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The Prime Difference: Situational Vs Dispositional Attribution
bbc homework ks1 This is not an instant download site but I send download links for ALL resources up to approximately ?30 in situational attribution value. If the value of your order is Macbeth by Shakespeare Essay, more I will still send links if at all possible, otherwise your order will be sent to you on a CD. Costs for postage or for sending download links. Situational Attribution! Admin costs for devil shadow, downloads are shown as ‘postal charges’ at checkout and are added automatically. They cover my costs and are not refunded. Attribution! There is one charge per order which stays the same for all orders under ?50. ORDERING FROM ABROAD. All orders from abroad (o utside the UK post code areas) will be sent by download link only. Individual (zipped) folders sent via download links will not normally exceed around 100 MB.
Exploring Through Time - PowerPoints. Why do people explore? There are two PowerPoints which are suitable for what is tradeoff in economics, Y2 and lower KS2. Situational Attribution! 1. PowerPoint One — Famous Explorers — 37 slides — What is an explorer? Explorers include - Sir Ranulf Fiennes, Jacques Cousteau, Apollo Moon Landing, Sir Edmund Hillary Tenzing Norgay, Robert Falcon Scott, Roald Amundsen. Also has a timeline. PowerPoint Two — Exploration — 25 slides — Why do people explore the world and space today? See preview/s but please allow time to load. Received with thanks today. I was unsure about using your site since it isn’t instant download but you were incredibly fast in Moral Luck fulfilling my order. Warm Regards, Nicci.
Click on situational, the pictures to Moral Essay see sample slides - allow time for slides and previews to load. KS1 history - explorers, invaders and attribution settlers KS2. KS1 Explorers through Time - Why do people explore? KS2. Life Is Beautiful! These two PowerPoints could be used to introduce a unit on Tudor Exploration in situational KS2 or could be used by themselves within a topic on exploration in KS1. Explorers and Exploration. See also Tudor Exploration. Captain Cook (below) KS1 Sea and Seafarers - Captain Cook KS2. What are/were the effects of exploration? Why do/did people explore?
Objectives: Children should learn the reasons for exploration. Activities: Discuss with the children why people explore the world and space today. List the reasons why people explore the world today on a flip chart or white board. Ask the children to show reasons for what, exploration then and now. Discuss the reasons that are the same and the ones that are different. Outcomes: Children: record reasons for exploration and identify similarities and differences between exploration then and now. Click on the pictures to situational attribution see sample slides - allow time for The English of Deprivation Essay, slides and previews to load.
Captain James Cook - PowerPoints. There are four PowerPoints. 1. PowerPoint One - James Cook - 30 slides - Introduction—James Cook’s Early life Who was he? How did he become famous? 2. Attribution! PowerPoint Two - The Endeavour - 26 slides - The voyage of the. 3. PowerPoint Three - Voyage to devil shadow Antarctica - 28 slides - Cook’s 2nd. 4. Attribution! PowerPoint Four - The Final Voyage - 24 slides - the final voyage and death of table, Captain Cook. See preview/s but please allow time to load. Received with thanks today. Situational! I was unsure about using your site since it isn’t instant download but you were incredibly fast in fulfilling my order. Warm Regards, Nicci.
See also: resource 176 The Pirate Pack Click Here. Resource 252 Pirates! Pirate History Click Here. KS1 The Vikings - Explorers and table Settlements KS2. Finding out about the Vikings and Viking Homes.
Viking Long ships. How do we know about the situational attribution, Vikings? Who were the devil shadow, Vikings? Where did they come from? Around 25 years ago the remains of a Viking farm were discovered on the Lofoten islands in Norway. The farm had once belonged to one of the situational, most powerful Norwegian Viking Chieftains.
The picture pack contains photographs taken at devil shadow the Viking Museum and show what it was like inside a. Viking Chieftain's Longhouse. With thanks to Stuart and Anne Pouncett for the photographs taken on situational attribution, their trip to Norway. Click on the five larger pictures to see sample slides - allow time for slides and previews to load. Finding out about the Vikings - PowerPoints. What Is Tradeoff In Economics! There are five PowerPoints and situational 27 Posters to Print. 1. PowerPoint One — Finding Out About The Vikings — 30 slides.
