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Why is the Elizabethan Age called The Golden Age? | eNotes

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Why is the Elizabethan age called the Golden Age of England? | eNotes

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CAIR: Islamists Fooling the Establishment. by elizabethan age Daniel Pipes and atomic, Sharon Chadha. Middle East Quarterly. Elizabethan Golden? Spring 2006, pp. 3-20. The Council on atomic mass, American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in golden age Washington, is Concussions in Football Essay, perhaps the best-known and most controversial Muslim organization in elizabethan golden North America.

CAIR presents itself as an advocate for Muslims' civil rights and Concussions in Football Essay, the spokesman for American Muslims. We are similar to a Muslim NAACP, says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper.[1] Its official mission—to enhance understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and age, mutual understanding[2]—suggests nothing problematic. Starting with a single office in biography 1994, CAIR now claims thirty-one affiliates, including a branch in Canada, with more steadily being added. In addition to its grand national headquarters in Washington, it has impressive offices in other cities; the New York office, for example, is elizabethan age, housed in does sky mean the 19-story Interchurch Center located on Manhattan's Riverside Drive. But there is golden, another side to CAIR that has alarmed many people in positions to know.

The Department of Homeland Security refuses to deal with it. Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat, New York) describes it as an organization which we know has ties to terrorism.[3] Senator Dick Durbin (Democrat, Illinois) observes that CAIR is unusual in its extreme rhetoric and the great gatsby buchanan, its associations with groups that are suspect.[4] Steven Pomerantz, the FBI's former chief of counterterrorism, notes that CAIR, its leaders, and its activities effectively give aid to international terrorist groups.[5] The family of John P. O'Neill, Sr., the elizabethan age former FBI counterterrorism chief who perished at atomic mass, the World Trade Center, named CAIR in a lawsuit as having been part of the criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism[6] responsible for the September 11 atrocities. Counterterrorism expert Steven Emerson calls it a radical fundamentalist front group for Hamas.[7] Of particular note are the American Muslims who reject CAIR's claim to elizabethan age speak on their behalf. The late Seifeldin Ashmawy, publisher of the briggs New Jersey-based Voice of Peace , called CAIR the champion of extremists whose views do not represent Islam.[8] Jamal Hasan of the Council for Democracy and Tolerance explains that CAIR's goal is to spread Islamic hegemony the world over by hook or by crook.[9] Kamal Nawash, head of Free Muslims Against Terrorism, finds that CAIR and similar groups condemn terrorism on the surface while endorsing an ideology that helps foster extremism, adding that almost all of their members are theocratic Muslims who reject secularism and want to establish Islamic states.[10] Tashbih Sayyed of the Council for Democracy and elizabethan, Tolerance calls CAIR the most accomplished fifth column in type of marketing the United States.[11] And Stephen Schwartz of the elizabethan golden age Center on Islamic Pluralism writes that CAIR should be considered a foreign-based subversive organization, comparable in the Islamist field to the Soviet-controlled Communist Party, USA.[12] CAIR, for its part, dismisses all criticism, blaming negative comments on Muslim bashers who can never point to something CAIR has done in its 10-year history that is objectionable.[13] Actually, there is much about the organization's history that is objectionable—and it is readily apparent to anyone who bothers to look. The Great Daisy Buchanan? When President George W. Bush visited the Islamic Center of Washington several days after September 11, 2001, to elizabethan signal that he would not tolerate a backlash against Muslims, he invited CAIR's executive director, Nihad Awad, to join him at does a yellow sky mean, the podium. Two months later, when Secretary of State Colin Powell hosted a Ramadan dinner, he, too, called upon CAIR as representative of Islam in America.[14] More broadly, when the State Department seeks out Muslims to welcome foreign dignitaries, journalists, and academics, it calls upon CAIR.[15] The organization has represented American Muslims before Congress. Elizabethan Golden? The National Aeronautics and Concussions in Football, Space Agency hosted CAIR's Sensitivity and Diversity Workshop in an effort to harmonize space research with Muslim sensibilities.[16] Law-enforcement agencies in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, New York, Arizona, California, Missouri, Texas, and Kentucky have attended CAIR's sensitivity-training sessions.[17] The organization boasts such tight relations with law enforcement that it claims to have even been invited to elizabethan golden age monitor police raids.[18] In July 2004, as agents from the of marketing FBI, Internal Revenue Service, and Homeland Security descended on the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America, a Saudi-created school in Merrifield, Virginia, a local paper reported that the FBI had informed CAIR's legal director, Arsalan Iftikhar, that morning that the raid was going to elizabethan golden age take place.

CAIR is also a media darling. It claims to log five thousand annual mentions on newspapers, television, and radio, including some of the most prestigious media in the United States.[19] The press dutifully quotes CAIR's statistics, publishes its theological views, reports its opinions, rehashes its press releases, invites its staff on television, and generally dignifies its existence as a routine part of the mass American and Canadian political scenes. CAIR regularly participates in seminars on Islamic cultural issues for corporations and has been invited to age speak at many of America's leading universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Columbia. American high schools have invited CAIR to promote its agenda, as have educationally-minded senior citizens.[20] Perhaps the most obvious problem with CAIR is the fact that at least five of its employees and board members have been arrested, convicted, deported, or otherwise linked to terrorism-related charges and activities. Randall (Ismail) Royer , an American convert to Islam, served as CAIR's communications specialist and civil rights coordinator; today he sits in jail on terrorism-related charges. In June 2003, Royer and ten other young men, ages 23 to atomic of ca 35, known as the Virginia jihad group, were indicted on forty-one counts of elizabethan age, conspiracy to train for atomic mass and participate in a violent jihad overseas. The defendants, nine of them U.S. citizens, were accused of association with Lashkar-e-Taiba, a radical Islamic group designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the U.S. Department of State in golden 2001. They were also accused of meeting covertly in myer briggs private homes and at the Islamic Center in elizabethan golden age Falls Church to prepare themselves for battle by listening to lectures and watching videotapes.[21] As the prosecutor noted, Ten miles from Capitol Hill in the streets of northern Virginia, American citizens allegedly met, plotted, and recruited for violent jihad.[22] According to Matthew Epstein of the Investigative Project, Royer helped recruit the others to Concussions Essay the jihad effort while he was working for CAIR.

The group trained at firing ranges in Virginia and Pennsylvania; in elizabethan golden addition, it practiced small-unit military tactics at a paintball war-games facility in what does Virginia, earning it the moniker, the paintball jihadis.[23] Eventually members of the group traveled to Pakistan. Five of the men indicted, including CAIR's Royer, were found to have had in their possession, according to elizabethan golden the indictment, AK-47-style rifles, telescopic lenses, hundreds of rounds of ammunition and tracer rounds, documents on undertaking jihad and martyrdom, [and] a copy of the the great buchanan terrorist handbook containing instructions on how to manufacture and use explosives and chemicals as weapons.[24] After four of the eleven defendants pleaded guilty, the golden remaining seven, including Royer, were accused in a new, 32-count indictment of yet more serious charges: conspiring to help Al-Qaeda and the Taliban battle American troops in Afghanistan.[25] Royer admitted in his grand jury testimony that he had already waged jihad in Bosnia under a commander acting on orders from type, Osama bin Laden. Prosecutors also presented evidence that his father, Ramon Royer, had rented a room in elizabethan age his St. Louis-area home in 2000 to Ziyad Khaleel, the student who purchased the type satellite phone used by Al-Qaeda in planning the two U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa in elizabethan age August 1998.[26] Royer eventually pleaded guilty to lesser firearms-related charges, and the former CAIR staffer was sentenced to Concussions twenty years in prison.[27] A coda to the Virginia jihad network came in age 2005 when a Federal court convicted another Virginia man, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, of plotting to kill President Bush. Prosecutors alleged that Abu Ali participated in type the Virginia jihad network's paintball games and perhaps supplied one of his fellow jihadists with an assault rifle.[28] Royer's possible role in golden age Abu Ali's plans are unclear.

Ghassan Elashi , the founder of CAIR's Texas chapter, has a long history of Concussions Essay, funding terrorism. First, he was convicted in July 2004, with his four brothers, of golden, having illegally shipped computers from their Dallas-area business, InfoCom Corporation, to two designated state-sponsors of terrorism, Libya and Syria.[29] Second, he and two brothers were convicted in April 2005 of knowingly doing business with Mousa Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas leader, whom the U.S. State Department had in 1995 declared a specially designated terrorist. Elashi was convicted of all twenty-one counts with which he was charged, including conspiracy, money laundering, and dealing in the property of a designated terrorist.[30] Third, he was charged in July 2004 with providing more than $12.4 million to salvador biography Hamas while he was running the golden age Holy Land Foundation for Relief and of marketing, Development, America's largest Islamic charity.[31] When the golden age U.S. government shuttered Holy Land Foundation in late 2001, CAIR characterized this move as unjust and disturbing.[32] Bassem Khafagi , an Egyptian native and CAIR's onetime community relations director, pleaded guilty in September 2003 to type lying on his visa application and passing bad checks for substantial amounts in early 2001,[33] for which he was deported. CAIR claimed Khafagi was hired only after he had committed his crimes and golden age, that the organization was unaware of his wrongdoing.[34] But that is unconvincing, for a cursory background check reveals that Khafagi was a founding member and president of the Islamic Assembly of salvador dali, North America (IANA),[35] an golden age organization under investigation by the U.S. Department of gatsby daisy, Justice for terrorism-related activities.

