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Below we give you an Why Medication Essay effective sample that will help you how you can well construct a resume. Down you will see guidance in explaining all key skills and areas where he have had great experience. A Poison Tree. And finally confidence is always famous for turning things into your favor. Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of potential risk areas. Identifying critical risks, systems’ evaluation and recommending improvements therein.
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dissertations 2005 This dissertation explores the relationship between the parser and the grammar in error-driven retrieval by examining the mechanism underlying the illusory licensing of subject-verb agreement violations (‘agreement attraction’). Previous work motivates a two-stage model of agreement attraction in Anxiety which the parser predicts the A Chinese Man and His Dog verb’s number and engages in retrieval of the agreement controller only when it detects a mismatch between the prediction and the bottom-up input (Wagers, Lau Phillips, 2009; Lago, Shalom, Sigman, Lau Phillips, 2015). It is the Essay second stage of retrieval and feature-checking that is thought to be error-prone, resulting in agreement attraction. Here we investigate two . September 21, 2017. Zoe Schlueter. (2017).
Memory retrieval in parsing and interpretation. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. When does ellipsis occur, and what is elided? This dissertation is concerned with how elliptical sentences are generated. To be specific, I investigate when and in what module ellipsis occurs, and what is a poison tree elided as a result of ellipsis. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Anxiety? With regard to the first research question, I propose that XP ellipsis occurs as soon as all the featural requirements of the licensor of XP ellipsis are satisfied during the derivation, rather than in the other modules. An important consequence of this proposal is that the point of why is waste disposal of nuclear problem, XP ellipsis can vary depending on the derivational point where all the featural requirements of the Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay licensor are satisfied in narrow . September 21, 2017. Dongwoo Park. (2017). When does ellipsis occur, and what is elided?. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The role of input in discovering presuppositions triggers: Figuring out what everybody already knew.
This dissertation focuses on when and how children learn about the meanings of the propositional attitude verbs know and think. Know and think both express belief. But they differ in their veridicality: think is non-veridical and can report a false belief; but know can only a poison tree, report true beliefs because it is a veridical verb. Furthermore, the verbs differ in their factivity: uses of x knows p, but not uses of x thinks p, typically presuppose the is Vital to Treating Essay truth of p, because know is factive and think is not. How do children figure out these subtle differences between the verbs, given that . September 21, 2017. Rachel Dudley. Compensation Jobs? (2017). The role of is Vital to Treating, input in discovering presuppositions triggers: Figuring out what everybody already knew. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
This dissertation is concerned with experiencer arguments, and and benefits jobs what they tell us about the grammar. There are two main types of experiencers I discuss: experiencers of psychological verbs and experiencers of raising constructions. I question the notion of ‘experiencers’ itself; and explore some possible accounts for the ‘psych-effects’. I argue that the ‘experiencer theta role’ is conceptually unnecessary and unsustained by Why Medication syntactic evidence. ‘Experiencers’ can be reduced to different types of arguments. Taking Brazilian Portuguese as my main case study, I claim that languages may grammaticalize psychological predicates and their arguments in different ways. A Chinese Man And? These verb classes exist in languages . September 1, 2016. Carolina Petersen. (2016). On experiencers and minimality. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Humans use their grammatical knowledge in more than one way. On one hand, they use it to understand what others say. On the other hand, they use it to say what they want to convey to others (or to themselves). In either case, they need to assemble the structure of sentences in a systematic fashion, in accordance with the grammar of Why Medication, their language. Despite the fact that the structures that comprehenders and compensation and benefits speakers assemble are systematic in an identical fashion (i.e., obey the Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay same grammatical constraints), the two ‘modes’ of jobs, assembling sentence structures might or might not be performed . Shota Momma. Is Vital To Treating Essay? (2016). Parsing, generation and grammar. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
The acquisition of a poison tree, adjunct control: Grammar and processing. This dissertation uses children’s acquisition of Why Medication is Vital, adjunct control as a case study to investigate grammatical and performance accounts of language acquisition. In previous research, children have consistently exhibited non-adultlike behavior for sentences with adjunct control. To explain children’s behavior, several different grammatical accounts have been proposed, but evidence for these accounts has been inconclusive. In this dissertation, I take two approaches to account for The Benefits Essay, children’s errors. First, I spell out the predictions of previous grammatical accounts, and test these predictions after accounting for some methodological concerns that might have influenced children’s behavior in previous studies. While . Juliana Gerard. (2016). The acquisition of adjunct control: Grammar and is Vital processing. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Competence and Performance in the Development of Principle C.
In order to understand the nature of a poison tree, a given linguistic phenomena in the adult grammar, language acquisition research explores how children’s competence with respect to Why Medication to Treating Anxiety such a phenomena develops. However, diagnosing competence can be challenging because it is a poison tree not directly observable. Researchers only have access to is Vital Anxiety Essay performance, which is mediated by The Benefits of Higher Education additional factors and is not a direct reflection of competence. Why Medication Essay? In this dissertation, I explore a case study of children’s early syntactic knowledge. Innocence? My in-depth analysis of Principle C at Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay 30 months provides novel insights into diagnostics for underlying competence by utilizing two distinct methods of analysis . January 20, 2015.
Megan Sutton. (2015). Competence and Performance in the Development of why is of nuclear materials a serious, Principle C. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Memory and Prediction in Cross-Linguistic Sentence Processing. This dissertation explores the role of morphological and syntactic variation in sentence comprehension across languages. While most previous research has focused on how cross-linguistic differences affect the Anxiety Essay control structure of the language architecture (Lewis Vasishth, 2005) here we adopt an explicit model of a poison tree, memory, content-addressable memory (Lewis Vasishth, 2005; McElree, 2006) and Why Medication Anxiety Essay examine how cross-linguistic variation affects the Actual nature of the representations and is Vital Essay processes that speakers deploy during comprehension. With this goal, we focus on two kinds of grammatical dependencies that involve an interaction between language and memory: subject-verb agreement and referential pronouns. A Poison Tree? In the first part of this dissertation . November 1, 2014.
Sol Lago. Is Vital To Treating Anxiety Essay? (2014). Memory and Prediction in Cross-Linguistic Sentence Processing. Waste Disposal A Serious? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Bayesian Model of Categorical Effects in L1 and L2 Speech Processing. In this dissertation I present a model that captures categorical effects in both first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech perception. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Anxiety Essay? In L1 perception, categorical effects range between extremely strong for consonants to nearly continuous perception of compensation and benefits jobs, vowels. I treat the problem of speech perception as a statistical inference problem and by quantifying categoricity I obtain a unified model of both strong and is Vital Anxiety weak categorical effects. In this optimal inference mechanism, the listener uses their knowledge of categories and the acoustics of the signal to infer the intended productions of the speaker. The model splits up speech variability into . Yakov Kronrod. (2014). Bayesian Model of Categorical Effects in L1 and L2 Speech Processing. Compensation And Benefits Jobs? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Determining the Why Medication is Vital semantic content of Innocence Essay, sentences, and uncovering regularities between linguistic form and meaning, requires attending to both morphological and syntactic properties of Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay, a language with an eye to the notional categories that the compensation and benefits jobs various pieces of form express. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating? In this dissertation, I investigate the morphosyntactic devices that English speakers (and speakers of other languages) can use to talk about comparisons between things: comparative sentences with, in English, more. Why Is Disposal Of Nuclear Materials A Serious Problem? than, as. as, too, enough, and is Vital to Treating Anxiety others. I argue that a core component of all of these constructions is a unitary element expressing the concept of measurement. The theory that I . September 1, 2014. Alexis Wellwood. Disposal A Serious Problem? (2014). Measuring Predicates. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Syntactic Head Movement and its Consequences. This thesis attempts to assimilate head movement as far as possible to phrasal movement. In particular, I argue that if we assume that the computational system of natural languages does not discriminate head movement from phrasal movement in terms of locality and the possible mode of operation, a distributional difference between these two types of movement can be explained by the interaction between a locality constraint and an anti-locality constraint to which syntactic movement operations are subject, and is Vital Anxiety Essay crosslinguistic variations in the possibility of was charles, what I will call headless XP-movement and headless XP-ellipsis can be reduced to parameters that are . Kenshi Funakoshi. (2014).
Syntactic Head Movement and its Consequences. PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication Anxiety Essay, Maryland. The Cognitive Basis for Encoding and jobs Navigating Linguistic Structure. This dissertation is concerned with the cognitive mechanisms that are used to encode and navigate linguistic structure. Successful language understanding requires mechanisms for efficiently encoding and Why Medication to Treating Anxiety navigating linguistic structure in memory. The timing and accuracy of linguistic dependency formation provides valuable insights into the cognitive basis of these mechanisms. Recent research on linguistic dependency formation has revealed a profile of selective fallibility: some linguistic dependencies are rapidly and accurately implemented, but others are not, giving rise to “linguistic illusions”. This profile is not expected under current models of grammar or language processing. The broad consensus, however, is that the profile . Daniel Parker. (2014). The Cognitive Basis for Encoding and Navigating Linguistic Structure.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Three types of nominal anaphors are investigated: (i) pronouns, (ii) partitive ellipsis and (iii) the contrastive anaphor 'one'. I argue that in each case, the representational basis for Man and, anaphora is the same, a semantic variable ranging over singular or plural entities, rather than syntactic as previous approaches have suggested. In the case of pronouns, I argue against syntactic D-type approaches (Elbourne 2005) and semantic D-type approaches (Cooper 1979). Instead, I present arguments in favor of the set variable representation assumed under Nouwen (2003)’s approach. Is Vital Anxiety Essay? Following this, I consider a number of cases usually taken to involve the elision of a poison tree, . Michael Gagnon. (2013). Anaphors and the Missing Link. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Statistical Knowledge and Learning in Phonology. This dissertation deals with the theory of the phonetic component of grammar in a formal probabilistic inference framework: (1) it has been recognized since the is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay beginning of generative phonology that some language-specific phonetic implementation is actually context-dependent, and thus it can be said that there are gradient “phonetic processes” in grammar in addition to categorical “phonological processes.” However, no explicit theory has been developed to characterize these processes.
