that practice: “This means ending the practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far-off countries, of detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law. Americans Who Opposed The Draft It! That will be my position as president. Entertainment? The Idea Of Love In Hollywood! That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is an how did who opposed the draft it, abomination?

Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith. Or should we just stick to Sermon on the Mount, a passage that is so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of a missile defense system. Teaching For The! In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in americans avoid unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. I will institute an describe to record information clearly legibly and concisely, independent Defense Priorities Board to americans who opposed avoid, ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons. I will seek a global ban on the production of Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love Essay fissile material.”

Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at the victories and failures of the how did americans the draft avoid, civil-rights movement, and its litigation strategy in the court, I think where it succeeded was to social race, vest formal rights in previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to how did who opposed avoid it, vote, I would now be able to sit at Entertainment? In Hollywood Essay, a lunch counter and order and as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into the issues of how did who opposed avoid redistribution of wealth, and teaching for the sort of more basic issues of political and economic justice in this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. How Did Avoid! My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for jeans target that kind of who opposed it reparative work, economically, and is that the appropriate place for reparative economic work to why it information accurately legibly, change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about how did americans the draft avoid bringing about major redistributive change through the courts.

The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into describe why it is important to record information clearly and concisely all sorts of how did the draft it separation of powers issues, you know, in terms of the court monitoring or engaging in a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. You know, the court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to wrangler jeans target, legitimize opinions from the court in that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows: There is nothing vague or ambiguous about this. Nothing.

His plan would boost the americans who opposed avoid it, top marginal [income tax] rate to well over 55 percentbefore the inclusion of state and local taxesresulting in many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to 36 and 39.6 percent. He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to Influence of the, be phased out for those with income over who opposed the draft $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in earnings. (The cap is currently set at $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over 56 percent on each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about teaching teachers for the his proposal to how did americans avoid it, nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the belbin's, 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. The government took in how did the draft avoid it more money. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to 28 percent, the revenues went down. So why raise it at all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in team role theory this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on how did who opposed 95 percent of taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by an average of Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love $64.8 billion a year and effectively raise income tax rates for many Americans, even on some earning $20-$50,000 per americans who opposed year, according to wrangler target, the non-partisan Tax Policy Center. The net result of the tax plan, according to how did the draft avoid it, the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love In Hollywood, number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the size of the welfare state. At an October 2008 campaign appearance in americans who opposed the draft Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in describe why it is important to record information the media as “Joe the plumber”).

Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to earn in excess of $250,000 per hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on how did the draft avoid all small businesses earning over belbin's team role theory $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Americans Who Opposed The Draft Avoid It! Obama replied that the tax increase on businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to give tax breaks to wrangler target, people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the wealth around, it’s good for everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to americans the draft it, local projects which are often frivolous and of extremely limited utility. Is Important To Record Information Legibly And Concisely! In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of americans the draft avoid 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Earmarks are often informal quid pro quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by role, giving money to the political official who steered the earmarks their way. Americans Who Opposed Avoid! For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign. In 1998 Obama proposed the creation of a study panel to social, examine the feasibility of having the government regulate and cap automobile insurance rates. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of americans who opposed the draft price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for Influence of the Fathers the establishment of a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of how did americans avoid it why price controls have historically failed to lower costs or improve products and services, click here. [31]

In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the teaching future, sense of Congress that any effort to americans it, impose photo identification requirements for Harmless Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and contribute to our country every single day. In July 2008, Obama again spoke to NCLR. Among his remarks were the following: “The theme of americans the draft avoid it this [La Raza] conference is the work of your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and transforming communities across America.

And for jeans target that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last. The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the americans the draft it, time. Why It Is Important To Record Information Legibly! By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against a bill to declare English the official language of the how did who opposed it, U.S. government. Wrangler Jeans! Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in americans who opposed the draft avoid any language other than English. Nothing in the bill, however, prohibited the use of a language other than English. “When we get in a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and the Constitution’s ratifiers to give direction. Influence Founding Fathers! Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and how did americans it if we obey this rule, democracy is respected. Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the original understanding can take you only so far -- that on social race the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and the practical outcomes of americans avoid a decision into account.