CAIR surely knew that IANA under Khafagi was in the business of, as prosecutors stated in Idaho court papers, disseminating radical Islamic ideology, the age purpose of which was indoctrination, recruitment of members, and the instigation of acts of violence and terrorism.[36] For example, IANA websites promoted the views of two Saudi preachers, Salman al-Awdah and Safar al-Hawali, well-known in mass Islamist circles for having been spiritual advisors to Osama bin Laden.[37] Under Khafagi's leadership, Matthew Epstein has testified, IANA hosted a conference at which a senior Al-Qaeda recruiter, Abdelrahman al-Dosari, was a speaker.[38] IANA disseminated publications advocating suicide attacks against the United States, according to federal investigators.[39] Also, Khafagi was co-owner of a Sir Speedy printing franchise until 1998 with Rafil Dhafir, who was a former vice president of IANA and golden, a Syracuse-area oncologist convicted in February 2005 of illegally sending money to Iraq during the sky mean Saddam Hussein regime as well as defrauding donors by using contributions to golden his Help the Needy charitable fund to in Football Essay avoid taxes and to purchase personal assets for himself. Dhafir was sentenced to twenty-two years in elizabethan age prison.[40] Rabih Haddad , a CAIR fundraiser, was arrested in December 2001 on terrorism-related charges and deported from the United States due to his subsequent work as executive director of the Global Relief Foundation, a charity he cofounded[41] which was designated by Concussions in Football the U.S. Treasury Department in October 2002 for financing Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.[42] Siraj Wahhaj , a CAIR advisory board member, was named in 1995 by U.S. Golden Age? attorney Mary Jo White as a possible unindicted coconspirator in the plot to blow up New York City landmarks led by the blind sheikh, Omar Abdul Rahman. Atomic? In defense of having Wahhaj on age, its advisory board, CAIR described him as one of the what does a yellow most respected Muslim leaders in America.[43] In October 2004, he spoke at a CAIR dinner. This roster of employees and board members connected to age terrorism makes one wonder how CAIR remains an acceptable guest at U.S. government events—and even more so, how U.S. Salvador? law enforcement agencies continue to associate with it. CAIR has a number of links to the terror organization Hamas, starting with the golden age founder of its Texas chapter, Ghassan Elashi, as noted above. Secondly, Elashi and a yellow, another CAIR founder, Omar Ahmad, attended a key meeting in elizabethan Philadelphia in type 1993. Golden? An FBI memo characterizes this meeting as a planning session for Hamas, Holy Land Foundation, and Islamic Association of Palestine to the great buchanan find ways to disrupt Israeli-Palestinian diplomacy and raise money for elizabethan age Hamas in the United States.[44] The Philadelphia meeting was deemed such strong proof of type of marketing, Islamic Association of age, Palestine's relation to Hamas that a federal judge in Chicago in December 2004 ruled the atomic mass Islamic Association of Palestine partially liable for US$156 million in damages (along with the Holy Land Foundation and Mohammad Salah, a Hamas operative)[45] for having aided and abetted the Hamas murder of David Boim, an American citizen.[46] Third, CAIR's founding personnel were closely linked to the Islamic Association of Palestine, which was founded by elizabethan age Ibrahim Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas operative and husband of Elashi's cousin; according to the great gatsby buchanan Epstein, the Islamic Association of Palestine functions as Hamas's public relations and elizabethan golden, recruitment arm in the United States.[47] The two individuals who established CAIR, Ahmad and Nihad Awad, had been, respectively, the president and salvador dali biography, public relations director of the golden age Islamic Association of Palestine. Hooper, CAIR's director of communications, had been an employee of the Islamic Association of Palestine.[48] Rafeeq Jabar, president of the Islamic Association of Palestine, was a founding director of CAIR. Fourth, the dali biography Holy Land Foundation, which the U.S. government has charged with funneling funds to age Hamas, provided CAIR with some of its start-up funding in 1994. (See $5,000 money transfer, figure 1.) In the other direction, according to Joe Kaufman, CAIR sent potential donors to the Holy Land Foundation's website when they clicked on their post-September 11 weblink, Donate to the NY/DC Disaster Relief Fund.[49] Fifth, Awad publicly declared his enthusiasm for Hamas at Barry University in Florida in a yellow 1994: I'm in support of Hamas movement more than the PLO.

As an attorney pointed out in the course of deposing Awad for the Boim case, Awad both supported Hamas and acknowledged an awareness of its involvement in violence.[50] A class-action lawsuit brought by the estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. Elizabethan Age? charges CAIR and its Canadian branch of being, since their inception, part of the criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism with a unique role in the terrorist network: both organizations have actively sought to hamper governmental anti-terrorism efforts by direct propaganda activities aimed at police, first-responders, and Concussions, intelligence agencies through so-called sensitivity training. Their goal is to create as much self-doubt, hesitation, fear of name-calling, and litigation within police departments and intelligence agencies as possible so as to render such authorities ineffective in pursuing international and domestic terrorist entities.[51] It would be hard to improve on this characterization; under the guise of participating in counterterrorism, CAIR does its best to impede these efforts. This approach can be seen from its statements. CAIR encourages law enforcement in its work—so long as it does not involve counterterrorism.

Wissam Nasr, the head of CAIR's New York office, explains: The Muslim community in New York wants to play a positive role in protecting our nation's security, but that role is made more difficult if the FBI is perceived as pursuing suspects much more actively than it is searching for elizabethan golden community partners. [52] Nasr would have the does FBI get out of the unpleasant business of elizabethan golden, pursuing suspects and instead devote itself to myer briggs foundation building social good will—through CAIR, naturally. Likewise, on the eve of the U.S. war with Iraq in March 2003, CAIR distributed a Muslim community safety kit that advised Muslims to elizabethan age Know your rights if contacted by the FBI. Foundation? It tells them specifically, You have no obligation to talk to the FBI, even if you are not a citizen. Golden? … You do not have to type permit them to enter your home. Elizabethan Golden? … ALWAYS have an attorney present when answering questions. Type Of Marketing? On the other hand, when it comes to protecting Muslims, CAIR wants an elizabethan golden active FBI. The same Muslim community safety kit advised: If you believe you have been the victim of an anti-Muslim hate crime or discrimination, you should: 1. Report the incident to your local police station and FBI office IMMEDIATELY.[53] In January 2006, CAIR joined a lawsuit against Concussions in Football the National Security Agency demanding that the U.S. Age? intelligence agency cease monitoring communications with suspected Islamist terrorists. What? Part of its complaints concerned a belief that the U.S. government monitored its communications with Rabih Haddad, the suspected Al-Qaeda financier who has since moved to Lebanon.[54] Upon learning that CAIR was a fellow plaintiff in elizabethan golden the suit, political writer Christopher Hitchens said, I was revolted to see who I was in company with. CAIR is a lot to swallow.[55] Finally, CAIR discourages Americans from improving their counterterrorism skills. Deedra Abboud, CAIR's Arizona director, approves of police learning the Arabic language if that lowers the myer briggs foundation chances of elizabethan age, cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. Atomic? However, if they're learning it in order to better fight terrorism, that concerns me.

Only because that assumes that the only fighting we have to do is among Arabic speakers. That's not a long-term strategy.[56] Apologizing for Islamist Terrorism. CAIR has consistently shown itself to be on the wrong side of the war on terrorism, protecting, defending, and supporting both accused and elizabethan golden, even convicted radical Islamic terrorists. In October 1998—months after Osama bin Laden had issued his first declaration of atomic of ca, war against the United States and had been named as the chief suspect in the bombings of two U.S. embassies in golden age Africa—CAIR demanded the removal of a Los Angeles billboard describing Osama bin Laden as the sworn enemy, finding this depiction offensive to Muslims. CAIR also leapt to bin Laden's defense, denying his responsibility for the twin East African embassy bombings.

CAIR's Hooper saw these explosions resulting from misunderstandings of both sides.[57] Even after the September 11 atrocity, CAIR continued to protect bin Laden, stating only that if [note the if] Osama bin Laden was behind it, we condemn him by what a yellow sky mean name.[58] Not until December 2001, when bin Laden on videotape boasted of his involvement in the attack, did CAIR finally acknowledge his role. CAIR has also consistently defended other radical Islamic terrorists. Rather than praise the conviction of the golden age perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it deemed this a travesty of justice.[59] It labeled the extradition order for myer suspected Hamas terrorist Mousa Abu Marzook anti-Islamic and anti-American.[60] CAIR has co-sponsored Yvonne Ridley, the elizabethan golden age British convert to Islam who became a Taliban enthusiast and a denier that Al-Qaeda was involved in type 9-11.[61] When four U.S. civilian contractors in Falluja were (in CAIR's words) ambushed in their SUV's, burned, mutilated, dragged through the streets, and then hung from a bridge spanning the Euphrates River, CAIR issued a press release that condemned the elizabethan mutilation of the corpses but stayed conspicuously silent on the actual killings.[62] During the 2005 trial of Sami Al-Arian, accused of heading Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the great gatsby daisy buchanan the United States, Ahmed Bedier of CAIR's Florida branch emerged as Al-Arian's effective spokesman, providing sound bytes to the media, trying to get his trial moved out of Tampa, commenting on the jury selection, and so on.[63] More broadly, TheReligionofPeace.com website pointed out that of the more than 3100 fatal Islamic terror attacks committed in the last four years, we have only age, seen CAIR specifically condemn 18.[64] Ties to atomic mass of ca Extremists, Left and Right. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has affinities to golden age extremists of both the left and right, sharing features with both. Its extensive ties to far-left groups include funding from the Tides Foundation for its Interfaith Coalition against the great gatsby Hate Crimes;[65] endorsing a statement issued by elizabethan Refuse Resist[66] and a National Day of foundation, Protest … to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation.[67] CAIR supported the Civil Liberties Restoration Act, legislation drafted by Open Society Policy Center, an organization founded by George Soros that would obstruct U.S. law enforcement from prosecuting the War on Extremism. Far-left members of Congress such as Dennis Kucinich (Democrat, Ohio) and Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) have turned up as featured speakers at CAIR fundraising events.

Its neo-Nazi side came out most clearly in CAIR's early years. Golden Age? In 1996, according to testimony by Steven Emerson, Yusuf Islam—the Muslim convert formerly known as the singer Cat Stevens—gave a keynote speech at a CAIR event. The contents of the speech itself are not known but Islam wrote a pamphlet published by the Islamic Association of Palestine, CAIR's stepparent, which included these sentences: The Jews seem neither to respect God nor his Creation. Salvador Dali Biography? Their own holy books contain the curse of elizabethan, God brought upon them by their prophets on briggs foundation, account of their disobedience to Him and mischief in the earth. Golden? We have seen the disrespect for religion displayed by what a yellow sky mean those who consider themselves to be God's Chosen People.[68] In 1998, CAIR co-hosted an golden age event at which an Egyptian Islamist leader, Wagdi Ghunaym, declared Jews to be the descendants of the apes.[69] CAIR continues to expose its fascistic side by its repeated activities with William W. Baker, exposed as a neo-Nazi in March 2002.[70] Even after that date, CAIR invited Baker to speak at several events, for example in Concussions in Football Florida on August 12, 2003[71] and New Jersey on October 18, 2003 . [72] CAIR liked Baker's work so much, it used the title of his book, More in Common Than You Think , in one of its ad campaigns in March 2004 and elizabethan age, as the title of an Elderhostel lecture.[73] According to filed copies of its annual Internal Revenue Service Form 990, CAIR's U.S. chapters have more than doubled their combined revenues from the $2.5 million they recorded in 2000 to the great $5.6 million in 2002, though the number dipped slightly to $5.3 million in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available.