2. PowerPoint Two — Viking Invasion — 14 slides. 3. PowerPoint Three — Viking Settlements — 25 slides. 4. PowerPoint Four — Viking People — 26 slides. 5. PowerPoint Five — A Viking Chieftain - Based on the Viking Museum at Macbeth Essay Borg on the Lofoten islands in northern Norway. 6. Pictures to attribution talk about 27 A4 pictures and photographs to The English Essay print and use for display. With thanks to Stuart and situational Anne Pouncett who took photographs at the Viking Museum in Norway and donated them for use here. 7. Six sheets of writing paper with large pictures.
See preview/s but please allow time to load. This is a huge folder of work because of the The English Indices Essay, picture content. Received with thanks today. I was unsure about using your site since it isn’t instant download but you were incredibly fast in fulfilling my order. Warm Regards, Nicci. Viking Resources for Y2 and situational attribution lower KS2. KS1 Kings, Knights, Castles - A Castle Home KS2. KS1 and lower KS2. Refrigerant! Kings Knights and Castles.
Motte and Bailey Castles. Stone Built Castles. Becoming a Knight. Kings, Knights, Castles - PowerPoints. There are six PowerPoints and 19 pictures to print. 1. PowerPoint One - Kings, Knights and Castles — 25 slides. 2. Situational Attribution! PowerPoint Two - Castles Part One - Motte and Bailey — 26 slides.
3. PowerPoint Three - Castles Part Two - Stone Built Castles - 40 slides. 4. PowerPoint Four - Becoming a Knight — 17 slides. 5. PowerPoint Five - A Castle As A Home — 28 slides. 6. PowerPoint Six - The Castle attack Song with music. 7. Pictures of castles to talk about 19 A4 pictures to print and Indices of Deprivation use for display. See preview/s but please allow time to load.
Received with thanks today. I was unsure about using your site since it isn’t instant download but you were incredibly fast in fulfilling my order. Situational Attribution! Warm Regards, Nicci. To see a (linked) list of all history resources on site Click Here. Click on the five pictures to Macbeth by Shakespeare see sample slides.
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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Essay. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) that disables the immune system. It was discovered in 1983 .HIV enters the body through the bloodstream and duplicates itself rapidly. The victim is susceptible to infectious diseases that eventually are fatal (1). Statistically, HIV/AIDS is the number one killer of African-American women ages 25 to 34, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Between 2000 and 2003, they were nineteen times more likely than White females and five times more likely than Hispanic females to contract the disease. Situational Attribution! African-American men were seven times more likely than White men and three times the rate of Hispanic men to contract HIV/AIDS (2). In 2008, there is still not a cure for AIDS. Instead, scientists have discovered drugs that can slow down the progression of the disease. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are antiviral drugs that slow down the spread of HIV (1). The virus produces a protein called protease so that it can replicate itself. “Protease cuts long chains of proteins and enzymes into shorter chains, the first step in the process by devil shadow, which HIV infects a cell” (1).
If this doesn’t happen, replication does not continue. In 1987, AZT was the first anti-HIV medication that was created. It showed hope and kept people healthier longer. However, the side effects were very high for men. Since that time, more HIV medications have evolved. Antiretroviral therapy usually consists of combinations of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, or fusion inhibitors, which are prescribed in the later stages of situational, HIV (19).
Dual protease inhibitor therapy is also being used clinically (3). They are also associated with improving morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive persons (5). Although these drugs are expensive, they have proven to be the most successful therapy in managing HIV. However, some patients don’t comply 100% with their treatments. This is largely due to the side effects. Sometimes they make a patient feel worse than the actual disease. The most commonly reported ones are abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, and refrigerant, nausea. Children usually develop a skin rash.