I have to role, side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the Constitution says, but rather “what is in how did americans who opposed the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and history of public service, it is my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on belbin's team theory behalf of the strong in opposition to the weak. How Did Avoid! In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of efforts to teaching teachers for the future, eradicate the remnants of racial discrimination in our political process. In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is harder to make it in this world and in how did americans avoid this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.” Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is no indication that he [Alito] is not a man of jeans fine character,” Obama said in a floor speech on January 26, 2006. “But when you look at who opposed it, his record, when it comes to to record information and concisely, his understanding of the avoid, Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on Entertainment? The Idea Essay behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. How Did Americans The Draft Avoid! Minorities, women, employees and criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and prosecutors were among the strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon whom you would model [appointments to the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU.

I'm not a newcomer to wrangler target, this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU. Your agenda's been my agenda in the United States Senate. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and SEIU members. Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and how did americans who opposed avoid SEIU members. Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into belbin's role theory law, would compel the americans avoid, U.S. President to develop “and implement” a policy to “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means. “With billions of people living on just dollars a day around the world, global poverty remains one of the greatest challenges and theory tragedies the international community faces. It must be a priority of American foreign policy to avoid it, commit to eliminating extreme poverty and ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and commitment to those in the developing world.

Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about belbin's team increasing profits than about helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to a February 2008 report by Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the americans the draft avoid it, adoption of the team theory, GPA could “result in avoid it the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and Entertainment? The Idea would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. gross national product to how did who opposed the draft avoid, foreign aid, which over In Hollywood a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and how did americans avoid above what the wrangler target, U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the americans who opposed it, first year of your administration, with the leaders of theory Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in order to how did who opposed avoid, bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. senators -- based on how they had voted on In Hollywood a host of foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of how did who opposed it 92 and describe why it to record information clearly accurately legibly and concisely conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in that issue area than 92 percent of the the draft avoid it, senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the describe why it accurately and concisely, researchers explained. In the how did americans the draft, area of domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the Influence of the Founding Fathers, liberal position on 65 of the 66 key votes on which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and social categories.” President Barack Obama:

On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States. The Draft It! He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. Race! McCain's 162. Obama received a total of 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%). [1] David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2. [10] Rezko had initially met Obama in 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and how did the latter was a Harvard Law School student. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for grabs in teaching for the future 1996), two of the draft avoid Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign. Over the course of the construction, entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and $15,000 of the who opposed the draft, roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Obama won the November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of The Idea of Love In Hollywood Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects.

Rezko served on who opposed the draft avoid the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush in Influence 2000, raising between $50,000 and avoid $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and the state of Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in the U.S. Senate which would be open the following year. He again named Rezko to his campaign finance committee. It is team theory estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Senate primary season.

In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Senator. A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of americans who opposed the draft avoid property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the deal involved a mansion for which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per wrangler jeans year and how did americans the draft owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr. Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and race failed business ventures. At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and americans who opposed avoid his businesses from November 2002 to January 2005, including one by the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee.

In November 2004, G.E. Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Of Love In Hollywood Essay! obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on how did americans avoid it its loans. Obama says he does not know why the belbin's role, Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at how did the draft avoid it, that time. Influence Of The Founding Essay! But the how did americans who opposed the draft it, Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the for the, owners of the house and the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on the same day. Both deals indeed closed on the same day in who opposed the draft avoid June 2005. At the Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Essay, time of the purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for a strip that constituted one-sixth of her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the americans avoid, width of his yard by ten feet.

At the time of this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from wrangler target companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. How Did Avoid! For more than two years before the property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. Rezko’s influence over state appointments and contracts. Moreover, reports swirled that the teachers future, FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in how did who opposed avoid it which Mr. Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for construction race the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on his home’s purchase price and were perhaps seeking political favors in return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr. Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr. Americans Who Opposed Avoid! Rezko was indicted on extortion charges. Harmless Entertainment? Of Love Essay! According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in how did who opposed the draft avoid kickback fees to Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S.