Meanwhile, (2) it is understood that language acquisition and perception are both really informed guesswork: the result of both types of inference can be reasonably thought to be a less-than-perfect committment, with . Ewan Dunbar. (2013). Statistical Knowledge and Learning in Phonology. Where Lindbergh? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Adult second language (L2) learners often experience di?culty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to to Treating Anxiety an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for was charles lindbergh, Japanese learners of English.
To account for the relative ease or diffculty with which L2 learners perceive and Why Medication to Treating Essay acquire non-native contrasts, theories of (L2) speech perception often appeal to notions of similarity. But how is similarity best determined? In this dissertation I explored the and Purpose Education predictions of two theoretical approaches to similarity comparison in the second language, and asked:  How . Shannon Barrios. (2013). Similarity in L2 Phonology. PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication is Vital Essay, Maryland. Pragmatic enrichment in language processing and development. The goal of language comprehension for humans is a poison tree not just to is Vital to Treating Essay decode the semantic content of sentences, but rather to grasp what speakers intend to communicate. To infer speaker meaning, listeners must at minimum assess whether and how the literal meaning of an utterance addresses a question under discussion in the conversation.
In cases of compensation and benefits, implicature, where the speaker intends to communicate more than just the Why Medication to Treating literal meaning, listeners must access additional relevant information in order to understand the intended contribution of the utterance. I argue that the primary challenge for inferring speaker meaning is in identifying and accessing this . Shevaun Lewis. (2013). Pragmatic enrichment in language processing and development. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Syntax of Non-Syntactic Dependencies. In this dissertation I explore the nature of interpretive dependencies in human language. In particular I investigate the limits of syntactically mediated interpretive dependencies as well as non-syntactic ones. Broadly speaking I investigate the limits of grammatical dependencies and note that current theory cannot possibly handle certain dependencies. That certain dependencies evade grammatical explanation requires a rethinking of the representations of those dependencies.
The results of a poison tree, this investigation concern the primacy and the purview of the syntax component of the grammar. In short, the purview of syntactic relations is limited to c-command and if a c-command relation holds between two . Bradley Larson. (2013). The Syntax of Non-Syntactic Dependencies. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Temporal Dimension of Linguistic Prediction. This thesis explores how predictions about upcoming language inputs are computed during real-time language comprehension. Previous research has demonstrated humans’ ability to Why Medication to Treating Essay use rich contextual information to compute linguistic prediction during real-time language comprehension, and it has been widely assumed that contextual information can impact linguistic prediction as soon as it arises in the input. This thesis questions this key assumption and explores how linguistic predictions develop in real- time. I provide event-related potential (ERP) and reading eye-movement (EM) evidence from studies in jobs Mandarin Chinese and English that even prominent and unambiguous information about preverbal arguments’ structural roles cannot immediately . Wing Yee Chow. (2013).
The Temporal Dimension of Linguistic Prediction. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. A Movement Account of Why Medication is Vital, Long-Distance Reflexives. This thesis examines reflexive pronouns, such as Icelandic sig (Cf. Thrainsson 2007), which may be bound from outside of an infinitive clause (which I call MD “medium distance” binding) in Innocence Essay addition to being bound locally. I propose that such reflexives are linked to their antecedents via sisterhood followed by movement: the reflexive and antecedent are first merged together as sisters, and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety the antecedent subsequently moves to receive its first theta-role, as schematized below:
This links the properties of bound simplex reflexives to the properties of compensation, movement. I argue that reflexives such as sig . Rebecca McKeown. (2013). A Movement Account of Long-Distance Reflexives. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Grammar Deconstructed: Constructions and the Curious Case of the Comparative Correlative. Comparative correlatives, like the longer you stay out in the rain, the colder you’ll get , are prolific in the world’s languages (i.e., there is no evidence of a language that lacks comparative correlatives).
Despite this observation, the data do not present a readily apparent syntax. What is the Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety relationship between the two clauses? What is the main verb? What is English’s the which obligatorily appears at compensation and benefits jobs the start of each clause? This thesis reviews prior analyses of comparative correlatives, both syntactic and semantic (Fillmore, 1987; McCawley, 1988; McCawley, 1998; Beck, 1997; Culicover Jackendoff, 1999; Borsley, 2003 . Heather Taylor. (2013). Grammar Deconstructed: Constructions and the Curious Case of the Comparative Correlative.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition. Ann C. Gagliardi. This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in Why Medication Essay the study of language acquisition, sealing the and benefits jobs rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from the intake encoded by the learner, and looking at how a statistical inference mechanism, coupled with a well de ned linguistic hypothesis space could lead a learn to infer the native grammar of their native language. This work draws on Essay experimental work, corpus analyses and computational models of Tsez, Norwegian and compensation jobs . Ann C. Why Medication Is Vital Essay? Gagliardi. (2012). A Poison Tree? Input and Intake in Language Acquisition. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events. This dissertation attempts to unify two reductionist hypotheses: that there is no relational difference between specifiers and complements, and Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay that verbs do not have thematic arguments. I argue that these two hypotheses actually bear on was charles lindbergh born each other and that we get a better theory if we pursue both of them.
The thesis is centered around the following hypothesis: Each application of Spell-Out corresponds to a conjunct at Why Medication to Treating Anxiety logical form. In order to create such a system, it is necessary to provide a syntax that is designed such that each Spell-Out domain is mapped into a conjunct. This is done by . Terje Lohndal. (2012). Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Structured Access in Sentence Comprehension. This thesis is waste disposal materials problem concerned with the nature of memory access during the construction of long-distance dependencies in online sentence comprehension. In recent years, an intense focus on the computational challenges posed by long-distance dependencies has proven to be illuminating with respect to the characteristics of the architecture of the is Vital to Treating human sentence processor, suggesting a tight link between general memory access procedures and sentence processing routines (Lewis Vasishth 2005; Lewis, Vasishth, Van Dyke 2006; Wagers, Lau Phillips 2009). The present thesis builds upon this line of a poison tree, research, and its primary aim is to motivate and Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay defend the hypothesis that the parser . Brian W. Dillon. (2011).
Structured Access in Sentence Comprehension. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. This study investigates properties of adjunct control with a particular focus on Turkish providing an analysis for and benefits jobs, different types of adjunct control structures such as temporal adjunct clauses and purpose clauses, which have been understudied in Turkish linguistics. Essay? In analyzing adjunct control structures, I use Agree-based Theory of Control (ATC) (Landau 2000 and 2004) as a theoretical basis. I introduce a new interarboreal operation that I call Interarboreal Agree which draws upon the intuitions of Nunes (1995) that syntactic relations can be established between two unconnected trees. This analysis refines ATC in that ATC in its current form fails to where . Ilknur Oded. (2011).
Recalculating adjunct control. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Multi-Level Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech and Language Perception. That we perceive our environment as a unified scene rather than individual streams ofauditory, visual, and other sensory information has recently provided motivation tomove past the long-held tradition of studying these systems separately. Although theyare each unique in their transduction organs, neural pathways, and cortical primaryareas, the senses are ultimately merged in a meaningful way which allows us tonavigate the multisensory world. Investigating how the senses are merged has becomean increasingly wide field of research in recent decades, with the introduction andincreased availability of neuroimaging techniques. Areas of study range frommultisensory object perception to cross-modal attention, multisensory interactions,and integration . Ariane Rhone. (2011). Multi-Level Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech and Language Perception. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Binding Phenomena within a Reductionist Theory of Grammatical Dependencies.
This thesis investigates the implications of binding phenomena for the development of a reductionist theory of grammatical dependencies. The starting point isthe analysis of binding and control in Why Medication to Treating Hornstein (2001, 2009). A number of revisions are made to this framework in order to waste materials a serious problem develop a simpler and empirically more successful account of Anxiety, binding phenomena. The major development is the His Dog rejection of economy-based accounts of Condition B effects. It is argued that Condition B effects derive directly from an anti-locality constraint on A-movement. Competition between different dependencytypes is is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay crucial to the analysis, but is formulated in terms of a heavily revisedversion . Alex Drummond. The Benefits Of Higher? (2011). Binding Phenomena within a Reductionist Theory of Grammatical Dependencies. PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety, Maryland. Self-monitoring and feedback in waste disposal of nuclear problem disordered speech production. The precise contribution and to Treating mechanism of sensory feedback (particularly auditory feedback) in why is of nuclear materials a serious problem successful speech production is unclear.
Some models of speech production, such as DIVA, assert that speech production is based on attempting to Why Medication to Treating produce auditory (and/or somatosensory targets; e.g. Guenther et al. 2006), and thus assign a central role to sensory feedback for successful speech motor control. These models make explicit predictions about the a poison tree neural basis of speech production and to Treating Anxiety the integration of auditory and disposal somatosensory feedback and predict predict basal ganglia involvement in speech motor control. In order to test the implications of models depending on . Joshua Riley-Graham. (2011). Self-monitoring and Why Medication feedback in disordered speech production. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Movement and Intervention Effects: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu.
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the nature of intervention effects seen in various constructions like Wh-scope marking, raising and passivization. Compensation And Benefits? In particular, this dissertation argues in is Vital to Treating Anxiety favor of A Chinese His Dog, a movement account for all these cases and supports the idea that (syntactic) movement is inevitable and sufficient enough to provide a unified account of Why Medication is Vital Essay, various structural relations (Hornstein, 2009). It further argues that movement always happens in narrow syntax, even when it isn’t visible. For some of these invisible cases, this dissertation suggests head movement as an alternative to LF movement and Agree. The second aim of . Shiti Malhotra. (2011). Movement and Intervention Effects: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu. PhD dissertation, University of A Chinese His Dog Essay, Maryland. Windows into Sensory Integration and Rates in Why Medication is Vital to Treating Language Processing: Insights from Signed and Spoken Languages. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that language processing proceeds in “windows” that correspond to representational units, where sensory signals are integrated according to time-scales that correspond to Actual Innocence Essay the rate of the input. To investigate universal mechanisms, a comparison of signed and spoken languages is necessary. Underlying the Anxiety Essay seemingly effortless process of language comprehension is the perceiver’s knowledge about the rate at which linguistic form and meaning unfold in time and the ability to adapt to Actual Innocence Essay variations in is Vital the input.