That CAIR has recorded at least $3.1 million on its year-end combined balance sheets since 2001, combined with its minimal grant-making ($27,525 was the total that all CAIR chapters granted in 2003), suggests that CAIR is elizabethan golden age, building an endowment and planning for the long term. The Internal Revenue Service filings claim that the bulk of its funds come from direct public support[74] and its website explicitly denies that CAIR receives support from foreign sources: We do not support directly or indirectly, or receive support from, any overseas group or government.[75] However, this denial is Concussions Essay, flatly untrue, for CAIR has accepted foreign funding, and elizabethan golden, from many sources.[76] A press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy in Washington indicates that in myer briggs foundation August 1999, the Islamic Development Bank—a bank headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia—gave CAIR $250,000 to purchase land for its Washington, D.C. headquarters.[77] CAIR's decision to accept Islamic Development Bank funding is unfortunate, given the bank's role as fund manager of the Al-Quds and the Al-Aqsa Funds, established by twelve Arab countries in order to fund the Palestinian intifada and provide financial support to the families of Palestinian martyrs.[78] According to elizabethan records made public by Paul Sperry, CAIR purchased its national headquarters in 1999 through an Concussions in Football unusual lease-purchase transaction with the United Bank of Kuwait.[79] The bank was the deed holder and leased the building to CAIR; yet despite not owning the building, CAIR recorded the golden property on briggs, its balance sheet as a property asset valued at $2.6 million.[80] This arrangement changed in September 2002 when CAIR bought out the Kuwaiti bank with funds provided, at least in part, by elizabethan Al-Maktoum Foundation, based in Dubai and briggs, headed by Dubai's crown prince and defense minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. The markings on elizabethan golden, the deed indicate that the foundation provided purchase money to the extent of $978,031.34 to CAIR, or roughly one-third the value of the property.[81] One only wonders what a more complete investigation of does, its real estate transactions would turn up. In December 1999, the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), an organization benefiting from Saudi patronage,[82] announced at age, a press conference in Saudi Arabia that it was extending both moral and financial support to CAIR [83] to help it construct its $3.5 million headquarters in Concussions in Football Washington, D.C. WAMY also agreed to elizabethan age introduce CAIR to Saudi philanthropists and recommend their financial support for the headquarters project.[84] In 2002, CAIR and WAMY announced, again from the great daisy buchanan, Saudi Arabia, their cooperation on a $1 million public relations campaign. Age? The Saudi Gazette , which reported the story, said that CAIR's leader, Nihad Awad, had already met leading Saudi businessmen in order to brief them about the projects and raise funds.[85] Later that week on a yellow, the same fundraising trip through the Middle East, CAIR reportedly received $500,000 from Saudi prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, reputed to be one of the world's richest men.[86] Waleed also, in May 2005, stated that he is more than prepared to age work with organizations such as CAIR, and to provide needed support to them.[87] CAIR has received at least $12,000 from the International Relief Organization (also called the International Islamic Relief Organization, or IIRO), which itself was the recipient of some $10 million from its parent organization in Saudi Arabia. (See a 1994 check from the salvador dali IIRO for golden age $5,000, figure 2.) The International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) gave CAIR's Washington office $14,000 in 2003. According to a court-filed affidavit, David Kane of the U.S. Customs Service determined that the IIIT receives donations from overseas via its related entities.[88] Law enforcement is looking at the IIIT connection with Operation Green Quest, the major investigation into briggs foundation the activities of elizabethan golden age, individuals and organizations believed to be ardent supporters of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda.[89] CAIR, not surprisingly, criticized the probe of its donor, telling the Financial Times of London that the investigation is an what sky mean attack on elizabethan golden age, respected Islamic institutions.[90] Despite these many foreign sources, CAIR still claims to receive no funds from outside the biography United States. An Integral Part of the elizabethan Wahhabi Lobby. CAIR has a key role in the Wahhabi lobby—the network of organizations, usually supported by donations from the great, Saudi Arabia, whose aim is to propagate the especially extreme version of Islam practiced in elizabethan golden Saudi Arabia.

For one, it sends money to salvador other parts of the lobby. Elizabethan Golden Age? According to CAIR's Form 990 filings for 2003, its California offices invested $325,000 with the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT).[91] The NAIT was established in 1971 by the Muslim Student Association of the U.S. and Canada, which bills itself as the type precursor to the Islamic Society of North America,[92] now the largest member of the Wahhabi lobby. According to Newsweek , authorities say that over the years NAIT money has helped the golden age Saudi Arabian sect of Wahhabism—or Salafism, as the broader, pan-Islamic movement is called—to seize control of hundreds of mosques in U.S. Muslim communities.[93] J. Michael Waller, a terrorism expert, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that NAIT is salvador biography, believed to own 50 to 79 percent of the mosques in North America. According to Waller, NAIT was raided as part of Operation Green Quest in 2002, on suspicions of involvement in terrorist financing.[94] CAIR affiliates regularly speak at events sponsored by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), an umbrella organization of the elizabethan age Wahhabi lobby. Nabil Sadoun, a director of CAIR-DC, spoke at the ISNA's regional conference in 2003. Concussions? Hussam Ayloush, executive director of golden age, CAIR's Southern California chapter, and Fouad Khatib, the Concussions Essay CAIR-California chairman, spoke at age, an ISNA-sponsored event.[95] Safaa Zarzour, president of CAIR-Chicago, was also an ISNA speaker, as was Azhar Azeez, a board member of CAIR-Dallas, who has spoken at several ISNA conferences.[96] In January 2003, the Saudi newspaper Ar-Riyadh reported that Nihad Awad appeared on atomic of ca, a panel along with 'Aqil ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-'Aqil, secretary-general of the Saudi charity Al-Haramain Foundation[97]—despite that organization's well-known ties to terrorism and the fact that already in March 2002, long before Awad's visit with Al-Haramain, the U.S. and Saudi governments had jointly designated eleven of its branches financial supporter[s] of terrorism.[98] The U.S.-based branch of the organization was also subsequently designated in golden age September 2004.[99] To fully appreciate what it means that more than half of U.S. mosques are promoting Saudi Islam, we refer to the Freedom House report, Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques.

It explains that Saudi documents disseminated at U.S. mosques are telling America's Muslims that it is of marketing, a religious obligation for them to hate Christians and elizabethan golden, Jews and warning that Muslims should not have Christians and briggs, Jews as friends, nor should they help them.[100] The Freedom House report indicates that Saudi publications disseminated by U.S. mosques: say it is lawful for Muslims to elizabethan golden age physically harm and steal from adulterers and gatsby buchanan, homosexuals; condemn interpretations of Islam other than the strict Wahhabi version preached in elizabethan golden age Saudi Arabia; advocate the killing of those who convert out of Islam; assert that it is a Muslim's duty to eliminate the State of what a yellow sky mean, Israel; and golden age, promote the idea that women should be segregated and veiled and, of course, barred from some employment and activities.[101] But not to worry; CAIR's spokesman, Ibrahim Hooper, tells us, The majority of the stuff they picked is in Arabic, a language that most people in mosques don't read.[102] CAIR's personnel are normally tight-lipped about the organization's agenda but sometimes let their ambitions slip out. CAIR's long-serving chairman, Omar Ahmad, reportedly told a crowd of California Muslims in July 1998, Islam isn't in America to be equal to any other faith, but to become dominant. The Koran . should be the highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion on earth.[103] Five years later, Ahmad denied having said this and issued a press release saying he was seeking a retraction.[104] But the reporter stood behind her story, and the newspaper that reported Ahmad's remarks told WorldNetDaily it had not been contacted by CAIR.[105] In 1993, before CAIR existed, Ibrahim Hooper told a reporter: I wouldn't want to create the impression that I wouldn't like the government of the United States to be Islamic sometime in the future.[106] On the Michael Medved radio show in 2003, Hooper made the same point more positively: if Muslims ever become a majority in briggs the United States, it would be safe to elizabethan age assume that they would want to replace the U.S. Constitution with Islamic law, as most Muslims believe that God's law is superior to man-made law.[107] Other CAIR personnel also express their contempt for the United States. Ihsan Bagby of CAIR's Washington office has said that Muslims can never be full citizens of this country, referring to the United States, because there is no way we can be fully committed to the institutions and gatsby daisy buchanan, ideologies of this country.[108] Ayloush said that the war on terror has become a war on Muslims with the U.S. government the new Saddam. He concluded: So let's end this hypocrisy, this hypocrisy that we are better than the other dictator.[109] In a bizarre coda, Parvez Ahmed, the current CAIR chairman, touted the virtues of Islamic democracy in 2004 by elizabethan age portraying the Afghan constitutional process as superior to the U.S. one: The new Afghan constitution shows that the constitution of a Muslim nation can be democratic and yet not contradict the myer briggs essence of Islam. During my meeting with a high-ranking Afghan delegation during their recent visit to the United States, I was told that the elizabethan golden Afghan constitutional convention included Hindu delegates despite Hindus accounting for only 1 percent of the population. Mass Of Ca? Contrast this with our own constitutional convention that excluded women and blacks.[110] CAIR attempts to close down public debate about itself and Islam in several ways, starting with a string of lawsuits against golden public and private individuals and several publications.[111] CAIR's Rabiah Ahmed has openly acknowledged that lawsuits are increasingly an instrument for it to the great gatsby daisy use.[112] In addition, CAIR has resorted to elizabethan financial pressure in an effort to atomic of ca silence critics. One such case concerns ABC radio personality Paul Harvey, who on December 4, 2003, described the golden age vicious nature of cock fighting in Iraq, then commented: Add to the [Iraqi] thirst for blood, a religion which encourages killing, and it is entirely understandable if Americans came to this bloody party unprepared.[113] CAIR responded a day later with a demand for an on-air apology.

CAIR then issued a call to its supporters to contact Harvey's advertising sponsors to press them to does pull their ads until Harvey responds to elizabethan golden age Muslim concerns.[114] Although Harvey quickly and mass of ca, publicly retracted his remarks, CAIR continued its campaign against him. Another case of financial intimidation took place in March 2005, when CAIR campaigned to have National Review remove two books—Serge Trifkovic's The Sword of the Prophet [115] and J.L. Menezes' The Life and Religion of Mohammed [116]—as well as the positive reviews of those books, from elizabethan, its on-line bookstore. CAIR claimed the books defame Islam and myer foundation, the Prophet Muhammad. When it did not get immediate satisfaction from National Review , it instructed its partisans to elizabethan pressure the Boeing Corporation to withdraw its advertisements from the magazine.

National Review briefly took down both books but then quickly reposted the daisy one by Trifkovic. Trifkovic himself argued that CAIR's success here will only whet Islamist appetites and encourage their hope that the end-result will be a crescent on the Capitol a generation or two from now.[117] CAIR resorted to another form of intimidation versus Florida radio show host and elizabethan golden age, Baptist pastor Mike Frazier. Type Of Marketing? Frazier had criticized local and state officials in September 2004 for elizabethan age attending a CAIR awards dinner because, as he put it, If these people would have bothered to check CAIR out in Football, beforehand they would have seen that it is golden age, a radical group. He termed what followed absolutely unbelievable. Within a month, he says he received six death threats and forty-seven threatening phone calls, was accosted by strangers, was labeled an extremist and what does a yellow sky mean, a fundamentalist zealot, and accused of propagating fear, terror and disunity by the St. Petersburg Times . Several members of his church fled his congregation because, according to Frazier, they were afraid.[118] Other CAIR targets of intimidation have included the Simon Wiesenthal Center for juxtaposing a picture of the Ayatollah Khomeini next to Adolf Hitler,[119] and the Reader's Digest for an article, The Global War on elizabethan age, Christians,[120] which CAIR found smears Islam by citing well-documented cases of Christian persecution. CAIR's Nihad Awad faulted the Reader's Digest for myer briggs leaving the impression that Islam somehow encourages or permits rape, kidnapping, torture, and forced conversion.[121] In December 2003, CAIR ruined the elizabethan age career of an army officer and type of marketing, nurse, Captain Edwina McCall, who had treated American soldiers wounded in elizabethan golden Iraq and Afghanistan but ended up resigning under a cloud of salvador dali, suspicion. Her crime? Using her military e-mail address on an Internet discussion board concerning the Islamist agenda. CAIR sent the comments to golden age the secretary of defense, calling attention to her allegedly bigoted anti-Muslim comments and demanding that her extremist and Islamophobic views be investigated and then followed by appropriate action.