The more serious side effects are liver problems and pancreatitis. Some patients have also seen large increase in triglyceride ad cholesterol levels. Situational Attribution! Diabetics saw an Macbeth by Shakespeare Essay increase in their blood sugar levels. Other patients developed diabetes while taking protease inhibitors (16). Presently, nine PIs have been approved for situational attribution use in the United States and is beautiful review, Europe: amprenavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, and nelfinavir. Three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used for treatment of HIV: nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz (7). Drug treatment selection depends on factors such as drug resistance, tolerability, drug interactions, and effectiveness. Attribution! Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) “has been proposed so that practitioners may better maintain appropriate plasma concentrations of drugs in The English Indices of Deprivation their patients by situational, identifying interactions with other medications and assessing medication adherence (7).
Figure 1 shows the structures of Moral, these compounds. Fig. 1. Chemical structures of attribution, protease inhibitors and refrigerant table, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. About 50% of “treatment-naive patients” don’t have continued antiviral response after one year of therapy (18). In some cases, there is a development of drug resistance and situational, metabolic complications. Also, “there is increasing evidence that virological treatment failure is Moral correlated with variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs (20). This can be due to drug interactions, low bioavailability, and variations in metabolic enzyme activity. Atazanavir (ATV) has good oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetics profile (18). With this in mind, patients can mostly take a once-daily dose. A separate analytical method has been recently published for attribution quantifying ATV in human plasma using solid phase extraction and HPLC with PDA (photodiode array) detection at 201 nm (18). This method provides excellent separation of refrigerant, ATV from situational, its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) and the other PIs, thus, obtaining an devil shadow accurate measurement of the drug (see figure 2).
CLZ elutes at 8.9 minutes, and ATV elutes a 24.4 minutes. A 40-ml injection resulted in a recovery yield of 100%. Fig. 2. Chromatogram of ATV with PIs/NNRTIs (8000 ng/ml) spiked with CLZ. Nelfinavir mesylate has been shown in phase III controlled clinical trials to significantly reduce viral load and increase CD4 + cell counts when used with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It’s prescribed as part of triple drug combination therapy (9). CD4 + are helper T cells.
They are important for immune reconstitution in patients that are receiving antiretroviral therapy (10). After a large number of these cells are destroyed, AIDS develops (7). Six clinical trials was conducted in the past ten years using 2, 148 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group treatment trials (10). Patient ages varied from situational attribution, 2 to 7 years of age. By Shakespeare Essay! The focus was to observe short-term variability of CD4 percentages. Attribution! The study found that 49% of patients had CD4 percentages above 25%.
32% of patients had CD4 counts between 15% and 24%; 19% were less than 15%. Finally, 5.4% had a CD4% of devil shadow, less than 5% (10). In June 2006, Darunavir (DRV) was licensed in the United States. Situational Attribution! It is a promising PI that is The English Indices of Deprivation active against HIV strains that are resistant to the other PIs that currently on the market (17). Attribution! It is prescribed in 600-mg doses that are taken twice daily with 100 mg of ritonavir that acts as a booster. Protease inhibitors are associated with unfavorable pharmacokinetics and many side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances and devil shadow, lipid abnormalities (5). Four of the situational most common PIs used are indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir (3 ). “Monitoring blood concentration of PIs, which can indicate both therapeutic and life, toxic levels of the drugs as well as patient noncompliance with the situational attribution medication, may improve the care of both HIV-infected adults and devil shadow, children” (3).
When ritonavir was first introduced, it was given in situational doses of 600 mg every 12 hours. “However, patient intolerance of full doses led to The English Indices of Deprivation Essay, its primary use as a pharmacologic enhancer to increase the concentrations in plasma of a second protease inhibitor to improve the convenience of antiretroviral regimens by situational, extending the dosing interval, reducing pill burden, and /or eliminating food-induced reductions in Macbeth Essay pharmacokinetic exposure” (8). Researchers used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine concentrations of attribution, PIs in blood. Various methods have been used to study the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Interpreting plasma levels can be used to “individualize drug dosage of antiretrovirals (4). Quality control (QC) procedures must be done to ensure that these methods are accurate and precise. “Such procedures usually include intralaboratory (internal) method validation, intralaboratory QC procedures, and participation in is tradeoff an interlaboratory QC program for antiretroviral drugs” (4).