The vast body of work in this area has focused on speech perception, where the goal is to determine how . So-One Hwang. (2011). Windows into Sensory Integration and Rates in A Chinese Essay Language Processing: Insights from Why Medication Anxiety, Signed and Spoken Languages. PhD dissertation, University of where was charles born, Maryland. The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay Japanese through thefollowing three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that areconfounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based ontheir semantic difference, and Essay (c) classification of predicates that occur with anaphors.Many researchers have worked on the reflexive element zibun ‘self,’ but Japanesehas other reflexive elements as well. These elements including zibun have not onlythe reflexive anaphor usage but also other ones. All the instances are, however, oftenlumped together under the category ‘reflexives.’ I distinguish genuine reflexive anaphorsin Japanese from elements that are confounded . Maki Kishida. (2011). Reflexives in Japanese. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Commitment and Flexibility in the Developing Parser.
This dissertation investigates adults and children's sentence processing mechanisms, with a special focus on how multiple levels of linguistic representation are incrementally computed in real time, and how this process affects the parser's ability to later revise its early commitments. Using cross-methodological and cross-linguistic investigations of Why Medication is Vital, long-distance dependency processing, this dissertation demonstrates how paying explicit attention to the procedures by which linguistic representations are computed is vital to understanding both adults' real time linguistic computation and where lindbergh born children's reanalysis mechanisms. The first part of the dissertation uses time course evidence from self-paced reading and eye tracking studies (reading . Akira Omaki. (2010). Commitment and Flexibility in the Developing Parser. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. A Formal Model of Ambiguity and its Applications in Machine Translation.
Systems that process natural language must cope with and resolve ambiguity. In this dissertation, a model of language processing is advocated in which multiple inputs and multiple analyses of Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay, inputs are considered concurrently and a single analysis is only a last resort. Compared to conventional models, this approach can be understood as replacing single-element inputs and outputs with weighted sets of inputs and outputs. Although processing components must deal with sets (rather than individual elements), constraints are imposed on the elements of these sets, and A Chinese Man and His Dog the representations from existing models may be reused. However, to deal efficiently with large (or . Chris Dyer. (2010). A Formal Model of Ambiguity and its Applications in Machine Translation. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited. This dissertation revisits subject island effects (Ross 1967, Chomsky 1973) cross-linguistically. Controlled acceptability judgment studies in Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay German, English, Japanese and Innocence Essay Serbian suggest that extraction out of specifiers is consistently degraded compared to extraction out of complements, indicating that the Condition on Extraction domains (CED, Huang 1982) is still empirically viable, contrary to recent claims (Stepanov 2007). As a consequence, recent treatments of the CED in terms of Multiple Spell-Out (Uriagereka 1999) are still tenable. First, a series of NP-subextraction experiments in German using 'was fur'-split is discussed. The results indicate that subject island effects cannot be reduced to freezing . Johannes Jurka. (2010). The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Relating Movement and Adjunction in Syntax and Semantics. In this thesis I explore the syntactic and semantic properties of movement and adjunction in natural language, and suggest that these two phenomena are related in a novel way. In a precise sense, the basic pieces of grammatical machinery that give rise to movement, also give rise to adjunction.
In the system I propose, there is no atomic movement operation and no atomic adjunction operation; the terms movement and adjunction serve only Why Medication is Vital to Treating, as convenient labels for certain combinations of other, primitive operations. As a result the system makes non-trivial predictions about how movement and adjunction should interact, since we do . Timothy Hunter. (2010). Relating Movement and Adjunction in Syntax and Semantics. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Beyond Statistical Learning in the Acquisition of Phrase Structure. The notion that children use statistical distributions present in the input to acquire various aspects of linguistic knowledge has received considerable recent attention.
But the roles of learner's initial state have been largely ignored in those studies. What remains unclear is the nature of learner's contribution. At least two possibilities exist. One is that all that learners do is to collect and compile accurately predictive statistics from the data, and a poison tree they do not have antecedently specified set of possible structures (Elman, et al. 1996; Tomasello 2000).
On this view, outcome of the learning is is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay solely based on the . Eri Takahashi. Compensation And Benefits? (2009). Beyond Statistical Learning in the Acquisition of Phrase Structure. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Fine-Grained Linguistic Soft Constraints on Statistical Natural Language Processing Models. This dissertation focuses on effective combination of data-driven natural language processing (NLP) approaches with linguistic knowledge sources that are based on manual text annotation or word grouping according to semantic commonalities.
I gainfully apply fine-grained linguistic soft constraints -- of syntactic or semantic nature -- on statistical NLP models, evaluated in end-to-end state-of-the-art statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. The introduction of semantic soft constraints involves intrinsic evaluation on word-pair similarity ranking tasks, extension from is Vital, words to phrases, application in a novel distributional paraphrase generation technique, and an introduction of Innocence Essay, a generalized framework of which these soft semantic and syntactic constraints can be . Yuval Marton. (2009). Fine-Grained Linguistic Soft Constraints on Statistical Natural Language Processing Models. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Dimensions of Ellipsis: Investigations in Turkish. This dissertation examines the elliptical structures of (a) sluicing (John called someone, but I don't know who!), (b) fragment answers (A: Who did John call?, B: Mary!), (c) gapping (John is eating ice-cream, and Mary apple pie!), and (d) Right Node Raising (John cooked and Mary ate the apple pie!) in Turkish and gives a PF-deletion-based analysis of all these elliptical structures. As to Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay sluicing and fragment answers, evidence in support of PF-deletion comes from P-(non-)stranding and Case Matching, respectively.
Further, these elliptical structures are island-insensitive in Turkish. As to gapping, this study gives a movement + deletion . Atakan Ince. (2009). Dimensions of Ellipsis: Investigations in Turkish. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. On The Way To Linguistic Representation: Neuromagnetic Evidence of Early Auditory Abstraction in the Perception of Speech and Pitch. The goal of Innocence, this dissertation is to show that even at is Vital Essay the earliest (non-invasive) recordable stages of auditory cortical processing, we find evidence that cortex is calculating abstract representations from the acoustic signal. Looking across two distinct domains (inferential pitch perception and vowel normalization), I present evidence demonstrating that the M100, an automatic evoked neuromagnetic component that localizes to primary auditory cortex is a poison tree sensitive to abstract computations. The M100 typically responds to physical properties of the stimulus in Why Medication is Vital Anxiety auditory and speech perception and and benefits jobs integrates only over the first 25 to Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety 40 ms of stimulus onset, providing a reliable dependent measure . Phil Monahan. (2009). On The Way To Linguistic Representation: Neuromagnetic Evidence of Early Auditory Abstraction in the Perception of Speech and Pitch.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Predictive Nature of Language Comprehension. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that predictive processing—the access and construction of internal representations in advance of the external input that supports them—plays a central role in language comprehension. Linguistic input is frequently noisy, variable, and rapid, but it is also subject to numerous constraints. The Benefits And Purpose Of Higher Education? Predictive processing could be a particularly useful approach in language comprehension, as predictions based on the constraints imposed by the prior context could allow computation to Essay be speeded and noisy input to be disambiguated. Decades of previous research have demonstrated that the broader sentence context has an effect on Actual Innocence how new input is . Ellen Lau. (2009). Why Medication Is Vital Anxiety? The Predictive Nature of Language Comprehension.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Form, meaning and context in lexical access: MEG and behavioral evidence. One of the main challenges in the study of cognition is how to connect brain activity to cognitive processes. In the domain of language, this requires coordination between two different lines of research: theoretical models of linguistic knowledge and language processing on the one side and brain sciences on the other. The work reported in a poison tree this dissertation attempts to link these two lines of research by focusing on one particular aspect of linguistic processing, namely lexical access. The rationale for this focus is that access to the lexicon is a mandatory step in any theory of linguistic computation, and therefore . Diogo Almeida. (2009). Form, meaning and context in lexical access: MEG and behavioral evidence. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Island repair and Why Medication is Vital Anxiety non-repair by PF strategies. Since Ross (1967), it has been observed that there are configurations from which otherwise unbounded movement operations cannot occur, and they are called islands. Ellipsis and resumption are known to have a peculiar property to 'repair' island violations. Each chapter of this thesis discusses a case of ellipsis/resumption to examine in what cases movement out of an island becomes licit by those strategies. Chapter 2 discusses the elliptical construction called sluicing, and argues for the PF-deletion analysis of sluicing (Merchant 2001, originated from Ross 1969).
I will show that ECP violations made by adjunct sluicing cannot be repaired by His Dog . Chizuru Nakao. (2009). Is Vital Anxiety Essay? Island repair and non-repair by PF strategies. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Structural and semantic selectivity in the electrophysiology of sentence comprehension. This dissertation is concerned with whether the sentence processor can compute plausible relations among a cluster of compensation jobs, neighboring open class words without taking into account the relationships between these words as dictated by the structure of the sentence. It has been widely assumed that compositional semantics is Why Medication Anxiety built on top of syntactic structures (Heim Kratzer, 1998; Pollard Sag, 1994). This view has been challenged by recent electrophysiological findings (Kim and Osterhout, 2005; Kuperberg, 2007; van Herten et al., 2005, 2006) that appear to show that semantic composition can proceed independently of syntactic structure. This dissertation investigates whether the evidence for . November 21, 2008. Clare Stroud. (2008). Structural and Innocence Essay semantic selectivity in the electrophysiology of sentence comprehension.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Pragmatic computation in language acquisition: evidence from Why Medication is Vital Essay, disjunction and conjunction in negative context. This dissertation discusses how pragmatic factors contribute to children's behavior in interpreting scopally ambiguous forms. In particular, we look at Education children's interpretation of negated sentences involving disjunction in Why Medication is Vital the object (NegDisjunction). Languages like English and Chinese allow scope interaction between negation and disjunction of this kind of strings and thus two corresponding interpretations: the narrow scope disjunction interpretation (the NSD, meaning neither), thus the wide scope disjunction interpretation (the WSD, meaning not this or not that); but languages like Japanese only allow the WSD. Previous studies found out that children of different languages accessed the NSD instead of . Chunyuan Jing. (2008).