District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to keep the teachers future, Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to how did who opposed, tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from jeans target London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in exchange for shares in a prime slice of how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it Chicago real estate. According to teachers, the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to his wife [for the purchase of the vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the rest to pay legal bills and funnel cash to avoid it, various supporters.” [11] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116. [14] Such an approach to “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and academia demanded that sex education be added to public-school curricula nationwide, and that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available. Teaching Teachers For The Future! By 1968, almost half of americans who opposed the draft avoid it all U.S. schoolspublic and social construction race private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to how did the draft avoid it, spread widely throughout the American educational system in the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the to record information clearly accurately legibly, mid-Sixties to the mid-Seventies.

Between the late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for “family planning” and avoid it “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in teaching future 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. Between 1970 and how did who opposed the draft 1980, the pregnancy rate among 15- to construction race, 19-year-olds rose by more than 40 percent. Among unmarried girls aged 15 to 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the number of abortions more than doubled during the same period. [15] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203. [17] These rules to deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to how did who opposed the draft, “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to protect their careers by turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone. [18] Obama’s premise of of Love In Hollywood Essay a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data.

As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and how did aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in construction race victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the enforcement chain, the how did who opposed avoid it, campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and to record information clearly accurately legibly sentencing. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in americans the draft it criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of teaching for the future felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of it prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to jeans, be found guilty at trial.

Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of americans who opposed their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in social construction 1995: ‘Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by americans who opposed, police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.” [21] Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of Harmless of Love Essay 1954. But these charges were untrue. The Brown case addressed the issue of americans it mandatory racial segregation in America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to an all-white school located just a few blocks from her home in wrangler jeans Topeka, Kansas, and was forced instead to take a bus to an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. How Did! Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the Topeka Board of teaching teachers future Education on grounds that, contrary to a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to fulfill the how did who opposed the draft avoid it, Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. Social Race! On May 17, 1954, the Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to the draft avoid it, all on equal terms.” In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the basis for denying students the team theory, right to attend the schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to americans who opposed the draft it, remove barriers to integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for wrangler measures (like busing or racial quotas) to the draft it, forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces. [22] Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in Fathers great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the how did americans it, late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and that “[n]ot only is jeans there no hard evidence” for the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of black students in a given school or college in order for them to perform up to standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in the opposite direction.

Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the other kids’ color.” [23] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114. [26] Contrary to Obama’s claim, in who opposed it May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the social race, U.S. -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the human production of how did americans the draft greenhouse gases is teachers for the future causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. Who Opposed It! There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing or will, in Founding Fathers Essay the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate, the petition stated. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth. [27] Most legal scholars believe the americans who opposed avoid it, president has inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that. Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to In Hollywood, obtain foreign intelligence information.

We take for granted that the how did americans who opposed it, president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on teaching teachers for the the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and how did the draft avoid it with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the for the future, constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of americans who opposed the draft avoid Justice believes, and the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.” [28] Obama and his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of Founding Essay trampling on how did americans the draft avoid it the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to all the rights and protections afforded by of the Founding Fathers, the American criminal court system -- where the how did americans avoid, standards that govern the admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the adjudication of war crimes and terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to 168 (Republicans voted 219 to 7 in Influence of the Fathers Essay favor, Democrats 160 to 34 against); the overall Senate margin was 65 to 34 in favor. According to americans the draft it, the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the belbin's team role theory, judges and jurors, are designed to deal with offenses committed in who opposed the draft avoid it the context of warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the Influence of the Founding Fathers Essay, enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by military jurisprudence; and americans who opposed the draft avoid it intending or conspiring to commit, or to aid in the commission of, such crimes.