The Army immediately cast the officer under suspicion, leading her to resign from a career she had loved.[122] At times, CAIR inspires its attack dogs to make threats and dali, sits back when they follow through. Elizabethan Golden? After Daniel Pipes published an article in July 1999 explaining the difference between moderate and myer briggs, radical Islam,[123] CAIR launched fifteen separate attacks on him in the space of two months, attacks widely reprinted in Muslim publications. Dozens of age, letters followed to Concussions Essay the newspapers that carried Pipes' articles, some calling him harsh names (bigot and racist), others comparing him to the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis, or characterizing his writings as an atrocity filled with pure poison and elizabethan golden, outright lies. More alarmingly, the letter-writers accused the author of perpetrating a hate crime against Muslims or of promoting and abetting such crimes. One threatened: Is Pipes ready to answer the Creator for his hatred or is he a secular humanist . He will soon find out.[124] CAIR metes out even worse treatment to Muslim opponents, as the case of salvador dali biography, Khalid Duran shows. Elizabethan Golden Age? Duran taught at leading universities and wrote about Islam for think tanks; he was commissioned by the American Jewish Committee to write Children of what, Abraham: An Introduction to age Islam for Jews . Fourteen scholars of Islam endorsed the manuscript prior to does a yellow sky mean publication; it won glowing reviews from such authoritative figures as Cardinal William Keeler of Baltimore, the eminent church historian Martin Marty, and Prince Hassan of elizabethan golden, Jordan. Myer? Then, before the book was even released, CAIR issued two press releases insulting Duran personally and demanding that the Children of Abraham be withheld until a group of CAIR-approved academics could review the book to correct what it assumed (without having read the manuscript) would be its stereotypical or inaccurate content. Islamist publications quickly picked up CAIR's message, with Cairo's Al-Wafd newspaper announcing that Duran's book spreads anti-Muslim propaganda through its distortions of Islamic concepts. A weekly in Jordan reported that 'Abd al-Mun'im Abu Zant—one of that country's most powerful Islamist leaders—had declared that Duran should be regarded as an golden apostate, and on this basis called for an Islamic ruling to condone Duran's death. Days later, Duran's car was broken into, and a dead squirrel and excrement were thrown inside. CAIR, far from apologizing for the evil results of its handiwork, accused the what does American Jewish Committee of fabricating the death edict as a cheap publicity stunt to elizabethan age boost book sales.[125] CAIR has a long record of unreliability and deceit even in relatively minor matters.

To begin with, it has the audacity to Concussions in Football claim to be America's largest civil rights group,[126] ignoring much larger groups by far, such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and age, the Anti-Defamation League. In May 2005, CAIR published its annual report on the violations of Muslim civil rights in type America which purported to document a significant rise in age the number of hate crimes directed at Muslims. According to the report, anti-Muslim hate crimes in the United States have gone up dramatically: from 42 cases in 2002, to 93 cases in 2003, to 141 in in Football 2004.[127] The mainstream media dutifully recycled CAIR's press release, effectively endorsing this study by reporting it as a serious piece of research.[128] But closer inspection shows that of twenty anti-Muslim hate crimes for which CAIR gives information, at least six are invalid.[129] David Skinner points out a further problem with the 2004 report: its credulity in reporting any incident, no matter how trivial, subjective or unsubstantiated. One anecdote concerns a Muslim college student who encountered flyers and elizabethan golden age, posters with false and myer foundation, degrading statements about the Qur'an and the prophet Muhammad; another concerns a student at Roger Williams in Rhode Island who wrote that a true Muslim is taught to slay infidels. Also, any reluctance to accommodate Muslim women wearing a headscarf or veil was tallied as a bias incident, even in the case of genuine quandaries (such as veiled athletes or drivers applying for their licenses).[130] Nor is this the first unreliable CAIR study. Referring to the 1996 version, Steven Emerson noted in congressional testimony that a large proportion of the complaints have been found to golden age be fabricated, manufactured, distorted, or outside standard definitions of biography, hate crimes.[131] Jorge Martinez of the U.S. Department of Justice dismissed CAIR's 2003 report, Guilt by Association , as unfair criticism based on a lot of misinformation and propaganda.[132] CAIR's manipulative habits assert themselves even in elizabethan golden petty ways. For example, CAIR is not above conducting straw polls in an effort to forward its political agenda and may even be willing to exaggerate its own outreach efforts. This seems to of marketing be the elizabethan case in myer CAIR's library project, where it claims to elizabethan age have sent thousands of packages of books and tapes to American libraries. An inquiry turned up the curious fact that while CAIR claimed the the great gatsby District of Columbia had received thirty-seven such packages, records showed only one such copy being recorded.[133] Maybe the mailmen lost the elizabethan remaining thirty-six?

In September 2005, CAIR indulged in some Stalinist revisionism: as Robert Spencer revealed, CAIR doctored a photo on its website to make it more Islamically correct by manually adding a hijab onto Concussions in Football, a Muslim woman.[134] Despite all this, CAIR's statements continue to gain the respectful attention of uncritical media outlets. Golden Age? The few hard-hitting media analyses of CAIR generally turn up in the conservative press.[135] Otherwise, it generally wins a pass from news organizations, as Erick Stakelbeck has documented.[136] The mainstream media treat CAIR respectfully, as a legitimate organization, avoiding the of marketing less salutary topics explored here, even the elizabethan golden age multiple connections to terrorism. One telling example of the media's negligence in investigating CAIR occurred when Ghassan Elashi—a founding board member of daisy, CAIR's Texas chapter—was indicted and convicted of golden, supporting terrorism by sending money to Hamas and Mousa Abu Marzook. Reporting on this, not one single mainstream media source mentioned Elashi's CAIR connection. Worse, the media went to CAIR and quoted it on Elashi's arrest, without noting their close connection.[137] The Washington Post seems particularly loath to expose CAIR's unsavory aspects.

For example, on January 20, 2005, it ran a story about the opening of CAIR's new Virginia office on Grove Street in Herndon. The article not only passed up the opportunity to consider CAIR's presence in a town notorious for Islamist organizational connections to does a yellow Al-Qaeda and to the Wahhabi network,[138] but it was also remarkably similar in tone and style to CAIR's own press release on the same subject.[139] (A later Washington Post article did mention that the new CAIR offices are located on the very street where federal agents had conducted a major raid in March 2002.[140]) There is much else for the press to look into. Elizabethan Age? One example: CAIR-DC lists the Zahara Investment Corporation as a related organization on its IRS Form 990. Curiously, Zahara Investment Corporation was listed as a tax-exempt entity in atomic mass of ca 2002; in elizabethan 2003, it became a non-tax-exempt entity.[141] This prompts several questions: how is a tax-exempt like CAIR related to an investment company, much less a corporation? How does an investment corporation become a tax-exempt? And how does it change itself into a non-exempt?

And why did CAIR-DC invest $40,000 of the public's money in 1998 in securities that it would have to write off less than three years later? Whose securities were these? The usual databases have nothing on Zahara Investment Corporation; all this took place under the radar screen. Atomic? That the U.S. government, the mainstream media, educational institutions, and age, others have given CAIR a free pass amounts to a dereliction of duty. Yet, there appear to be no signs of change. How long will it be until the type of marketing establishment finally recognizes CAIR for what it is and denies it mainstream legitimacy? Daniel Pipes is director of the Middle East Forum. Sharon Chadha is the co-author of age, Jihad and International Security . [1] Columbus Dispatch (Ohio), Jan. Salvador Dali Biography? 1, 2002. [3] FDCH Political Transcripts , Sept. 10, 2003. [4] Bad CAIR Day: Ex-staffer pleads guilty to terror charges, Senate asks questions on 9/11 anniversary, Center for Security Policy, accessed Jan.

9, 2006. [5] Joseph Farah, Between the Lines: The Real CAIR, WorldNetDaily , Apr. 25, 2003; Steve Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society, The Journal of Counterterrorism Security International , Spring 1998. [6] Estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. Elizabethan Golden? et al. vs. Atomic Mass? Al Baraka Investment and Development Corporation , DanielPipes.org, accessed Jan. Elizabethan? 9, 2006. [7] Steven Emerson, Re: Terrorism and the Middle East Peace Process, prepared testimony before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on salvador dali, Near East and South Asia, Mar. 19, 1996. [8] The Jerusalem Post , Mar. 5, 1999. [9] Personal communication from golden, Jamal Hasan to Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2003. [11] Melissa Radler , A Different Face of Islam, Jerusalem Post International Edition , July 18, 2003. [12] Stephen Schwartz, An Activist's Guide to Arab and type of marketing, Muslim Campus and Community Organizations in North America, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 26, 2003. [14] Colin Powell, remarks at Iftaar dinner, Benjamin Franklin Room, Washington, D.C., Nov. 18, 2002. [17] Partial List of elizabethan golden, CAIR's Work with Local State and Federal Law Enforcement Authorities, CAIR website, accessed Jan.

9, 2006. [18] The Connection Newspapers , July 8, 2004. [19] Muslim-American Activism: CAIR Marks Decade of myer, Dedication, The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs , Oct. 2004, p. Age? 76. [20] CAIR-Chicago Extends Lecture Series on Islam, 'Building Bridges to Islam' Events Co-hosted by Edlerhostel, CAIR, Feb. 1, 2005. [21] United States of America v. Randall Todd Royer, et al , United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Alexandria Division, June 2003. [23] CNN, June 27, 2003. [24] FDCH Political Transcripts , June 27, 2003. [27] U.S. Department of Justice, news release, Apr. 9, 2004. Type? [28] All Things Considered, National Public Radio, Nov. 22, 2005. [29] U.S. Department of Justice, news release, July 8, 2004. [31] U.S. Department of Justice, news release, July 27, 2004. [35] Articles of golden age, Incorporation of a Colorado Nonprofit Corporation, 931135840, Dec.

8, 1993. [38] Matthew Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism in dali biography the United States, testimony before the U.S. Elizabethan Golden? Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on biography, Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security, Sept. 10, 2003. [40] The Post-Standard (Syracuse), Jan. 23, 2004. [41] CAIR et al v. Elizabethan Age? Ashcroft and Mueller complaint, p. 13. [42] U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Oct. 18, 2002. [43] Ibrahim Hooper, CAIR Responds to Daniel Pipes' Anti-Muslim Hysteria, Middle East News World Report , Aug.

25, 2000. [44] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [47] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [48] Text from Lawsuit Response, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Inc. Mass? v. Andrew Whitehead , law no. Golden? CL04-926, Virginia: In the Circuit Court for the City of of ca, Virginia Beach, Apr. 30, 2004. [50] Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2003); Deposition of Nihad Awad , Oct. 22, 2003, In the Matter of: Stanley Boim, et al. v. Elizabethan Golden? Quranic Literacy Institute, et. al , p. The Great Daisy Buchanan? 58. [54] ACLU et al. vs. Elizabethan? National Security Agency , U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, Jan. 17, 2006, pp.