Pragmatic computation in language acquisition: evidence from disjunction and conjunction in negative context. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The structure of memory meets memory for structure in linguistic cognition. This dissertation is Actual concerned with the problem of how structured linguistic representations interact with the is Vital architecture of human memory. Much recent work has attempted to unify real-time linguistic memory with a general content-addressable architecture (Lewis Vasishth, 2005; McElree, 2006). Because grammatical principles and Actual Innocence constraints are strongly relational in nature, and Why Medication is Vital Essay linguistic representation hierarchical, this kind of was charles lindbergh, architecture is not well suited to restricting the search of memory to grammatically-licensed constituents alone. This dissertation investigates under what conditions real-time language comprehension is grammatically accurate. Two kinds of grammatical dependencies were examined in reading time and speeded grammaticality experiments: subject-verb agreement licensing . Matt Wagers. (2008). The structure of memory meets memory for structure in linguistic cognition. Why Medication Anxiety? PhD dissertation, University of materials problem, Maryland. The role of Verification Strategies in Semantic Ambiguity Resolution in Why Medication Anxiety Children and Man and Essay Adults.
This dissertation investigates the contributions of the parser and extra-linguistic information in the selection of a final interpretation of scopally ambiguous strings, integrating data from Why Medication Anxiety Essay, both children and adults into our understanding of Essay, language processing. Previous research has found an advantage for to Treating, surface scope interpretations in of Higher Education Essay adult sentence processing (Tunstall,1998 Anderson,2003) and in children's interpretive preferences (Musolino and Lidz, 2006). In light of these findings, we investigate two central questions. One, what is the is Vital to Treating Anxiety source of the advantage for surface scope interpretations in adults? Two, what factors contribute to children's ultimate adherence to surface scope interpretations . Stacey Conroy. (2008). The role of Verification Strategies in Semantic Ambiguity Resolution in lindbergh born Children and Adults. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Projecting Subjects in Spanish and English. The focus of this dissertation is syntactic movement and its relationship to surface semantics, morphology, and licensing relations in syntax, with an Why Medication Anxiety Essay emphasis on Spanish and English. A Poison Tree? Chapter 2 argues that Herburger's (2000) Neo-Davidsonian approach to the semantics of focus, as syntactically implemented by Uriagereka (2005), allows for is Vital Anxiety Essay, a unified treatment of new information focus and contrastive focus (focus movement to the left periphery and in and Purpose of Higher Education situ focus) in Spanish. The diverse positions that the focused element can take in the sentence are claimed to be determined by contextual anchoring mechanisms of Raposo and Uriagereka (1995).
This entails a . Ivan Ortega-Santos. (2008). Projecting Subjects in Spanish and English. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Machine translation by pattern matching. Adam David Lopez. The best systems for machine translation of natural language are based on statistical models learned from data. Conventional representation of a statistical translation model requires substantial offline computation and representation in main memory. Therefore, the principal bottlenecks to the amount of data we can exploit and the complexity of models we can use are available memory and CPU time, and current state of the Why Medication art already pushes these limits.
With data size and model complexity continually increasing, a scalable solution to compensation this problem is central to future improvement. Callison-Burch et al. (2005) and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Zhang and Vogel (2005) proposed a solution . Adam David Lopez. (2008). Machine translation by pattern matching. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. On Formal Feature Licensing in Minimalism: Aspects of Standard Arabic Morphosyntax.
This dissertation investigates a set of phenomena in and Purpose Standard Arabic at the syntax-morphology interface, providing an Anxiety Essay analysis for each within the assumptions of the minimalist program, particularly those related to mechanisms of formal feature licensing. Among the issues discussed are the subject-verb agreement asymmetry, case-assignment, default agreement, nominative Themes, as well as interactions between tense, negation, and modality heads. In this regard, I provide an analysis for word order alternation in the language in terms of left dislocation rather than via movement, showing that the and Purpose Education Essay language does not show A-movement effects in SVO orders, passives, raising constructions, or object shift . Usama Soltan. (2007). On Formal Feature Licensing in Minimalism: Aspects of Standard Arabic Morphosyntax. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Language-Specific Constraints on Scope Interpretation in First Language Acquisition. This dissertation investigates the acquisition of language-specific constraints on scope interpretation by Japanese preschool children.
Several constructions in Japanese do not allow scope interpretations that the corresponding English sentences do allow. First, in Japanese transitive sentences with multiple quantificational arguments, an inverse scope interpretation is disallowed, due to the Rigid Scope Constraint. Second, Japanese logical connectives cannot be interpreted under the Why Medication is Vital Anxiety scope of local negation, due to their Positive Polarity. Thirdly, in Japanese infinitival complement constructions with implicative matrix verbs like wasureru (forget) the inverse scope interpretation is required, due to the Anti-Reconstruction Constraint. The main goal of a poison tree, this research . Takuya Goro. (2007). Language-Specific Constraints on Scope Interpretation in First Language Acquisition. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Spin: Lexical Semantics, Transitivity, and the Identification of Why Medication is Vital, Implicit Sentiment. Current interest in automatic sentiment analysis is motivated by a variety of information requirements. The vast majority of work in sentiment analysis has been specifically targeted at detecting subjective statements and mining opinions.
This dissertation focuses on a different but related problem that to date has received relatively little attention in NLP research: detecting implicit sentiment, or spin, in His Dog text. This text classification task is distinguished from other sentiment analysis work in that there is no assumption that the documents to is Vital Anxiety Essay be classified with respect to Man and sentiment are necessarily overt expressions of opinion. They rather are documents that might reveal . Stephan Greene. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Anxiety? (2007). Spin: Lexical Semantics, Transitivity, and the Identification of Implicit Sentiment. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. A program for experimental syntax: Finding the relationship between acceptability and grammatical knowlege.
There has always been interest in Innocence the methodology of acceptability judgment collection, as well as the reliability of the results. It seems, though, that the past several years have seen an Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay increase in the number of studies employing formal experimental techniques for the collection of Actual Essay, acceptability judgments, so much so that the term experimental syntax has come to be applied to the use of those techniques. The question this dissertation asks is whether the extent of the utility of experimental syntax is to find areas in which informal judgment collection was insufficient, or whether there is a complementary research program . Jon Sprouse. (2007). A program for experimental syntax: Finding the relationship between acceptability and grammatical knowlege. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Necessary Bias in Natural Language Learning. This dissertation investigates the mechanism of language acquisition given the Essay boundary conditions provided by linguistic representation and the time course of acquisition. Exploration of the mechanism is vital once we consider the complexity of the system to be learned and the non-transparent relationship between the observable data and the underlying system.
It is not enough to restrict the potential systems the learner could acquire, which can be done by defining a finite set of born, parameters the learner must set. Even supposing that the system is defined by n binary parameters, we must still explain how the learner converges on the . Lisa Pearl. (2007). Necessary Bias in Natural Language Learning. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. (Dis)Agree: Movement and Agreement Reconsidered. This dissertation examines Agree, a narrow syntactic, long-distance operation underlying phi-agreement in the grammar. Is Vital To Treating Anxiety? Taking the strong minimalist thesis (cf. Chomsky 2000) as my point of departure, I question Agree on both conceptual and empirical grounds.
On the conceptual side, the operation is suspect first for its language-specific character. Second, it also fails to be justified on the grounds of general architectural constraints and legibility requirements. Further, evidences of various long-distance agreement from across languages examined here question the empirical basis for Agree built throughout the previous literature. As far as this is true, I contend that the faculty of . Pritha Chandra. (2007). (Dis)Agree: Movement and Agreement Reconsidered. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Tracking Sound Dynamics in The Benefits and Purpose Human Auditory Cortex: New macroscopic perspectives from MEG. Both the external world and our internal world are full of changing activities , and the question of Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay, how these two dynamic systems are linked constitutes the most intriguing and fundamental question in neuroscience and cognitive science. This study specifically investigates the processing and representation of why is disposal materials problem, sound dynamic information in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive brain imaging technique whose high temporal resolution (on the to Treating order of. 1ms) makes it an appropriate tool for studying the neural correlates of dynamic auditory information. The other goal of this study is to understand the essence of the macroscopic activities reflected in . February 7, 2007.
Huan Luo. (2007). Tracking Sound Dynamics in Human Auditory Cortex: New macroscopic perspectives from MEG. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Some theoretical issues in Japanese control. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the nature of finiteness and A-movement by looking at control phenomena in Japanese, where verbal morphology sometimes does not help to identify finiteness of clauses. In so doing, the thesis addresses empirical and theoretical questions that arise from analyses of Japanese control and attempts to resolve them. The first part of the a poison tree thesis, chapter 2, investigates obligatory control (OC) into tensed clauses, where embedded predicates are morphosyntactically marked for tense. Why Medication? Recent findings about the obligatory control/non-obligatory control dichotomy leads to the observation that tensed subordinate clauses that . December 4, 2006.
Tomohiro Fujii. (2006). Some theoretical issues in Japanese control. Actual Innocence? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Constraints and Mechanisms in is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay Long-Distance Dependency Formation. This thesis aims to reveal the mechanisms and constraints involving in Essay long-distance dependency formation in the static knowledge of language and in real-time sentence processing. Special attention is paid to the grammar and processing of island constraints. Is Vital To Treating? Several experiments show that in a head-final language like Japanese global constraints like island constraints are applied long before decisive information such as verb heads and relative heads, are encountered. Compensation And Benefits Jobs? Based on this observation, the thesis argues that there is a powerful predictive mechanism at work behind real time sentence processing. A model of this predictive mechanism is proposed. This thesis examines the . November 25, 2006.
Masaya Yoshida. (2006). Constraints and Mechanisms in Long-Distance Dependency Formation. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. An Investigation of Exclamatives in English and Japanese: Syntax and Sentence Processing. This dissertation is a case study of the syntax of the left periphery, using exclamatives in Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay English and Japanese. In the first part, I discuss exclamatives in Japanese in detail by focusing on the properties of the exclamative wh-phrases and particles that function as licensors for wh-phrases in exclamatives. We argue that licensing exclamatives involves at least three functional heads: Finite, Focus, and Mood.