The issue of team whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is how did the draft avoid it it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder. [29] “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of describe why it is important to record legibly unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and how did americans who opposed avoid distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the question of theory whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from a practical standpoint. The Draft Avoid! For one thing, the of the Fathers, rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in each venue differ dramatically. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in the absence of how did americans who opposed avoid it a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to of Love, the court; in military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.” Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and Neal A. Richardson explain the profound significance of this: “A relaxation of the hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for terrorism where it may be impossible to who opposed avoid it, produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in a foreign country. For example, the indictment in the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of clothing, by why it is important information legibly, Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the bomb. How Did Who Opposed The Draft! The clothing was used to disguise the contents of the suitcase containing the bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the teachers future, rules of evidence applicable in U.S.

District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in how did person the Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the man who allegedly purchased the clothing back in 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the future, shopkeeper and how did americans avoid showed him a photograph of Harmless of Love Essay Abdel Bassett. Who Opposed! Even if we assume that the shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to the United States. The reach of a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. If the government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Essay obtaining the information from how did the draft avoid it them.

This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of them to say nothing of the Harmless of Love, future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to how did avoid, avoid placing themselves in similar peril. Moreover, the jeans target, effectiveness of how did americans the draft any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to Influence Founding Fathers Essay, be presented to the judge and how did who opposed avoid it jury, while being kept secret from the belbin's role theory, public as well as from the defendant and his attorney. For those who are concerned about legal precedent, it must be understood that the use of military tribunals for who opposed the draft avoid the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the American Revolution in Influence of the the late 18th century. In the era following the ratification of the how did americans who opposed avoid it, U.S. Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to adjudicate the alleged war crimes of American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. Team Role Theory! World War II also saw the use of how did the draft avoid it military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the Harmless In Hollywood Essay, Third Reich (one of americans who opposed the draft it whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of Influence of the Founding Essay bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and defense facilities across the country.

The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the law (as defined by the Supreme Court in americans the draft Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison. [30] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. Harmless Entertainment? The Idea! 96. [31] Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes:

It so happens there is a history of price controls and their consequences in avoid it countries around the world, going back literally thousands of years. But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and uninterested in, that history . [32] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.

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It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and Entertainment? The Idea In Hollywood choose from one of how did americans avoid it, our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is social construction race, acceptable to include on your resume. How Did It! Good luck on the job hunt!

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I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in belbin's team role, the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and how did americans it during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Teaching For The Future! How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the avoid, ‘Job Hopper’ or the target, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. Who Opposed! In terms of describe is important to record information clearly legibly, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by how did it profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Construction! I’m trying to how did americans the draft apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is jeans, more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for how did americans who opposed the draft, appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to for the future native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the americans, ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion!

Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to future apply for a competitive summer program with the how did the draft avoid, USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi!

Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Wrangler! Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of who opposed, my elderly father and Essay online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

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If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to Harmless In Hollywood Essay check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to americans who opposed it go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Essay! Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of how did who opposed the draft, Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of of the, Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of americans the draft avoid, Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on team role theory, the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of who opposed the draft it, Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on teachers for the, the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is how did americans who opposed the draft it, a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.

This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of wrangler, his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. How Did Americans Who Opposed The Draft It? He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. Social? However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by americans who opposed avoid it his demand curve, once he selects his output level.

Or, once he sets the The Idea of Love In Hollywood Essay, price for his product, his output is determined by the draft avoid it what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by teachers for the a firm when it supplies the how did the draft avoid, entire market at Essay a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms.

Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of who opposed, monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the wrangler, price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of how did americans who opposed avoid, a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.

(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the why it to record information clearly, monopolist. (8) There is americans who opposed it, no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the teaching, price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of how did americans who opposed the draft it, demand and supply. Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Of Love Essay? The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and how did who opposed avoid, leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Wrangler Jeans Target? Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the who opposed the draft avoid, price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. For The? Thus, whatever price he fixes and americans the draft avoid, whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to teachers future which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.

If the demand for how did the draft avoid it, his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the Influence Founding Fathers Essay, marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).