30-1. [55] The New York Sun , Jan. 18, 2006. [56] The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), Mar. 25, 2004. [58] Steven Emerson, statement to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, July 9, 2003. [59] Jake Tapper, Islam's Flawed Spokesmen, Salon , Sept. Salvador Dali? 26, 2001. [60] Newsletter of the Marzuk Legal Fund , June 1996. Elizabethan? [61] The Oracle (University of South Florida), Mar. 31, 2004. Concussions? [62] CAIR Condemns Mutilation of elizabethan age, Bodies in Iraq, CAIR, Mar.

31, 2004. [65] The Tides Community Responds to 9/11/01, Groundsprings.org, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [66] February 20, 2002—National Day of Solidarity with Muslim, Arab and South Asian Immigrants, Refuse and Resist, New York, N.Y., accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [67] The Call for a National Day of Protest on what a yellow, October 22nd, 2002, to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation, October 22 Coalition, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [68] Steven Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years after the World Trade Center Bombing, statement before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on golden age, Terrorism, Technology and Government Information, Feb.

24, 1998. Type? [69] Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society; Schwartz, An Activist's Guide. [71] The Palestine Chronicle (Mountlake Terrace, Wash.), Aug. Elizabethan Age? 4, 2003. [72] CAIR Promotes and Hosts William W. Baker, Neo-Nazi, DanielPipes.org, Mar. What Does A Yellow Sky Mean? 9, 2004. [73] A Day of Discovery: Building Bridges to Islam in age Arizona, program guide, Islamic Community Center, Tempe, Ariz., May 31, 2005 and June 14, 2005. Concussions Essay? [74] The IRS offers several choices under the item Revenues, including direct public support, indirect public support, government contributions (grants), membership dues and assessments, and net income or (loss) from golden, special events or rental properties—the categories in which CAIR has classified its revenues. In Football? [76] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [79] Paul Sperry, Chapter 13: The 9/11 Imam, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [81] Deed of Trust, Doc. # 2002105143, Commercial Settlements, Inc., Washington, D.C., Aug. 7, 2002, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [82] WAMY's relationship to Saudi Arabia was described this way by its secretary general: The Kingdom provides us with a supportive environment that allows us to work openly within the society to golden age collect funds and spread activities. It also provides us with protection abroad through Saudi embassies and consulates, in addition to financial support.

WAMY Team in Afghanistan Risks Life to Deliver Aid, Middle East Newsfile, Nov. 20, 2001. [83] WAMY Spends SR12m on New Mosques, Middle East Newsfile, Dec. 23, 1999. [85] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [87] Kingdom Holding Company, news release, May 20, 2005. [88] David Kane, (Proposed Redacted) Affidavit in Support of Application for Search Warrant (October 2003), United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia. [89] Operation Green Quest, brochure, U.S. Customs Service, Office of Investigations, Washington, D.C. [90] Financial Times (London), Mar. 28, 2002. [92] A Little Taste of History, Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada website, accessed Jan. 11, 2006. [94] J. Michael Waller, statement before the foundation U.S. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on elizabethan, the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003. [95] Muslims and the Information Superhighway (MSIC 2000), Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, Calif., July 14 -16, 2000. [98] U.S.-Saudi Arabia Terrorist Financing Designations, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Mar. 11, 2002.

[99] Office of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. Department of the atomic Treasury, news release, Sept. 9, 2004. [100] New Report on Saudi Government Publications, Center for golden Religious Freedom, Freedom House, accessed Jan. 11, 2006. The Great Gatsby Buchanan? [102] Dallas Morning News , Feb. 5, 2005. [104] National Review , Apr.

8, 2003. [106] Star Tribune (Minneapolis), Apr. Elizabethan? 4, 1993. Salvador Biography? [107] Personal communication from Michael Medved, Oct. 21, 2004. [108] Quoted in Steve A. Johnson, Political Activities of Muslims in America, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, ed., The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 115. [109] Associated Press, May 8, 2004. [110] Orlando Sentinel , Feb. 23, 2004. Elizabethan Golden? [115] Regina Orthodox Press, 2002. [116] Sands Publishers, 1912. Mass? [117] Srdja Trifkovic, Caving in to elizabethan golden Jihad: National Review , CAIR, and My Book, Chronicles Magazine , Apr.

6, 2005. [118] Erick Stakelbeck, Jihad at the St. Petersburg Times , FrontPageMagazine.com , Nov. 3, 2004. [119] Muslims Exchange Letters with Wiesenthal Center about Possible Changes to myer Museum of Tolerance, CAIR, Jan. Golden Age? 6, 1998. [120] Ralph Kinney Bennett, The Global War on Christians, Reader's Digest , Aug.

1997. [122] Andrew Whitehead and Lee Kaplan, CAIR's War from Within, FrontPageMagazine.com , Mar. 9, 2004. [126] Interview with Ahmed Bedier, Fox Hannity Co ., Fox News Network, Feb. 15, 2005. [129] Daniel Pipes and Sharon Chadha, CAIR's Hate Crime Nonsense, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 18, 2005. [131] Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America. [134] Robert Spencer, Stalinism at CAIR: Photo Doctored for Islamic Correctness, Jihad Watch , Sept. 15, 2005. [135] Zev Chafets, Beware the Wolves Among Us, The New York Daily News , Sept. 28, 2001; editorial, CAIR and Terrorism, The Washington Times , July 24, 2004; David Frum, The Question of CAIR, The National Post , Nov. What A Yellow Sky Mean? 23, 2004; Eli Lake, Me Rethinks a CAIR Event, The New York Sun , Nov. 12, 2003; Daniel Pipes, CAIR: 'Moderate' Friends of Terror, The New York Post , Apr. 22, 2002; Michael Putney, Pressure May Smother Dialogue, The Miami Herald , Sept. 10, 2003; Stephen Schwartz, Not So Holy after All; The Bush Administration Takes on a Hamas Front Group, The Weekly Standard , Dec. 17, 2001; and Glenn Sheller, Muslim Group's Conflict with Discrimination Is Uphill Fight, The Columbus Dispatch , Aug.

31, 2004. [137] 4 Indicted in Texas Terror Probe, The Boston Globe , Dec. 19, 2002; 5 Brothers Charged with Aiding Hamas, The New York Times , Dec. 19, 2002; Hamas Arrests Called Unfair, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Dec. 20, 2002; Aid Sought for 5 Suspected of golden age, Terror Ties, Associated Press, Feb. Briggs? 15, 2003; Muslim Leader Criticizes Prosecution, United Press International, July 9, 2004; Muslim Leaders Blast Brothers' Convictions, The Dallas Morning News , July 10, 2004. [141] CAIR's DC office is age, required to make its Form 990 available to the public upon request.

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These forms make it simple for students to complete the elizabethan golden report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to briggs foundation, complete in the higher grades. A form is golden, also easier to grade, especially for briggs foundation, teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to elizabethan golden, go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in myer foundation paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and age, the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.

The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. Atomic Of Ca? New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and golden, their names. Plot – A basic overview of the salvador dali major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why.

A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the elizabethan age beginning, middle, and end events of the book in dali three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in elizabethan golden a word processing software, like MS Word.

Students can find book report format templates for in Football Essay, these assignments too. Age? These longer reports are written out in of marketing paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in elizabethan golden age their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into what does a yellow sky mean three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Golden? Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book.

Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is Concussions, created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Elizabethan Golden Age? Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.

Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about Concussions in Football, characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to golden age, the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the what does book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review.

Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Elizabethan Golden Age? Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Myer Foundation? Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the age main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about what does sky mean, where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and elizabethan golden age, what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article.

Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Salvador Dali? Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from age beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report.

Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is buchanan, due. Golden Age? The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Mass? Go back into the report file and make the age easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the great buchanan the report. Age? Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the salvador biography changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.

Review the report. Elizabethan Golden? Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Daisy? Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time.

Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Golden Age? Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.

Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of Essay book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to golden, complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by Concussions Essay following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to elizabethan golden age, complete each night for the report, i.e. The Great Gatsby Buchanan? make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started.

Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the elizabethan age plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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essay edge wiki Edge 183 — May 30, 2006. The hive mind is for the most part stupid and boring. Why pay attention to it? The problem is in the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly.

And that is part of the elizabethan golden, larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the Concussions Essay, idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. Elizabethan. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism [5.30.06] By Jaron Lanier. Responses to Lanier's essay from Concussions Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here] In Digital Maosim, an original essay written for Edge, computer scientist and digital visionary Jaron Lanier finds fault with what he terms the new online collectivism. He cites as an example the Wikipedia, noting that reading a Wikipedia entry is golden age, like reading the bible closely. There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is atomic, impossible to be sure.

His problem is not with the unfolding experiment of the Wikipedia itself, but the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is age, part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the in Football, collective is elizabethan, all-wise, that it is gatsby daisy, desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and golden age force. Myer Foundation. This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the age, extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. And he notes that the Wikipedia is far from what does sky mean being the only online fetish site for foolish collectivism.

There's a frantic race taking place online to elizabethan golden age, become the dali, most Meta site, to be the highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of age all other sites. Where is Concussions, this leading? Lanier calls attention to the so-called 'Artificial Intelligence' and the race to erase personality and be most Meta. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to individual human intelligence is either about to appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in golden age, order to make the purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over atomic mass of ca backwards and make themselves stupid in order to make an AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to golden, be coherent.

Read on in Football as Jaron Lanier throwns a lit Molotov cocktail down towards Palo Alto from up in the Berkeley Hills. (JARON LANIER:) My Wikipedia entry identifies me (at least this week) as a film director. It is golden age, true I made one experimental short film about a decade and a half ago. Salvador Dali Biography. The concept was awful: I tried to imagine what Maya Deren would have done with morphing. It was shown once at a film festival and golden was never distributed and I would be most comfortable if no one ever sees it again. Twice in the past several weeks, reporters have asked me about my filmmaking career.

The fantasies of the goblins have entered that portion of the world that is attempting to remain real. I know I've gotten off easy. The errors in my Wikipedia bio have been (at least prior to the publication of type of marketing this article) charming and even flattering. Reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the elizabethan, bible closely. There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure. In my particular case, it appears that the goblins are probably members or descendants of the rather sweet old Mondo 2000 culture linking psychedelic experimentation with computers.

They seem to place great importance on relating my ideas to sky mean, those of the psychedelic luminaries of old (and in ways that I happen to find sloppy and incorrect.) Edits deviating from golden age this set of buchanan odd ideas that are important to this one particular small subculture are immediately removed. This makes sense. Elizabethan. Who else would volunteer to atomic of ca, pay that much attention and do all that work? The problem I am concerned with here is not the Wikipedia in itself. It's been criticized quite a lot, especially in age, the last year, but the Wikipedia is salvador, just one experiment that still has room to change and grow. At the very least it's a success at revealing what the online people with the most determination and time on their hands are thinking, and elizabethan that's actually interesting information. No, the problem is in the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is type, different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. Elizabethan. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the myer foundation, extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by elizabethan prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous.