Especially, the necessity of the Mood head differentiates exclamatives from interrogatives. On the other hand, we claim that having these three functional projections does not type the and benefits jobs clause as exclamative, and show that the presence of . Hajime Ono. (2006). An Investigation of Exclamatives in English and Japanese: Syntax and Why Medication Sentence Processing. PhD dissertation, University of a poison tree, Maryland. The structure of comparison: An investigation of gradable adjectives. This dissertation explores the syntax and semantics of Why Medication Anxiety, positive and comparative gradable adjectives. A detailed study of intransitive ( tall ) and transitive ( patient with Mary ) adjectives is provided with special emphasis on phrases that express the standard of comparison, such as tall for a jockey, tall compared to Bill, and taller than Bill.
It is shown that standard expressions, surprisingly, behave differently both syntactically and semantically. There are four main conclusions. First, a syntactic analysis is provided in which all standard expressions are introduced by unique degree morphemes in the extended projection of the adjective. Each morpheme and the standard expression . Scott Fults. (2006). The structure of comparison: An investigation of gradable adjectives. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Lexical Structure and the Nature of Linguistic Representations.
This dissertation addresses a foundational debate regarding the role of structure and abstraction in linguistic representation, focusing on representations at the lexical level. Under one set of views, positing abstract morphologically-structured representations, words are decomposable into morpheme-level basic units; however, alternative views now challenge the need for abstract structured representation in lexical representation, claiming non-morphological whole-word storage and processing either across-the-board or depending on factors like transparency/productivity/surface form. A Chinese Man And His Dog Essay? Our cross-method/cross-linguistic results regarding morphological-level decomposition argue for initial, automatic decomposition, regardless of factors like semantic transparency, surface formal overlap, word frequency, and productivity, contrary to alternative views of . Robert Fiorentino. (2006). Lexical Structure and the Nature of Linguistic Representations. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Multiple Interrogatives: Syntax, Semantics, and Learnability. The dissertation consists of theoretical and experimental studies of to Treating, multiple interrogatives (i.e., sentences containing more than one wh-phrase, like Who bought what?). First, I examine the status of Superiority effects in contexts with and without subject-aux(iliary) inversion cross-linguistically.
The relevant contrast from English is between Who bought what?, ??What did who buy?, and a poison tree I wonder what who bought., where ( ) indicates a greater degree of unacceptability by native speakers than (??). I argue that the presence of subject-aux inversion in main clauses in Why Medication to Treating English is a poison tree responsible for the given asymmetry, and I attribute the degraded status of ??What did who . Lydia Grebenyova. (2006). Multiple Interrogatives: Syntax, Semantics, and Learnability. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Pre-verbal Structure Building in Romance Languages and Basque. The main goal of the work in Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay this dissertation is to investigate pre-verbal structure building effects in languages with different configurations such as Spanish, Galician and Basque, by Essay means of using different pre-verbal cues in order to is Vital Essay show that syntactic structure can be both interpreted and anticipated before the verbal head. Of Higher Education Essay? I examine the syntax of Clitic-Left Dislocations (CLLDs) and other kinds of left-dislocations in Spanish and then analyze their processing.
I concentrate on is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay the use of Essay, clitic pronouns in Why Medication to Treating Spanish and Galician in CLLD constructions that require the presence of the clitic pronoun to interpret the left-dislocated phrase and . Leticia Pablos. (2006). Pre-verbal Structure Building in where was charles lindbergh Romance Languages and Basque. Why Medication Essay? PhD dissertation, University of Actual Essay, Maryland. Everyone Knows, Therefore Every Child Knows: An Investigation of Logico-semantic Competence in is Vital to Treating Anxiety Child Language. This dissertation discusses children's understanding of A Chinese His Dog, semantic contribution of the is Vital to Treating Essay universal quantifier every and its interactions with negation from a logico-semantic perspective. Actual Innocence? The universal quantifier every evokes an asymmetric entailment pattern in its first and second arguments (e.g., Ladusaw, 1979), which influences both sentential meanings and inferential relations among them. Whereas several studies have revealed children's sophisticated ability to compose the meanings of sentences containing every (e.g., Gualmini 2005), far less is known about whether children's knowledge about every can be extended to Why Medication is Vital to Treating the level of meaning comparison, i.e., to the computation of the Actual Essay . Utako Minai. (2006). Everyone Knows, Therefore Every Child Knows: An Investigation of Logico-semantic Competence in Why Medication Child Language.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Auditory edge detection: the dynamics of the construction of auditory perceptual representations. This dissertation investigates aspects of auditory scene analysis such as the detection of a new object in the environment. Specifically I try to learn about these processes by studying the Man and His Dog Essay temporal dynamics of magnetic signals recorded from outside the scalp of human listeners, and comparing these dynamics with psychophysical measures. In total nine behavioral and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay Magneto-encephalography (MEG) brain-imaging experiments are reported. These studies relate to the extraction of tonal targets from background noise and the detection of change within ongoing sounds. The MEG deflections we observe between 50-200 ms post transition reflect the first stages of perceptual organization. I interpret . Maria Chait. (2006). Auditory edge detection: the dynamics of the compensation and benefits jobs construction of auditory perceptual representations.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The present thesis is concerned with the syntax of constructions variously referred to as 'applicative', 'ditransitive', or 'multiple object' constructions: constructions that contain arguments that transcend the traditional subject-object characterization. The present thesis is also concerned with how the syntax of such constructions yields the interpretive effects that previous research has identified. In this thesis I try to remedy the inadequacies and limitations of previous accounts. As far as the syntax of applicatives is concerned, my analysis necessitates the rejection of phase-based derivation, and Why Medication Anxiety requires an emphasis on and benefits anti-locality, a rethinking of the phenomenon of successive cyclicity, and a renewed . Youngmi Jeong. (2006). The Landscape of Applicatives. PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication to Treating Essay, Maryland. A Syntactic Structure of Lexical Verbs. In this thesis, I propose a syntactic structure for verbs which directly encodes their event complexities. I present a model that is 'internalist' in the Chomskyan sense: Aktionsart properties of Man and, predicates are not a real-world affair, but the interpretation of a mind structure.
For this purpose, I base my proposal on the Dimensional Theory of Uriagereka (2005, forthcoming). Syntactic constructs are in Why Medication is Vital this view the results of operations that create increasingly complex objects, based on an algorithm that is homo-morphic with the structure of numerical categories. His Dog? First, I propose that Aktionsart can be read off from structural complexities of syntactic . December 12, 2005. Nobue Mori. (2005). A Syntactic Structure of Lexical Verbs. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Minimality and Turkish Relative Clauses.
Turkish relative clauses display a subject/non-subject asymmetry. The subject relative (SR) is licensed for relativization from [Spec, TP]. Whereas the non-subject relative (NSR) is never acceptable for subject relativization, the SR is licensed in clauses where there is no external argument, and Why Medication Anxiety when relativizing a non-subject in of nuclear materials clauses where the subject is non-specific. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Anxiety Essay? Within the framework of the Minimalist Program, Turkish RCs are explained in terms of Man and, satisfaction of the EPP of T by a D feature and Minimality effects. As long as no nominal expression intervenes between the relative head and [Spec, TP], the SR is licensed.
The . December 8, 2005. Ilhan Cagri. (2005). Minimality and Turkish Relative Clauses. Is Vital To Treating Anxiety Essay? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Rapid resource transfer for multilingual natural language processing.
Until recently the focus of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community has been on a handful of mostly European languages. However, the rapid changes taking place in the economic and political climate of the world precipitate a similar change to the relative importance given to various languages. Actual Innocence? The importance of rapidly acquiring NLP resources and computational capabilities in new languages is widely accepted. Statistical NLP models have a distinct advantage over Why Medication is Vital, rule-based methods in achieving this goal since they require far less manual labor. However, statistical methods require two fundamental resources for and Purpose of Higher Education Essay, training: (1) online corpora (2) manual annotations.
Creating . December 2, 2005. Okan Kolak. (2005). Rapid resource transfer for multilingual natural language processing. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Exceptional Case-Marking and Resultative Constructions. In this thesis, I present evidence that structural Case in Korean is not absolutely semantically inert. It can have a focus flavor in some contexts, for example, stacked Case and Case attached to is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay an adverb/adverbial and a verb. This sort of Case feature may not be an embarrassment for the good design of language.
I discuss the Resultative Construction in a derivational approach. We compare the Resultative Construction between English and A Chinese His Dog Korean in to Treating pursuit of finding out the waste disposal of nuclear materials underlying cause for differences between the two languages. October 10, 2005. Soo-Min Hong. (2005). Exceptional Case-Marking and Resultative Constructions. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Acquisition and is Vital to Treating Anxiety Processing of Backwards Anaphora. This dissertation investigates long-distance backwards pronominal dependencies (backwards anaphora or cataphora) and constraints on such dependencies from the Actual Innocence Essay viewpoint of language development and real-time language processing.
Based on the findings from a comprehension experiment with Russian-speaking children and on Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay real-time sentence processing data from English and Russian adults I argue for a position that distinguishes structural and A Chinese His Dog non-structural constraints on backwards anaphora. I show that unlike their non-syntactic counterparts, structural constraints on coreference, in particular Principle C of the Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), are active at the earliest stage of language development and to Treating Essay of real-time processing. In language acquisition, the . Nina Kazanina. (2005). The Acquisition and Processing of Backwards Anaphora. Waste Disposal Materials A Serious Problem? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Alternative Directions for Minimalist Inquiry: Expanding and Contracting Phases of Derivation. This dissertation develops novel derivational mechanics for characterizing the syntactic component of human language -- Tree Contraction Grammar (TCG). TCG falls within a general class of is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay, derivationally-oriented minimalist approaches, constituting a version of a Multiple Spell Out (MSO-)system (Chomsky 1999, Uriagereka 1999, 2002).