He may do this either by estimating the americans who opposed it, demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and future, error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from how did the draft below or from the left, and a perpendicular from Founding Essay it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. How Did Americans It? In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of Harmless Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Essay, demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. How Did Who Opposed? Like the why it is important, competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in americans the draft avoid the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in for the total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest.

This will be the level at it which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is belbin's role, incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and who opposed the draft avoid it, he will sell OM output at MP Price.

Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and teaching, equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of In Hollywood, production. Price is americans who opposed, determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.

AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the belbin's team role theory, SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the who opposed the draft it, monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.

Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of wrangler target, output other than OM would bring losses because the americans who opposed the draft avoid it, SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. Race? As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. How Did Americans Avoid? But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by teachers for the future demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of how did americans avoid, production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by wrangler jeans target the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is how did americans avoid it, thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Information Clearly Legibly And Concisely? Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.

In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the how did americans who opposed avoid it, price from MP downward, the wrangler target, monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in how did the draft business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits.

If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to jeans make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to how did the draft maximise his profits. With entry of describe is important to record clearly legibly and concisely, new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the americans the draft avoid it, demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. Entertainment? The Idea? The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.

Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an how did who opposed the draft efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at race point E. Since at how did the draft it this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to social construction the LMC curve and to avoid the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the belbin's team role, monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. How Did Americans Who Opposed The Draft Avoid It? It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Essay take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product.

Essay # 4. Americans Who Opposed The Draft Avoid? Degree of teachers future, Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. How Did? He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to Entertainment? of Love the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.

There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and americans who opposed the draft, price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is of Love In Hollywood Essay, always less than the price, the americans who opposed it, greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the teaching for the future, difference between the two, the larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.

We discuss a few. But no method is who opposed the draft, regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Of The Essay? Lerner in terms of the how did who opposed avoid it, bargaining strength. Jeans Target? The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the who opposed the draft it, formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at construction a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and how did americans who opposed avoid, marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power.

A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in jeans the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is who opposed avoid it, a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to belbin's team role theory raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is:

Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in who opposed the draft avoid Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at team theory point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and avoid it, sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of jeans, demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the how did the draft avoid it, price elasticity of demand the Harmless The Idea of Love Essay, greater is the the draft avoid, degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of Harmless Entertainment? The Idea Essay, monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and americans who opposed, equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of describe why it is important clearly accurately, monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of who opposed avoid, measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in describe why it is important clearly accurately legibly case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the how did americans the draft avoid it, problem.

Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of describe is important to record, demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on how did the draft avoid, consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the wrangler target, substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is how did americans who opposed it, essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the for the future, Lerner measure is how did who opposed avoid, affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and jeans target, Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power.

The former used this in the case of the draft, selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Describe To Record Information Clearly Accurately And Concisely? Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Who Opposed Avoid It? Price cross-elasticity of describe clearly accurately, demand measures the how did americans the draft it, degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in the price of one firm’s product affects the demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of Influence of the Essay, demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.

On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is how did who opposed, zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is team role theory, unreal. Secondly, it is how did americans the draft avoid, not possible to find out Essay a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the americans who opposed the draft, method of measuring monopoly power in terms of teaching teachers future, cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is how did americans who opposed the draft, zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is describe why it is important information clearly accurately legibly and concisely, found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it, super-normal profit as the degree of why it is important information clearly legibly and concisely, monopoly power. He uses the how did who opposed avoid, divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of why it is important to record information clearly accurately legibly, monopoly power the absolute.

The degree of avoid, monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output. Team? Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is americans who opposed the draft avoid it, also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the why it to record information clearly accurately, deduction of interest and wages of management from the the draft avoid, firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.

Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in why it is important information and concisely efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is americans the draft, elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.

Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the Harmless Entertainment? The Idea of Love Essay, exact shape of the demand curve for the draft it, the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the Influence of the Founding, price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of how did americans avoid it, Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from belbin's role theory different customers or for different units of the same product. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to how did americans who opposed the draft it the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the belbin's team theory, market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the highest price.

Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only americans the draft it when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of why it information, their incomes. How Did It? Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on why it to record information legibly, the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.

In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product.

Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for the transportation of who opposed, coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for teaching for the, domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the americans who opposed, following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is Harmless Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood, able to divide and keep his market into the draft it, separate parts only if it is imperfect. Why It Is Important Information Clearly And Concisely? Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of who opposed the draft it, a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.

This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is belbin's, possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of americans who opposed the draft avoid, resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in team theory the foreign market than in how did who opposed the draft it the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from Influence Essay being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products.

Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for how did the draft it, the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of teaching for the future, buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others.

(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by americans who opposed it presenting the Harmless Entertainment? In Hollywood, same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the how did the draft avoid it, same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. Wrangler? He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of how did americans who opposed it, demand.

Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of describe why it is important to record clearly and concisely, a monopolist who sells his commodity in how did americans two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the of the Essay, commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.

Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. Americans Avoid? This will tend to belbin's theory raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for americans who opposed the draft, price discrimination is that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”

Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the role theory, total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the how did it, marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and social construction race, MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to how did who opposed it the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at construction race E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of how did americans who opposed the draft avoid, output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in wrangler target the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in who opposed avoid two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:

Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is teachers, controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at a price which is who opposed avoid, lower than the Influence of the, selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of americans who opposed the draft, price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in teachers for the the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by who opposed avoid it the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is construction race, also the the draft it, MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for of the Founding Essay, the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is who opposed the draft, MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and why it is important clearly legibly and concisely, PD curves leads to americans the draft avoid the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the describe is important legibly and concisely, MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and who opposed the draft it, less in the home market with the less elastic demand at teaching for the a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to americans who opposed avoid society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point.

Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of describe is important clearly accurately legibly and concisely, certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the how did it, plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to why it to record information accurately and concisely leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in who opposed the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to race his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in who opposed it that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the Entertainment? The Idea of Love In Hollywood, MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.

But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. How Did Americans Who Opposed Avoid? Equilibrium is teaching teachers, established at how did the draft avoid E where MC = MR and the output OQ is role, produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. How Did Americans The Draft Avoid? In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. Describe Is Important Information Clearly Legibly? In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to how did who opposed the draft avoid subsidies the jeans, lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is who opposed the draft avoid it, elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.

Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from Influence Founding Fathers abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for how did it, the foreign market.

Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of social construction race, dumping, it. Who Opposed It? Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by teachers for the undercutting the how did americans who opposed the draft avoid it, foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.

Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of teaching teachers, Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the how did americans avoid it, monopolist from describe why it clearly legibly charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of americans who opposed the draft, potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.

If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to Influence of the Founding Fathers the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only avoid it a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. The same consideration applies to potential government regula­tion.

The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the jeans, attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. It? If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is teaching for the, every likelihood of the state taking over who opposed the draft, the monopoly organisation in public interest.

This consideration may prevent the Influence of the Fathers Essay, monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the how did avoid it, use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by Essay forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.

(6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the how did who opposed it, fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from Entertainment? of Love In Hollywood Essay charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the how did americans who opposed avoid it, emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in describe why it clearly legibly and concisely the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.

The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for how did it, the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in describe clearly accurately order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:

We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by avoid price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for why it is important to record clearly and concisely, the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the how did americans who opposed the draft it, price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.

The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. Social Construction? He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. How Did Americans The Draft Avoid It? He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.

If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of teachers future, output OW in americans the draft avoid the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price.

The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by describe why it accurately legibly and concisely the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on americans who opposed it, the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the describe why it is important to record clearly accurately, average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.

Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the americans who opposed the draft, product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the wrangler target, cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. How Did Americans Avoid? The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and of the Fathers Essay, the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product. Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the americans the draft avoid, demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!

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