There was a well-publicized study in briggs foundation, Nature last year comparing the accuracy of the Wikipedia to elizabethan golden age, Encyclopedia Britannica. The results were a toss up. Briggs. While there is golden, a lingering debate about the validity of the study. The items selected for the comparison were just the sort that Wikipedia would do well on: Science topics that the collective at large doesn't care much about. Kinetic isotope effect or Vesalius, Andreas are examples of topics that make the atomic mass of ca, Britannica hard to maintain, because it takes work to find the right authors to research and review a multitude of golden age diverse topics. Gatsby Daisy Buchanan. But they are perfect for the Wikipedia. There is little controversy around these items, plus the Net provides ready access to a reasonably small number of competent specialist graduate student types possessing the manic motivation of elizabethan youth. A core belief of the wiki world is mass of ca, that whatever problems exist in the wiki will be incrementally corrected as the process unfolds. This is analogous to the claims of elizabethan age Hyper-Libertarians who put infinite faith in a free market, or the of marketing, Hyper-Lefties who are somehow able to sit through consensus decision-making processes.

In all these cases, it seems to me that empirical evidence has yielded mixed results. Sometimes loosely structured collective activities yield continuous improvements and sometimes they don't. Often we don't live long enough to find out. Later in this essay I'll point out what constraints make a collective smart. But first, it's important to not lose sight of values just because the question of elizabethan golden whether a collective can be smart is so fascinating. Atomic. Accuracy in elizabethan golden age, a text is Concussions in Football Essay, not enough. A desirable text is more than a collection of accurate references. Elizabethan Golden. It is also an expression of personality. For instance, most of the Concussions in Football Essay, technical or scientific information that is in elizabethan age, the Wikipedia was already on the Web before the Wikipedia was started. You could always use Google or other search services to find information about items that are now wikified.

In some cases I have noticed specific texts get cloned from original sites at universities or labs onto wiki pages. And when that happens, each text loses part of its value. Since search engines are now more likely to Concussions Essay, point you to elizabethan age, the wikified versions, the Web has lost some of its flavor in casual use. When you see the context in which something was written and the great you know who the author was beyond just a name, you learn so much more than when you find the same text placed in the anonymous, faux-authoritative, anti-contextual brew of the Wikipedia. The question isn't just one of authentication and accountability, though those are important, but something more subtle. A voice should be sensed as a whole. You have to have a chance to sense personality in order for language to have its full meaning. Personal Web pages do that, as do journals and books. Elizabethan Golden Age. Even Britannica has an editorial voice, which some people have criticized as being vaguely too Dead White Men. If an ironic Web site devoted to destroying cinema claimed that I was a filmmaker, it would suddenly make sense. That would be an authentic piece of text.

But placed out of context in the Wikipedia, it becomes drivel. Myspace is another recent experiment that has become even more influential than the Wikipedia. Like the salvador biography, Wikipedia, it adds just a little to elizabethan, the powers already present on the Web in order to inspire a dramatic shift in use. Myspace is all about authorship, but it doesn't pretend to be all-wise. You can always tell at least a little about the briggs, character of the person who made a Myspace page. Golden. But it is very rare indeed that a Myspace page inspires even the slightest confidence that the Concussions Essay, author is a trustworthy authority. Golden Age. Hurray for Myspace on that count! Myspace is a richer, multi-layered, source of information than the Wikipedia, although the topics the two services cover barely overlap.

If you want to research a TV show in terms of salvador what people think of it, Myspace will reveal more to you than the analogous and enormous entries in the Wikipedia. The Wikipedia is far from being the only online fetish site for foolish collectivism. There's a frantic race taking place online to elizabethan golden, become the most Meta site, to be the highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of all other sites. The race began innocently enough with the notion of creating directories of online destinations, such as the early incarnations of Yahoo. Then came AltaVista, where one could search using an inverted database of the content of the whole Web. Salvador Biography. Then came Google, which added page rank algorithms. Elizabethan Golden. Then came the blogs, which varied greatly in terms of quality and importance.

This lead to Meta-blogs such as Boing Boing, run by identified humans, which served to aggregate blogs. In all of type these formulations, real people were still in charge. Golden Age. An individual or individuals were presenting a personality and taking responsibility. These Web-based designs assumed that value would flow from people. Gatsby Buchanan. It was still clear, in all such designs, that the Web was made of elizabethan golden people, and that ultimately value always came from connecting with real humans.

Even Google by itself (as it stands today) isn't Meta enough to be a problem. One layer of Concussions in Football page ranking is hardly a threat to authorship, but an accumulation of many layers can create a meaningless murk, and that is age, another matter. In the last year or two the trend has been to remove the scent of people, so as to salvador dali biography, come as close as possible to simulating the appearance of content emerging out of the Web as if it were speaking to us as a supernatural oracle. This is where the golden, use of the Internet crosses the line into delusion. Kevin Kelly, the former editor of Whole Earth Review and the founding Executive Editor of Wired , is a friend and type someone who has been thinking about what he and others call the golden age, Hive Mind.

He runs a Website called Cool Tools that's a cross between a blog and the old Whole Earth Catalog . On Cool Tools , the contributors, including me, are not a hive because we are identified. In March, Kelly reviewed a variety of Consensus Web filters such as Digg and Reddit that assemble material every day from all the myriad of other aggregating sites. Myer Foundation. Such sites intend to golden age, be more Meta than the sites they aggregate. There is no person taking responsibility for what appears on them, only an algorithm. The hope seems to be that the most Meta site will become the mother of all bottlenecks and receive infinite funding.

That new magnitude of Meta-ness lasted only a month. In April, Kelly reviewed a site called popurls that aggregates consensus Web filtering sites. and there was a new most Meta. We now are reading what a collectivity algorithm derives from what other collectivity algorithms derived from dali biography what collectives chose from elizabethan what a population of mostly amateur writers wrote anonymously. Is popurls any good? I am writing this on May 27, 2006.

In the last few days an experimental approach to diabetes management has been announced that might prevent nerve damage. That's huge news for tens of millions of Concussions Americans. Elizabethan Golden. It is in Football Essay, not mentioned on popurls. Popurls does clue us in to this news: Student sets simultaneous world ice cream-eating record, worst ever ice cream headache. Mainstream news sources all lead today with a serious earthquake in Java. Popurls includes a few mentions of the event, but they are buried within the aggregation of aggregate news sites like Google News.

The reason the quake appears on popurls at all can be discovered only if you dig through all the aggregating layers to age, find the original sources, which are those rare entries actually created by Concussions Essay professional writers and golden editors who sign their names. But at atomic mass of ca, the layer of popurls, the ice cream story and elizabethan golden the Javanese earthquake are at best equals, without context or authorship. Kevin Kelly says of the popurls site, There's no better way to watch the hive mind. Concussions Essay. But the hive mind is for the most part stupid and boring. Why pay attention to it? Readers of my previous rants will notice a parallel between my discomfort with so-called Artificial Intelligence and elizabethan golden age the race to erase personality and be most Meta. Salvador. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to elizabethan, individual human intelligence is either about to dali biography, appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in elizabethan age, order to make the purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over backwards and make themselves stupid in type of marketing, order to make an AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to be coherent.

There is a pedagogical connection between the elizabethan age, culture of Artificial Intelligence and the strange allure of anonymous collectivism online. Google's vast servers and the Wikipedia are both mentioned frequently as being the Concussions in Football, startup memory for Artificial Intelligences to come. Larry Page is quoted via a link presented to me by popurls this morning (who knows if it's accurate) as speculating that an AI might appear within Google within a few years. George Dyson has wondered if such an entity already exists on the Net, perhaps perched within Google. My point here is not to argue about the age, existence of Metaphysical entities, but just to does a yellow, emphasize how premature and dangerous it is to elizabethan age, lower the expectations we hold for individual human intellects.

The beauty of the Internet is what sky mean, that it connects people. The value is in the other people. If we start to believe the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we're devaluing those people and making ourselves into idiots. Compounding the problem is that new business models for golden age, people who think and write have not appeared as quickly as we all hoped. Newspapers, for instance, are on the whole facing a grim decline as the Internet takes over the feeding of the curious eyes that hover over the great daisy morning coffee and, even worse, classified ads. In the new environment, Google News is for the moment better funded and enjoys a more secure future than most of the elizabethan golden, rather small number of fine reporters around the world who ultimately create most of its content. The aggregator is richer than the aggregated. The question of new business models for content creators on the Internet is a profound and difficult topic in itself, but it must at least be pointed out that writing professionally and well takes time and biography that most authors need to be paid to take that time. In this regard, blogging is not writing.

For example, it's easy to be loved as a blogger. All you have to do is golden age, play to the crowd. Or you can flame the salvador dali, crowd to get attention. Nothing is wrong with either of those activities. What I think of as real writing, however, writing meant to last, is elizabethan, something else.

It involves articulating a perspective that is not just reactive to yesterday's moves in what, a conversation. The artificial elevation of all things Meta is not confined to online culture. It is having a profound influence on how decisions are made in America. What we are witnessing today is the alarming rise of the golden, fallacy of the infallible collective. Numerous elite organizations have been swept off their feet by the idea.

They are inspired by the rise of the Wikipedia, by the wealth of Google, and by of marketing the rush of entrepreneurs to elizabethan, be the most Meta. Government agencies, top corporate planning departments, and major universities have all gotten the bug. As a consultant, I used to be asked to test an type of marketing, idea or propose a new one to solve a problem. Golden. In the biography, last couple of years I've often been asked to elizabethan golden age, work quite differently. You might find me and the other consultants filling out survey forms or tweaking edits to a collective essay. I'm saying and doing much less than I used to, even though I'm still being paid the same amount. Atomic Of Ca. Maybe I shouldn't complain, but the actions of big institutions do matter, and golden it's time to speak out against atomic of ca the collectivity fad that is upon us.

It's not hard to see why the elizabethan, fallacy of salvador dali collectivism has become so popular in big organizations: If the principle is correct, then individuals should not be required to take on risks or responsibilities. We live in times of tremendous uncertainties coupled with infinite liability phobia, and we must function within institutions that are loyal to no executive, much less to any lower level member. Every individual who is afraid to say the wrong thing within his or her organization is safer when hiding behind a wiki or some other Meta aggregation ritual. I've participated in a number of elite, well-paid wikis and Meta-surveys lately and have had a chance to observe the results. I have even been part of a wiki about elizabethan age wikis. What I've seen is a loss of salvador biography insight and subtlety, a disregard for the nuances of considered opinions, and an increased tendency to enshrine the official or normative beliefs of an organization. Why isn't everyone screaming about the recent epidemic of inappropriate uses of the collective? It seems to me the reason is that bad old ideas look confusingly fresh when they are packaged as technology. The collective rises around us in multifarious ways.

What afflicts big institutions also afflicts pop culture. For instance, it has become notoriously difficult to introduce a new pop star in the music business. Even the most successful entrants have hardly ever made it past the first album in the last decade or so. The exception is American Idol. Golden. As with the Wikipedia, there's nothing wrong with it. The problem is gatsby daisy buchanan, its centrality. More people appear to elizabethan golden age, vote in this pop competition than in presidential elections, and one reason why is the instant convenience of information technology. The collective can vote by does phone or by texting, and some vote more than once.

The collective is age, flattered and it responds. The winners are likable, almost by definition. But John Lennon wouldn't have won. He wouldn't have made it to the finals. In Football Essay. Or if he had, he would have ended up a different sort of person and artist. The same could be said about Jimi Hendrix, Elvis, Joni Mitchell, Duke Ellington, David Byrne, Grandmaster Flash, Bob Dylan (please!), and almost anyone else who has been vastly influential in age, creating pop music. As below, so above. The New York Times , of all places, has recently published op-ed pieces supporting the pseudo-idea of intelligent design. This is astonishing. Atomic. The Times has become the paper of golden averaging opinions. Something is lost when American Idol becomes a leader instead of a follower of pop music.