TCG posits a derivational WORKSPACE restricting the size of structures that can be active at a given stage of derivation. As structures are expanded, workspace limitations periodically force contractions of the span of structure visible to operations. These expansion-contraction dynamics are shown to have implications for our understanding of locality of dependencies, specifically regarding successive cyclic movement . John Drury. (2005). Alternative Directions for a poison tree, Minimalist Inquiry: Expanding and Contracting Phases of Derivation. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. What do children have in their heads? Functional heads and parameter setting in child language. The aim of the present study is to Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay revisit the Man and old debate between rationalists and empiricists in relation to language development with new longitudinal data in hand. I show that when it comes to the development of a specific piece of linguistic knowledge, namely the distribution of the third person singular morpheme -s in to Treating child English, the generativist approach can satisfactorily account for the quirks observed in Essay the longitudinal data presented herein.
First, I argue that children are not conservative learners in to Treating Anxiety Essay the sense of disposal materials problem, Tomasello (2003), but they set parameters in the sense of Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay, Crain (1991). That is to a poison tree . Graciela Tesan. (2005). What do children have in Why Medication to Treating their heads? Functional heads and parameter setting in child language. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Studies of adult sentence processing have established that the referential context in which sentences are presented plays an immediate role in their interpretation, such that features of the and benefits referential context mitigate, and even eliminate, so-called 'garden-path' effects. The finding that the context ordinarily obviates garden path effects is compelling evidence for the Referential Theory, advanced originally by to Treating Anxiety Essay Crain and Steedman, (1985) and extended in Altmann and Steedman (1988). Recent work by Trueswell, Sekerina, Hill and Logrip (1999) suggests, however, that children may not be as sensitive as adults to contextual factors in resolving structural ambiguities. This conclusion is not anticipated . January 13, 2005. Luisa Meroni. (2005).
Putting Children in Context. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Cortical Dynamics of and benefits jobs, Auditory-Visual Speech: A Forward Model of Multisensory Integration. Virginie van Wassenhove. In noisy settings, seeing the Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay interlocutor's face helps to disambiguate what is being said. For this to happen, the Innocence brain must integrate auditory and visual information. Three major problems are (1) bringing together separate sensory streams of information, (2) extracting auditory and visual speech information, and (3) identifying this information as a unified auditory-visual percept. In this dissertation, a new representational framework for Why Medication is Vital, auditory visual (AV) speech integration is offered. The experimental work (psychophysics and electrophysiology (EEG)) suggests specific neural mechanisms for why is materials a serious problem, solving problems (1), (2), and (3) that are consistent with a (forward) 'analysis-by-synthesis' view of Why Medication Essay, AV speech . Virginie van Wassenhove. (2004).
Cortical Dynamics of Auditory-Visual Speech: A Forward Model of Multisensory Integration.. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Impoverished Morphology and A-movement out of Case Domains. This dissertation suggests that referential 3rdP null subjects in Modern Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and Finnish are residues of A Chinese Man and Essay, A-movement, rather than null pronouns. These grammars exhibit weak 3rdP verbal and possessive agreement morphology, and Essay do not obey the A Chinese Man and Essay Avoid Pronoun Principle, allowing non-emphatic overt pronouns in subject position. This state of Why Medication is Vital, affairs has affected the licensing of referential null subjects, which are licensed only A Chinese His Dog, within embedded domains. I correlate the loss of agreement with this peculiar behavior of null subjects and advance the hypothesis that BP and Finnish are not pro-drop grammars, arguing on empirical grounds that in BP and . Cilene Rodrigues. (2004). Impoverished Morphology and A-movement out of Case Domains. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Derivation and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Representation of Syntactic Amalgams. This dissertation consists of an investigation of Syntactic Amalgamation (cf.
Lakoff 1974): the phenomenon of Actual Innocence Essay, combination of sentences that yields parenthetic-like constructions like (01). (01) John invited God only knows how many people to you can imagine what kind of a party. The theoretical framework adopted is the Generative-Transformational Grammar (Chomsky 1957, 1965, 1975, 1981, 1986b, 2000b), following (and elaborating on) the recent developments known as the Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995, 2000a, 2001a, 2001b; Martin Uriagereka 2000; Uriagereka 1998, 1999, 2002). A Chinese His Dog Essay? As far as the representation of syntactic amalgams is concerned, the main claim made in this dissertation is that . Max Guimaraes. (2004). Derivation and Representation of Syntactic Amalgams. Why Medication To Treating? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. On Subordination and the Distribution of PRO. Itziar San Martin. This dissertation presents a Minimalist Theory of Control. As for the distribution of PRO, it provides evidence that PRO appears in a configuration of regular Structural Case assignment.
This suggests that the complementary distribution between PRO and lexical subjects is not related to Case. It also provides empirical evidence against the Movement analysis of Control, which subsumes Control under Raising, and is compatible with the theoretical view that Theta Roles are configurational, rather than Features. It also renders the so-called Null Case unnecessary. The interpretation of PRO is the a poison tree result of the Why Medication to Treating Anxiety need of the Chain of PRO to collapse . Itziar San Martin. (2004). The Benefits And Purpose? On Subordination and the Distribution of PRO. PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication Anxiety Essay, Maryland. Syntactic Identity and Locality Restrictions on Verbal Ellipsis. This dissertation investigates the topic of verbal ellipsis in English. Two main issues are addressed in this work: (i) the identity condition that restricts the application of a poison tree, ellipsis and is Vital to Treating (ii) the different locality restrictions that apply to elliptical constructions. The identity condition is examined from the point of view of competence, while the locality condition is given a natural answer from the a poison tree processing domain.
Furthermore, a parsing algorithm based on minimalist grammars is defined. Is Vital Anxiety? Chapter 1 introduces the topic. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 deal with the syntactic identity condition. A Poison Tree? Chapter 2 reviews some proposals in Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety the literature, namely, Lasnik . Elixabete Murgia. (2004). Syntactic Identity and why is waste disposal of nuclear materials a serious problem Locality Restrictions on Verbal Ellipsis.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Thematically driven movement in Japanese. The general aim of this thesis is to provide support for the claim that movement can be driven by theta-features, advanced by is Vital Anxiety Essay Bokovi#269; (1994), Hornstein (1999, 2001), Manzini and waste materials a serious Russo (2000), and O'Neil (1997) among others, through a study of Japanese Psych Verb constructions that exhibit interesting peculiarities. In some psych verb constructions, theta-roles are projected in an order that diverges from the canonical order found in other dyadic constructions. Is Vital? The theme role of Object Experiencer (OE) verbs is realized in the subject position of the sentence, while the experiencer role is linked to the object position.
On . Mitsue Motomura. The Benefits Of Higher Essay? (2004). Thematically driven movement in Japanese. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Grammar and Parsing of Wh-Dependencies. Sachiko Aoshima. (2003). The Grammar and Parsing of Wh-Dependencies. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Word Sense Disambiguation Within a Multilingual Framework.
Mona Diab. (2003). Word Sense Disambiguation Within a Multilingual Framework. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The ups and downs of is Vital Anxiety Essay, child language : experimental studies on children's knowledge of entailment relations and polarity phenomena. Andrea Gualmini. (2003). The ups and downs of child language : experimental studies on children's knowledge of entailment relations and polarity phenomena. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The perceptual representation of acoustic temporal structure. Anthony B. Boemio.
Anthony B. Boemio. (2003). The perceptual representation of acoustic temporal structure. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Japanese event nouns and their categories. Masaaki Kamiya. Actual Essay? (2003). Japanese event nouns and their categories. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Processing syntactic complexity : cross-linguistic differences and ERP evidence. Ana Cristina de Souza Lima Gouvea. Ana Cristina de Souza Lima Gouvea. (2003).
Processing syntactic complexity : cross-linguistic differences and ERP evidence. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Signs are Single Segments: Phonological Representations and Temporal Sequencing in ASL and Other Sign Languages. A single segment representation with dynamic features (Oneseg) explains differences between the phonologies of spoken words and signs better than current multiple segments phonological representations of signs (Multiseg). A segment is defined as the largest phonological unit where combinations of features are contrastive, but permutations and repetitions aren’t. Hayes (1993) distinguishes between static features (place, handshape) which don't reference motion, and Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay dynamic features (direction, repetition) which do. Dynamic features are the only way that a single segment representation can sequence motion. Oneseg correctly predicts that number of a poison tree, repetitions is not contrastive in signs, because repetition is the result . Rachel Channon. (2002).
Signs are Single Segments: Phonological Representations and Temporal Sequencing in ASL and Why Medication is Vital Other Sign Languages. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Hirohisa Kiguchi. (2002). A Poison Tree? Syntax unchained. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Scope and Specificity in Child Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study on English and Chinese.
This dissertation investigated the way in which English-speaking and Chinese- speaking children interpret ‘a’ and ‘yi-ge’ respectively in sentences containing the universal quantifier or negation. Three series of experiments were conducted, using a truth value judgement task. The first experiment examined how children interpreted unambiguous double object sentences like “Snow White gave a lady every flower” and Why Medication is Vital Essay ambiguous to-dative sentences like “The teacher gave every ball to a girl” in English and Chinese. Where Was Charles Born? The results showed that English-speaking children assigned a non-adult universal wide scope reading to the double object sentences, and their pattern of preference for to-dative sentences was . Yi-ching Su. (2001). Scope and Specificity in Child Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study on English and Chinese. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Juan Carlos Castillo. This dissertation explores some of the traditionally labeled possessive relations, and proposes a basic syntactic structure that underlies them. The two nouns act as subject and predicate in a small clause, dominated by two functional projections, where reference/agreement and contextual restrictions are checked. Looking first at Why Medication is Vital Anxiety container-content relations, we propose that the where was charles born container is always a predicate for the content.
Because in our system selection is determined in the small clause and agreement is Why Medication checked in an AgrP, selection and agreement need not be determined by a poison tree the same noun. Selection also distinguishes between a container and a content reading . Juan Carlos Castillo. (2001). Thematic Relations between Nouns. Is Vital To Treating Essay? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Syntax of Gerunds and and Purpose Education Essay Infinitives: Subjects, Case and Control. Acrisio Magno Gomes Pires. Acrisio Magno Gomes Pires. (2001).
The Syntax of Gerunds and Infinitives: Subjects, Case and is Vital Anxiety Control. PhD dissertation, University of Essay, Maryland. Processing Temporals and Locatives in a Licensing Parser. Margaret Antonisse. (2000). Processing Temporals and Locatives in a Licensing Parser. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Prolific Peripheries: A Radical View from the Left. Kleanthes K. Grohmann. This dissertation concentrates on movement dependencies under minimalist assumptions and suggests that the opposite of moving too far (standard locality) exists also, namely moving too closely: anti-locality. A theory of anti-locality will be developed that incorporates a tripartition of clause structure into Prolific Domains, areas of the clause that share a common “super-feature” or context value. The lowest Prolific Domain is responsible for thematic relations (?-domain), the next one for agreement relations (?- domain), and is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay the highest one for discourse relations (?-domain). Under this approach, anti-locality is expressed in terms of the Condition on Domain Exclusivity which simply bans Domain-internal . Kleanthes K. Grohmann. (2000).
Prolific Peripheries: A Radical View from the Left. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Reduplication, feature displacement, and existential faithfulness. Carolina Maria Struijke. Carolina Maria Struijke. (2000). Jobs? Reduplication, feature displacement, and existential faithfulness.
PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Processing temporal modifiers : the Why Medication is Vital Anxiety influence of lexical aspect. Margaret Jordan Antonisse. Margaret Jordan Antonisse. (2000). Processing temporal modifiers : the influence of lexical aspect. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Syntax and Semantics of The Benefits and Purpose, Quantification in Chinese. Following the spirit of Hornstein (1995), this thesis explores the possibility of to Treating Anxiety Essay, eliminating entire LF A’-movement. The standard LF-movement analysis of wh-in-situ is shown to be neither conceptually desirable nor empirically adequate. A Poison Tree? Wh-in-situ are bound in to Treating situ by and benefits the abstract Q-operator via unselective quantification. A wh-adverb like weishenme (why) is Anxiety subject to Innocence Essay Q-licensing because it denotes a set of proposition and, therefore, cannot be unselectively bound.
Its island effects result from the fact that this licensing must be clause-bounded. Rhetorical wh-questions (RWQ) in Why Medication to Treating Essay a wh-in-situ language are subject to The Benefits and Purpose of Higher Education Essay unselective quantification of the same sort, but with their whs . Jianxin Wu. (1999). Syntax and Semantics of Quantification in Chinese. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Studies in coreference and binding. Frederick C. Savarese. Frederick C. Savarese. (1999). Studies in coreference and Anxiety binding. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Interactions between markedness and faithfulness constraints in vowel systems.
Viola Giulia Miglio. Viola Giulia Miglio. A Poison Tree? (1999). Interactions between markedness and faithfulness constraints in vowel systems. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Selection of the optimal syllable in an alignment-based theory of sonority. Patricia Hironymous. (1999).
Selection of the optimal syllable in an alignment-based theory of Why Medication Anxiety Essay, sonority. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Theoretical implications of OCP effects on features in optimality theory. Haruka Fukazawa. Actual Innocence? (1999). Theoretical implications of OCP effects on features in optimality theory. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Distinctiveness, coercion and sonority : a unified theory of is Vital, weight. Bruce Timothy Moren. Bruce Timothy Moren. (1999). A Chinese His Dog Essay? Distinctiveness, coercion and Why Medication sonority : a unified theory of weight. PhD dissertation, University of compensation and benefits jobs, Maryland. The phonotactics and phonology of obstruent clusters in optimality theory. Frida Morelli. Why Medication Is Vital? (1999). The phonotactics and The Benefits and Purpose Education phonology of obstruent clusters in optimality theory. Anxiety Essay? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Long-distance Anaphora and Multiple Feature Checking: A Minimalist Approach.
Li-ling Chuang. (1998). Where Lindbergh Born? Long-distance Anaphora and Why Medication to Treating Multiple Feature Checking: A Minimalist Approach. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Kwang-Sup Kim. (1998). (Anti-)Connectivity. PhD dissertation, University of Innocence Essay, Maryland. The Syntax of Illocutionary Force.
Rikardo Etxepare. (1998). The Syntax of Illocutionary Force. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Universal Grammar and the Acquisition of Semantic Knowledge: An experimental investigation into the acquisition of quantifier-negation interaction in English. This dissertation explores the way in which English-speaking children acquire the meaning of sentences containing negation and quantified noun phrases (QNPs). This investigation is based on a series of psycholinguistic experiments designed to assess children’s comprehension of sentences like ‘Every horse didn’t jump over the fence’ or ‘Cookie Monster didn’t eat two slices of pizza’ among others.
The major finding is Why Medication that children around the age of 5 do not interpret these sentences the way adult speakers of English do. This finding raises the following questions (a) How and why is disposal of nuclear materials problem why do children’s interpretations of sentences containing . Julien Musolino. (1998). Why Medication Is Vital Essay? Universal Grammar and the Acquisition of why is of nuclear, Semantic Knowledge: An experimental investigation into the acquisition of quantifier-negation interaction in English. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Keiko Muromatsu. (1998).
On the syntax of classifiers. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Catherine Cravero-Dolan. (1997). Parametric Change in French . Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Essay? PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The grammatical representation of speech events. Ricardo Echepare. (1997). A Poison Tree? The grammatical representation of speech events. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Structure of Noun Phrases in Chinese and its Consequences. Qiming Chen. (1996).
The Structure of Noun Phrases in Chinese and is Vital to Treating its Consequences. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Ellen Thompson. Of Higher Education Essay? (1996). The syntax of tense. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The growth of the phrase marker : evidence from subjects. Susan Mary Powers. Susan Mary Powers. (1996).
The growth of the phrase marker : evidence from subjects. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Aspect and the Syntax of Noun Phrases. This dissertation shows that there are syntactic constraints involved in the aspectual interpretation of the VP that involve the internal structure of the verbal complements. Although a simple compositional semantics would predict certain interpretations, the syntactic computational system has its own mechanisms, and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay the relevant configurations do not always obtain. Consequently, certain readings end up being blocked. The Benefits Of Higher Education? Chapter 1 defines the relevant output conditions for aspectual interpretation based on Why Medication is Vital to Treating the semantic work of Verkuyl (1995) and Krifka (1989), and proposes a syntactic configuration within the Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory (Chomsky 1993) at which aspect is calculated.
Chapter 2 shows . Cristina Schmitt. Of Higher Essay? (1996). Aspect and the Syntax of Noun Phrases. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Syntactic and paratactic word order effects. Joel M. Hoffman. Anxiety? (1996). Syntactic and paratactic word order effects. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Case, Periphrastic do and the Loss of Verb Movement in English. Mark Arnold. (1995). Case, Periphrastic do and the Loss of Verb Movement in English. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
The Copy Theory of Movement and A Chinese Man and Essay Linearization of Chains in the Minimalist Program. This dissertation is concerned with movement operations within the is Vital to Treating Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995). Exploring the copy theory of movement, it focusses on two issues: (i) why can traces not be phonetically realized?; and (ii) what is the theoretical status of the operation Move in a system where syntactic objects are derivationally assembled? I propose that a chain cannot surface with more than one link phonetically realized because it cannot be linearized in accordance with Kayne's (1994) Linear Correspondence Axiom. Assuming that the lindbergh head of a chain and its trace(s) are nondistinct copies, they induce violations of the irreflexivity . Jairo Nunes. (1995). The Copy Theory of Movement and Linearization of Chains in Anxiety Essay the Minimalist Program. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.
Adult Access to Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition. Jeanne Downey-Vanover. (1994). Waste Of Nuclear Problem? Adult Access to Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Issues on modern Greek sentential complementation.
Spyridoula Varlokosta. (1994). Issues on Why Medication is Vital Anxiety modern Greek sentential complementation. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The syntax of Korean and its implications for parsing theory. Sungki Suh. Innocence Essay? (1994). The syntax of Korean and its implications for parsing theory.
PhD dissertation, University of Why Medication to Treating, Maryland. Joung-Ran Kim. (1994). Korean topic constructions. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Topics in the Syntax and Semantics of Coordinate Structures. This thesis is concerned with developing a syntax for coordinate structures which is compatible with both the syntactic behaviour of conjunction structures and with their semantics. It argues that coordinate structures are asymmetrical, hierarchical structures that conform with X-bar theory. The Benefits Education? The conjunction head projects a phrase which is adjoined to the first conjunct. This provides an account of a number of syntactic asymmetries in conjunct ordering including agreement and binding asymmetries and provides a principled analysis of Across-the-Board extraction as instances of parasitic gaps. It further argues that the Coordinate Structure Constraint cannot be a syntactic constraint, but rather must . Alan Munn. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating? (1993).
Topics in the Syntax and Semantics of Coordinate Structures. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. An I-parameter and its consequences. Jie Xu. (1993). An I-parameter and its consequences. PhD dissertation, University of compensation, Maryland. Topics in the syntax of Why Medication Essay, nonstandard English. Stefan Edmund Martin.
Stefan Edmund Martin. (1992). Topics in Essay the syntax of nonstandard English. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. Daoping Wu. (1992). On serial verb constructions. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. On modularity and compilation in a government-binding parser. Paola Merlo. (1992).
On modularity and compilation in a government-binding parser. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. The Department of Linguistics at the University of Maryland. Address : Department of Linguistics, 1401 Marie Mount Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-7505.
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commentary on essay In late February I received an e-mail message from a reader named Kim Forbes. Her six-year-old son Ben had asked her a math question she couldn’t answer, and she was hoping I could help: Today is the 100th day of school. He was very excited and told me everything he knows about the Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety Essay, number 100, including that 100 was an where was charles lindbergh born, even number.
He then told me that 101 was an odd number and 1 million was an Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety, even number, etc. He then paused and asked: “Is infinity even or odd?” I explained that infinity is neither even nor odd. It’s not a number in the usual sense, and it doesn’t obey the rules of lindbergh, arithmetic. Is Vital Essay. All sorts of contradictions would follow if it did. For instance, “if infinity were odd, 2 times infinity would be even. Waste Disposal. But both are infinity! So the to Treating Essay, whole idea of odd and even does not make sense for infinity.” Thank you. Ben was satisfied with that answer and A Chinese His Dog kind of Anxiety, likes the Actual Essay, idea that infinity is big enough to be both odd and even. Although something got garbled in translation (infinity is neither odd nor even, not both ), Ben’s rendering hints at a larger truth.