But when intelligent design shares the Concussions Essay, stage with real science in the paper of record, everything is lost. How could the Times have fallen so far? I don't know, but I would imagine the process was similar to what I've seen in the consulting world of late. It's safer to be the aggregator of the collective. You get to include all sorts of elizabethan golden material without committing to anything. You can be superficially interesting without having to worry about the possibility of being wrong. Except when intelligent thought really matters. In that case the average idea can be quite wrong, and only the type of marketing, best ideas have lasting value. Science is like that.

The collective isn't always stupid. Elizabethan. In some special cases the collective can be brilliant. For instance, there's a demonstrative ritual often presented to incoming students at business schools. In one version of the ritual, a large jar of jellybeans is placed in the front of a classroom. Briggs Foundation. Each student guesses how many beans there are. While the guesses vary widely, the average is usually accurate to an uncanny degree.

This is an example of the special kind of intelligence offered by elizabethan golden a collective. It is that peculiar trait that has been celebrated as the daisy buchanan, Wisdom of Crowds, though I think the word wisdom is golden age, misleading. It is part of what makes Adam Smith's Invisible Hand clever, and is connected to the reasons Google's page rank algorithms work. Salvador Biography. It was long ago adapted to futurism, where it was known as the elizabethan, Delphi technique. The phenomenon is real, and immensely useful. But it is not infinitely useful.

The collective can be stupid, too. Witness tulip crazes and stock bubbles. Hysteria over fictitious satanic cult child abductions. Y2K mania. What makes a market work, for instance, is the marriage of collective and individual intelligence. A marketplace can't exist only on the basis of having prices determined by competition. It also needs entrepreneurs to come up with the salvador, products that are competing in the first place. In other words, clever individuals, the heroes of the golden age, marketplace, ask the questions which are answered by collective behavior.

They put the jellybeans in the jar. There are certain types of answers that ought not be provided by an individual. When a government bureaucrat sets a price, for instance, the result is often inferior to the answer that would come from a reasonably informed collective that is reasonably free of manipulation or runaway internal resonances. But when a collective designs a product, you get design by committee, which is a derogatory expression for a reason. Here I must take a moment to comment on Linux and similar efforts. The various formulations of open or free software are different from the type, Wikipedia and the race to be most Meta in important ways.

Linux programmers are not anonymous and in fact personal glory is part of the motivational engine that keeps such enterprises in motion. But there are similarities, and the lack of a coherent voice or design sensibility in an esthetic sense is one negative quality of both open source software and the Wikipedia. These movements are at their most efficient while building hidden information plumbing layers, such as Web servers. They are hopeless when it comes to producing fine user interfaces or user experiences. If the code that ran the Wikipedia user interface were as open as the contents of the entries, it would churn itself into impenetrable muck almost immediately.

The collective is good at solving problems which demand results that can be evaluated by uncontroversial performance parameters, but bad when taste and judgment matter. Collectives can be just as stupid as any individual, and in elizabethan, important cases, stupider. Type. The interesting question is whether it's possible to map out golden where the one is smarter than the Concussions Essay, many. There is a lot of history to this topic, and elizabethan varied disciplines have lots to say. Essay. Here is a quick pass at where I think the boundary between effective collective thought and nonsense lies: The collective is more likely to be smart when it isn't defining its own questions, when the goodness of an answer can be evaluated by a simple result (such as a single numeric value,) and when the information system which informs the collective is filtered by a quality control mechanism that relies on individuals to a high degree. Under those circumstances, a collective can be smarter than a person.

Break any one of elizabethan golden age those conditions and the collective becomes unreliable or worse. Meanwhile, an individual best achieves optimal stupidity on those rare occasions when one is both given substantial powers and insulated from the results of his or her actions. If the above criteria have any merit, then there is an unfortunate convergence. The setup for the most stupid collective is also the setup for the most stupid individuals. Every authentic example of collective intelligence that I am aware of also shows how that collective was guided or inspired by well-meaning individuals. These people focused the collective and in some cases also corrected for some of the common hive mind failure modes.

The balancing of influence between people and collectives is the heart of the design of democracies, scientific communities, and foundation many other long-standing projects. There's a lot of experience out there to work with. A few of golden age these old ideas provide interesting new ways to approach the question of how to best use the hive mind. The pre-Internet world provides some great examples of how personality-based quality control can improve collective intelligence. For instance, an independent press provides tasty news about politicians by reporters with strong voices and reputations, like the Watergate reporting of Woodward and Bernstein. Other writers provide product reviews, such as Walt Mossberg in The Wall Street Journal and David Pogue in The New York Times . Such journalists inform the collective's determination of election results and pricing. Without an independent press, composed of heroic voices, the collective becomes stupid and unreliable, as has been demonstrated in many historical instances. (Recent events in in Football Essay, America have reflected the weakening of the press, in my opinion.) Scientific communities likewise achieve quality through a cooperative process that includes checks and balances, and ultimately rests on a foundation of goodwill and blind elitism blind in the sense that ideally anyone can gain entry, but only on age the basis of a meritocracy. The tenure system and many other aspects of the academy are designed to support the salvador dali biography, idea that individual scholars matter, not just the process or the collective.

Another example: Entrepreneurs aren't the golden, only heroes of a marketplace. The role of a central bank in an economy is not the same as that of a communist party official in a centrally planned economy. Even though setting an interest rate sounds like the answering of a question, it is really more like the asking of a question. The Fed asks the market to answer the question of how to best optimize for lowering inflation, for instance. While that might not be the type of marketing, question everyone would want to have asked, it is at least coherent. Yes, there have been plenty of scandals in government, the academy and in elizabethan golden age, the press. No mechanism is perfect, but still here we are, having benefited from all of these institutions. There certainly have been plenty of bad reporters, self-deluded academic scientists, incompetent bureaucrats, and so on. Can the hive mind help keep them in check? The answer provided by experiments in the pre-Internet world is yes, but only provided some signal processing is placed in Concussions in Football, the loop. Some of the regulating mechanisms for collectives that have been most successful in the pre-Internet world can be understood in elizabethan age, part as modulating the time domain.

For instance, what if a collective moves too readily and quickly, jittering instead of settling down to provide a single answer? This happens on the most active Wikipedia entries, for example, and myer foundation has also been seen in some speculation frenzies in open markets. One service performed by representative democracy is low-pass filtering. Imagine the jittery shifts that would take place if a wiki were put in charge of elizabethan golden writing laws. It's a terrifying thing to consider. Super-energized people would be struggling to shift the wording of the tax-code on salvador a frantic, never-ending basis. The Internet would be swamped.

Such chaos can be avoided in the same way it already is, albeit imperfectly, by the slower processes of elections and court proceedings. The calming effect of golden orderly democracy achieves more than just the smoothing out of Concussions Essay peripatetic struggles for consensus. Elizabethan Golden. It also reduces the potential for the collective to suddenly jump into type of marketing an over-excited state when too many rapid changes to answers coincide in such a way that they don't cancel each other out. (Technical readers will recognize familiar principles in signal processing.) The Wikipedia has recently slapped a crude low pass filter on elizabethan the jitteriest entries, such as President George W. Bush. There's now a limit to Essay, how often a particular person can remove someone else's text fragments. I suspect that this will eventually have to evolve into an approximate mirror of democracy as it was before the Internet arrived. The reverse problem can also appear. Elizabethan Age. The hive mind can be on the right track, but moving too slowly.

Sometimes collectives would yield brilliant results given enough time but there isn't enough time. A problem like global warming would automatically be addressed eventually if the atomic mass of ca, market had enough time to respond to it, for instance. Insurance rates would climb, and age so on. Alas, in this case there isn't enough time, because the market conversation is slowed down by the legacy effect of existing investments. Therefore some other process has to intervene, such as politics invoked by individuals.

Another example of the the great, slow hive problem: There was a lot of technology developed slowly in the millennia before there was a clear idea of how to be empirical, how to have a peer reviewed technical literature and an education based on it, and before there was an efficient market to determine the value of elizabethan golden inventions. Concussions. What is age, crucial to notice about modernity is that structure and constraints were part of what sped up the the great gatsby daisy buchanan, process of technological development, not just pure openness and concessions to the collective. Let's suppose that the Wikipedia will indeed become better in some ways, as is claimed by the faithful, over elizabethan golden a period of time. We might still need something better sooner. Some wikitopians explicitly hope to salvador, see education subsumed by wikis.

It is at least possible that in the fairly near future enough communication and education will take place through anonymous Internet aggregation that we could become vulnerable to a sudden dangerous empowering of the hive mind. History has shown us again and again that a hive mind is a cruel idiot when it runs on autopilot. Nasty hive mind outbursts have been flavored Maoist, Fascist, and religious, and elizabethan these are only type of marketing, a small sampling. I don't see why there couldn't be future social disasters that appear suddenly under the cover of technological utopianism. If wikis are to gain any more influence they ought to be improved by mechanisms like the ones that have worked tolerably well in the pre-Internet world. The hive mind should be thought of age as a tool.

Empowering the collective does not empower individuals just the reverse is true. There can be useful feedback loops set up between individuals and the hive mind, but the hive mind is atomic of ca, too chaotic to golden, be fed back into itself. These are just a few ideas about atomic how to train a potentially dangerous collective and not let it get out of the yard. When there's a problem, you want it to bark but not bite you. The illusion that what we already have is close to good enough, or that it is alive and will fix itself, is the most dangerous illusion of all. By avoiding that nonsense, it ought to be possible to find a humanistic and practical way to maximize value of the collective on age the Web without turning ourselves into idiots.

The best guiding principle is to always cherish individuals first. Jaron Lanier is a film director. He writes a monthly column for Discover Magazine. Responses to Lanier's essay from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here]

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Example Of A Business Analyst Resume. Hi, do you know one of the best roles you can play on a project is that of golden a business analyst? That’s right. The business analyst gets to talk ‘business’ with the users – ‘re-engineering’ work processes, gathering system requirements and otherwise perform all manner of interesting data analysis. It is one of the most popular jobs in the IT industry and – increasingly – one of the most important, next to gatsby daisy buchanan the project manager. If you’re looking for a business analyst role in a company, you should know there are certain skill sets you need to elizabethan bring out in your resume.

A business analyst needs to be an myer foundation, excellent communicator. A detail oriented person. Very good with presentations to senior management. Great at time management, scope control and negotiation. The list goes on. In this article, I thought I’d share with you what an elizabethan, example of dali a business analyst resume, so you get a good idea what sort of skills and elizabethan age experiences you should bring out. Learn what to include in a business analyst resume. Now, before we zoom in on how a business analyst resume should look like, let’s first understand what a BA does. To me, the role of a business analyst really comes down to a few things.

A business analyst is: A requirements modeler A junior project manager Industry and solution expert. Let’s try to understand each of the above. First and foremost, I think that a BA is a ‘requirements modeler’. Essay. What is a requirements modeler? To me, it’s someone who can extract business system requirements from stakeholders and elizabethan represent them in atomic mass of ca a form that is golden easy for BOTH business and IT to understand. The truth is that, modern business systems are tremendously complex beasts and you need a ‘bridge between business and IT’ (i.e. the business analyst) to ensure what the system users think the system should be is salvador biography truly represented in the ultimate system delivered by IT. It takes a special skill set in elizabethan order to do this, including an analytical mindset to challenge and automate manual choke points in business processes, a good grasp of daisy technology, as well as careful attention to details in system specifications.

The other role I think a BA plays is that of elizabethan a junior project manager. How is atomic of ca a business analyst a project manager? I’ve touched briefly on this topic, playing out the areas where PMs and BAs have overlapping skill sets. A BA is also a junior project manager. You see, a BA needs to do many of the things a PM does – define and control scope, negotiate change requests to the system, facilitate meetings / workshops and be adept at managing senior stakeholders. The one areas BAs don’t touch though, is the elizabethan ‘big picture’ – they focus on one particular module or functional domain, but leave the type running of the entire project – milestones and elizabethan golden go-live dates – to the PM. A BA is also adept at industry and does sky mean system solutions.

For a business analyst in the banking domain, this means he or she is well versed in banking parlance, e.g. client risk profiling, investment suitability, CRM, sales / services channels, CASA, e-banking, ATM kiosks, the elizabethan golden age trade life cycle – the foundation list goes on. In addition, the BA will know some specific system solutions (e.g. Siebel for CRM, Temenos for core banking systems) which help them in golden answering users’ queries as to whether a solution can meet their business requirements. The best BAs also certify themselves, tapping on the accreditation programmes rolled out by what a yellow sky mean, third-party vendors (e.g. certified Siebel or Temenos consultants are in high demand out elizabethan there). I’ve gone on type of marketing at length about what a BA does and elizabethan I’m starting to detract from the actual purpose of this article – business analyst resume. But I feel it’s important to understand the BA role well so that you can represent your skill sets much better to your potential employer. Ok, let’s jump into a example of a yellow a business analyst resume, which I’ve attached over golden age here (confidential content has been sanitized). I’ve used this resume format for salvador dali biography many years and used it to clinch BA (and also project manager positions) in age well-known consulting firms and international banks in Asia (particularly Singapore).

If you look at salvador biography, the sample resume, you’ll see the following major sections: Professional Profile Work Experience Education Professional Memberships and Certification Publications Awards / Recognitions Areas of elizabethan golden age Expertise (Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical) Let’s step through each section in turn. The professional profile section is easily the MOST important section your entire BA resume. Why? Because it’s the Concussions in Football first thing your potential interviewer will read! Get it wrong, and golden age it’s likely your resume is headed for the thrash bin. The intention of what does this section is to give the employer an golden age, overview of your career profile to-date.

So in myer briggs the sample resume I’ve attached, I first talk about my role and elizabethan golden age what I do in the great daisy my CURRENT company . Then I follow up with the roles and responsibilities in my PREVIOUS companies. Keep these short and sweet, probably not more than a paragraph per employer in your job history. Golden. As you describe your roles, mention WHAT role it is , what the major responsibilities were and how many YEARS your spent there. I’d then round off with a paragraph on mass my specializations and golden age skill sets – for a system business analyst, it’s good to bring out three things here – functional domain knowledge (i.e. what you know about the banking business), methodologies you employ and also geographical areas you’ve worked in. It’s also useful to bring out Essay any major accreditation you have in this section. In particular, it’s interesting to note I mentioned ‘ geographical areas ‘ in the above. Increasingly, employers (at least those in Asia) are interested in golden candidates with a broad international outlook – so if you’ve worked in the Congo, Moscow or Borneo – those are great highlights to include here. The countries you’ve worked in also help to biography differentiate your resume just a wee bit from the others – I mean, everyone may know about golden age banking business analysis, requirements gathering and myer briggs so forth, but not many may have done such work in several Asian countries. The next section – work experience – is elizabethan golden age critical for detailing your job history. Does A Yellow Sky Mean. For a business analyst, your most relevant experience are the projects you’ve been on. So focus on the projects you’ve done over the years (instead of Business-As-Usual (BAU) roles).

I start this section off by listing down each company I’ve worked for golden age in reverse chronological order (latest first). Then, for each company, I start off specifying the myer briggs DURATION of the employment there, along with a brief paragraph describing the ROLE I played in the company. If you played several roles in elizabethan golden the company during your tenure, I’d find a suitable role title and dali still stick to a one paragraph description of what you did there. Then, once the overall description of the role you played at elizabethan, the company is complete, I go project by project and specify the DURATION , the LOCATION and the ROLE I played in each project. Bringing out your relevant work experience is critical in a resume. If I played multiple roles in Concussions in Football Essay a project, I combine the role titles or separate them with a slash. Each role in a project is accompanied with a paragraph describing what responsibilities I had in golden age the role.

I also try to focus on OUTPUT (meaning the KPIs I achieved, exactly HOW MANY documents I wrote, the SIZE of Concussions Essay teams I led, or the CONTRACT VALUE of projects I’ve been on) These numbers help to quantify and lock in the interviewer’s attention and also make your contributions very explicit and measurable (as opposed to elizabethan being fluffy). Do take note that the type of marketing work experience section can be very long, especially if you have a decade or more of work experience. If that’s the case, I’d suggest you DO NOT highlight each and every project you did in the companies you worked for elizabethan golden age – either you highlight only the salvador key projects or leave the projects out altogether, describing only the role you played at the company in one or two paragraphs. For senior hires, most employers won’t expect you to describe EVERY project you did in elizabethan your career history anyway. Case Study: I’ve been in (at last count) over 16 projects in my 12-year career in IT and management consulting.

When I left my first IT consulting firm to apply for a business analyst role in a bank, I used the daisy buchanan template above. It worked out really well . Over time, I tweaked the format once in a while so as to suit whatever position I was applying for. So in elizabethan golden the end, I’ve a collection of resume templates that can be used in almost any job application I make. You should do that too – tweak your resume slightly to cater to different job applications . In the long run, you’ll have a ‘resume template library’ ready to meet any job application situation. Also, do take note that employers make reference checks. Be careful about mentioning work experience that you DON’T HAVE.

I’ve known some young candidates who played up their work experience so they could negotiate for better salaries or positions, but I’d NEVER advise you to do that. Be truthful, sell yourself based on what you have – don’t befuddle your employer. Also, you’d do well to customize your work experience to the role you’re applying for. If, for example, you’re applying for Essay a banking business analyst position – I’d naturally play up my expertise with banking system solutions and also banking domain knowledge. I’d leave out elizabethan age projects which delve into telecommunications, manufacturing or other unrelated area. The next section on the great buchanan education is also important.

List out any degrees / certificates and the education institutions from which they were obtained. Elizabethan Golden. It’s also important to indicate the year in which the degrees / certificate was conferred. Remember that many employers check back with educational institutions as to whether your entries are valid – so don’t be daft and declare that you have some educational qualification that you don’t. Professional Memberships and Certification. Any professional memberships / certifications you have should go into Concussions in Football Essay, this section. If you’re a certified business analyst (e.g. you have an elizabethan, accreditation from the International Institute of Business Analysis, or IIBA), then put it down. Or, if you’re a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) – you should also put it down here.

You’d be surprised – many employers of myer BAs and PMs these days DO in fact look at the IIBA and PMP as validations of elizabethan golden your capabilities. So they are good accreditations to the great daisy buchanan go after. If you’ve written articles or got your content published in any academic or industry journal, make it known here. I always encourage my juniors to get known for something in elizabethan age the industry. For example, I execute projects in the private banking industry, so a natural niche where I can share knowledge is in private banking IT systems. In Football Essay. I try to locate some well-known magazines or journals to contribute to – and if you’re published, it really adds credibility to your level of expertise.

The same goes for any awards or recognitions you have – be they academic or from industry. Take note not to go overboard though – I’d list down more professional level awards rather than awards you got from school – unless the school award you got is really significant. I also include a couple of elizabethan age sections at the end of the business analyst resume in the areas of Industries, Skill Areas, Software, Technical. Why do I split it like this? Because I want to myer draw the elizabethan age employer’s attention to my skills. Take note that you should not list down EVERY single skill you have. Rather, consider the what a yellow sky mean needs of your potential employer and list down any RELEVANT skill you have. If I’m applying to elizabethan age be a project manager, then one of my Skill Areas should be project management and stakeholder management, for Concussions in Football example. If you’re applying for elizabethan a role of the great gatsby daisy a business analyst in implementing a core banking system, I’d name systems like Temenos, Olympic or SilverLake under the Software section.

If I am trying to clinch a BA role that is a bit more technical, I may list down under Technical skills the expertise I have in C++, Oracle, Microsoft SQL server, etc. The above are the golden basics of what a yellow sky mean what goes into a sample business analyst resume. I do have some other thoughts about BA job roles that may be useful for elizabethan golden you to know. Business analysts are very hot roles in the market, particularly in Concussions in Football Essay industries like banking and elizabethan golden insurance. Most firms like to hire business analysts because (1) they are cheaper than project managers (2) they can handle a significant portion of the software development life cycle (SDLC) – from requirements, to some design, as well as testing. Make sure you do some research into type of marketing, the salary range of a business analyst in the industry you’re going to.

If you’ve have previous experience as a BA, even if you’re in a different industry, chances are the employer will still give you a shot. BAs are known for elizabethan golden age being able to adapt and execute project methodologies regardless of what industry or solution domain they are in. It’s certainly advantageous to know what private banking is about or how a CRM software works, but on the whole, the Concussions Essay foundational skill set of a BA (data analysis and elicitation of requirements) is elizabethan age something that is applicable to ANY industry . I never did tell you that I love being a BA. Atomic Mass. You know, in my current role, I’m a project manager, but I really miss the days of elizabethan being a BA. The reason? A BA is the salvador biography best role for understanding a business and you get to interview, run workshops and interact with all sorts of people . And I because I’m in consulting, I get to do it for many different financial institutions. Also, a BA gets to really ‘dig in’ and become the ‘go to’ person throughout a project. Because you’re there since the start of the project, and you understand what the users want, you’re a natural subject matter expert on all business requirements within the project team. I enjoy being that ‘go to’ person throughout the duration of the elizabethan golden age project.

Also, I guess I prefer a BA job that over a programmer’s job where I’m hunched over a computer screen all day. I also prefer it over being say, a solution architect of IT systems. But I guess after a decade of BA experience, most people move on to being project managers (like I have) or start on other different adventures. I just want to does sky mean make it known being a BA is age great! So treasure your time if you get a BA job. I hope the above has given you a good understanding of two things. Firstly, you should now know what a BA does and what kind of roles he or she plays in a system implementation project. Secondly, and very importantly, I’ve shown you an example of a good business analysis resume so that you have a better chance of securing an interview with your potential employer. If you have any questions at all about myer briggs foundation embarking on a BA career, do drop me a note. I’d love to share my thoughts with you, particularly on the BA job market here in Asia and in Singapore.

That’s all I have for now. Until next time, good luck hunting for that BA job!