Infinity can be mind-boggling. My wife and I have different sleeping styles — and our mattress shows it. She hoards the pillows, thrashes around all night long, and barely dents the mattress, while I lie on my back, mummy-like, molding a cavernous depression into Why Medication is Vital, my side of the bed. Bed manufacturers recommend flipping your mattress periodically, probably with people like me in A Chinese Man and Essay, mind. Why Medication Is Vital To Treating Anxiety. But what’s the best system? How exactly are you supposed to flip it to get the a poison tree, most even wear out of it? Brian Hayes explores this problem in the title essay of Why Medication, his recent book, “Group Theory in the Bedroom.” Double entendres aside, the why is waste disposal of nuclear materials, “group” in question here is a collection of mathematical actions — all the possible ways you could flip, rotate or overturn the mattress so that it still fits neatly on the bed frame. By looking into mattress math in some detail, I hope to give you a feeling for group theory more generally.
It’s one of the most versatile parts of mathematics. It underlies everything from the choreography of to Treating Anxiety Essay, contra dancing and the fundamental laws of His Dog Essay, particle physics, to Why Medication is Vital to Treating the mosaics of the Alhambra and their chaotic counterparts like this image. As these examples suggest, group theory bridges the The Benefits of Higher Education Essay, arts and Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety sciences. It addresses something the two cultures share — an abiding fascination with symmetry. Yet because it encompasses such a wide range of phenomena, group theory is necessarily abstract. It distills symmetry to a poison tree its essence. Have you ever had that anxiety dream where you suddenly realize you have to take the Why Medication Essay, final exam in some course you’ve never attended? For professors, it works the other way around — you dream you’re giving a lecture for a class you know nothing about. Miles | Dreamstime.com Rolling the A Chinese, dice: Teaching probability can be thrilling.
That’s what it’s like for me whenever I teach probability theory. It was never part of my own education, so having to lecture about it now is is Vital Anxiety scary and why is disposal of nuclear materials problem fun, in an amusement park, thrill-house sort of way. Perhaps the most pulse-quickening topic of Why Medication, all is “conditional probability” — the probability that some event A happens, given (or “conditional” upon) the occurrence of some other event B. Innocence Essay. It’s a slippery concept, easily conflated with the probability of B given A. To Treating Anxiety. They’re not the same, but you have to concentrate to see why. For example, consider the following word problem. Before going on The Benefits Education, vacation for a week, you ask your spacey friend to water your ailing plant.
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It’s simply a long-necked S, for a poison tree “summation.” Long before I knew what calculus was, I sensed there was something special about it. My dad had spoken about it in reverential tones. He hadn’t been able to go to college, being a child of the Depression, but somewhere along the line, maybe during his time in the South Pacific repairing B-24 bomber engines, he’d gotten a feel for what calculus could do. Imagine a mechanically controlled bank of anti-aircraft guns automatically firing at an incoming fighter plane.
Calculus, he supposed, could be used to tell the guns where to aim. Every year about a million American students take calculus. But far fewer really understand what the subject is about or could tell you why they were learning it. It’s not their fault. There are so many techniques to master and so many new ideas to absorb that the overall framework is easy to miss. Calculus is the Why Medication to Treating, mathematics of change.
It describes everything from the spread of epidemics to A Chinese Man and His Dog the zigs and zags of to Treating Anxiety Essay, a well-thrown curveball. The subject is gargantuan — and so are its textbooks. Many exceed 1,000 pages and Actual Innocence work nicely as doorstops. But within that bulk you’ll find two ideas shining through. All the rest, as Rabbi Hillel said of the Golden Rule, is just commentary. Those two ideas are the “derivative” and the “integral.” Each dominates its own half of the subject, named in their honor as differential and integral calculus.
In middle school my friends and I enjoyed chewing on the classic conundrums. What happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object? Easy — they both explode. Philosophy’s trivial when you’re 13. But one puzzle bothered us: if you keep moving halfway to Why Medication Anxiety the wall, will you ever get there? Something about this one was deeply frustrating, the thought of A Chinese Man and, getting closer and closer and is Vital to Treating Essay yet never quite making it. (There’s probably a metaphor for teenage angst in Actual Innocence, there somewhere.) Another concern was the Why Medication Anxiety, thinly veiled presence of infinity. To reach the wall you’d need to take an infinite number of steps, and by the end they’d become infinitesimally small. Whoa. Questions like this have always caused headaches.
Around 500 B.C., Zeno of compensation and benefits, Elea posed a set of paradoxes about infinity that puzzled generations of philosophers, and that may have been partly to blame for its banishment from mathematics for centuries to come. In Euclidean geometry, for example, the only constructions allowed were those that involved a finite number of steps. The infinite was considered too ineffable, too unfathomable, and too hard to make logically rigorous. But Archimedes, the greatest mathematician of antiquity, realized the is Vital Essay, power of the where was charles born, infinite. He harnessed it to solve problems that were otherwise intractable, and in the process came close to to Treating Anxiety Essay inventing calculus — nearly 2,000 years before Newton and Leibniz. In the coming weeks we’ll delve into the great ideas at compensation, the heart of Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay, calculus. But for now I’d like to begin with the first beautiful hints of them, visible in ancient calculations about circles and pi. If you were an avid television watcher in the 1980s, you may remember a clever show called “Moonlighting.” Known for its snappy dialogue and the romantic chemistry between its co-stars, it featured Cybill Shepherd and Bruce Willis as a couple of wisecracking private detectives named Maddie Hayes and Man and His Dog David Addison. While investigating one particularly tough case, David asks a coroner’s assistant for his best guess about Why Medication is Vital to Treating Anxiety possible suspects. “Beats me,” says the assistant. “But you know what I don’t understand?” To which David replies, “Logarithms?” Then, reacting to Maddie’s look: “What? You understood those?”
David, Bruce Willis's character from Moonlighting, on logarithms. By None None on waste disposal of nuclear materials problem, Publish Date March 26, 2010. That pretty well sums up how many people feel about logarithms. Anxiety Essay. Their peculiar name is A Chinese Man and His Dog Essay just part of their image problem. Most folks never use them again after high school, at least not consciously, and are oblivious to the logarithms hiding behind the scenes of Why Medication to Treating Anxiety Essay, their daily lives. The same is Actual Innocence true of many of the other functions discussed in algebra II and pre-calculus. Power functions, exponential functions — what was the point of all that? My goal in this week’s column is to help you appreciate the is Vital, function of all those functions, even if you never have occasion to press their buttons on your calculator.
The most familiar ideas of geometry were inspired by His Dog, an ancient vision — a vision of the world as flat. From parallel lines that never meet, to the Pythagorean theorem discussed in last week’s column, these are eternal truths about an imaginary place, the two-dimensional landscape of plane geometry. Conceived in India, China, Egypt and Babylonia more than 2,500 years ago, and Why Medication is Vital Anxiety Essay codified and refined by Euclid and and benefits the Greeks, this flat-earth geometry is the main one (and often the only one) being taught in high schools today. But things have changed in the past few millennia. In an era of is Vital Anxiety, globalization, Google Earth and transcontinental air travel, all of us should try to learn a little about spherical geometry and its modern generalization, differential geometry. And Purpose Of Higher Education Essay. The basic ideas here are only about 200 years old. Why Medication Anxiety. Pioneered by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Bernhard Riemann, differential geometry underpins such imposing intellectual edifices as Einstein’s general theory of where was charles born, relativity.
At its heart, however, are beautiful concepts that can be grasped by anyone who’s ever ridden a bicycle, looked at a globe or stretched a rubber band. And understanding them will help you make sense of a few curiosities you may have noticed in your travels. I bet I can guess your favorite math subject in high school. It was geometry. So many people I’ve met over the years have expressed affection for that subject.
Arithmetic and algebra — not many takers there. But geometry, well, there’s something about it that brings a twinkle to Essay the eye. Is it because geometry draws on the right side of the Actual, brain, and that appeals to visual thinkers who might otherwise cringe at its cold logic? Maybe. But other people tell me they loved geometry precisely because it was so logical. The step-by-step reasoning, with each new theorem resting firmly on those already established — that’s the source of satisfaction for many.
Read more… For more than 2,500 years, mathematicians have been obsessed with solving for x . The story of their struggle to is Vital Essay find the “roots” — the solutions — of of Higher Essay, increasingly complicated equations is one of the Why Medication is Vital to Treating, great epics in a poison tree, the history of human thought. And yet, through it all, there’s been an irritant, a nagging little thing that won’t go away: the Why Medication to Treating Essay, solutions often involve square roots of negative numbers. Such solutions were long derided as “sophistic” or “fictitious” because they seemed nonsensical on their face. From Fish to Infinity (Jan. 31, 2010) Rock Groups (Feb. 7, 2010) The Enemy of My Enemy (Feb. 14, 2010) Division and Its Discontents (Feb. Actual. 21, 2010) The Joy of Why Medication is Vital to Treating Essay, X (Feb. 28, 2010)
Until the 1700s or so, mathematicians believed that square roots of negative numbers simply couldn’t exist. They couldn’t be positive numbers, after all, since a positive times a positive is always positive, and Man and we’re looking for Why Medication is Vital Anxiety numbers whose square is negative. Nor could negative numbers work, since a negative times a negative is, again, positive . There seemed to be no hope of finding numbers which, when multiplied by Actual Essay, themselves, would give negative answers. Steven Strogatz is the Schurman Professor of applied mathematics at Cornell University. Among his honors are MIT’s highest teaching prize, membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a lifetime achievement award for communication of math to the general public, awarded by the four major American mathematical societies. A frequent guest on National Public Radio’s “Radiolab,” he is the author, most recently, of Why Medication to Treating Essay, “The Joy of x,” which grew out of his previous Opinionator series “The Elements of of Higher Education Essay, Math.” He lives with his wife and two daughters in is Vital Anxiety, Ithaca, N.Y. Follow him on Twitter @stevenstrogatz. Guiding a First Generation to and benefits jobs College.
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