Since the attribution latter hadn’t been done before, it was established so that laboratories can obtain better measurement results of antiretroviral drugs. Nine laboratories participated in the first part of the program. The first part of the life is beautiful review experiment involved the measurement of the protease inhibitors: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir. All had a specified purity of 99% or higher. QC samples were prepared by spiking blank plasma from HIV-negative volunteers with PI standard. The low concentrated standards ranged from 0.087 to 0.15 mg/L while the intermediate concentrated standards contained ranged from 2 to 3 mg/L of situational, all four PIs. Finally, the life is beautiful high-concentrated standards contained approximately 5 to 11 mg/L of drug. Situational! All drugs were dissolved in methanol following accurate weighings and diluted with blank plasma (4).
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze twelve samples. All laboratories measuring more than one protease inhibitor used as assay for “simultaneous determination” (4). Six laboratories used HPLC/UV and three labs used HPLC-MS/MS. Mass spectrometry detection is often recommended for measurement of low concentration levels. Also, this type of analysis is usually faster and “does not require complete resolution of is tradeoff, drugs for detection and quantification” (5).
Only five laboratories were able to measure all four PIs. Three laboratories were not able to determine nelfinavir. One laboratory only measured indinavir (4). Acceptable accuracy results are between 80% and situational, 120%. Only indinavir resulted in an acceptable accuracy of 80%.
The remaining PIs had between 36% and 74% accuracy. Of Deprivation! These results should encourage laboratories to improve their analytical methods and QC procedures. Other PIs, such as amprenavir and lopinavir, can be analyzed as well (4). HIV-positive plasma samples are heat inactivated before analysis, approximately 58°C for 40 minutes, to decrease the attribution risk of infection to the operator. Essay! They may also go through a freeze/thaw cycle. As with the attribution QC study, blank plasma was spiked with seven PIs (indinavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, and devil shadow, nelfnavir) at attribution low, intermediate, and Essay, high concentrations measured in ng/ml. Certain assays only situational, require 100 µl of plasma for analysis. “This is advantageous when measuring PI concentrations as part of is tradeoff in economics, clinical studies as they often necessitate hourly sampling to generate complete PK profiles; therefore less blood can be drawn from the patient” (5).
In addition, seven PIs can be quantified in one assay, but impossible to assay all seven in attribution a single preparation. “The use of is beautiful, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has emerged as the situational attribution developmental method of choice supporting clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies” (13). Recovery for the HPLC-MS/MS methods was above 87% for all seven drugs at life review all three concentration levels (5). It was successful in quantifying seven PI concentrations in situational plasma of HIV positive persons that participated in a run time of nine minutes. Therefore, the what assay may be used for determining PI concentrations in semen, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid (5). A fast and highly-sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed that could analyze five protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in one run using an internal standard.
Sample sizes were small (ng/ml) and run times were approximately 5 minutes. Recoveries for all five PIs were between 87% and 92%(11). Tipranavir is situational attribution part of a class of non-peptidic PIs that works against both “wild-type virus and variants resistant to current PIs”(6). It also has a high genetic barrier. Tipranavir is prescribed in a 500-mg dose taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily as part of antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple PIs (6). Fig. 3. Tipranavir chemical structure. An HPLC-UV method has been validated and what is tradeoff, is currently applied when monitoring tipranavir (TPV) plasma levels in HIV patients.
Samples were prepared for solid phase extraction (SPE) by conditioning the situational cartridges with 0.1% phosphoric acid, pH 7. TPV stock solutions with a concentration of 5 mg/ml were diluted from in economics, with 50% methanol. Samples were spiked with TPV at 1.875, 7.5, 18.75, 37.5, 60, and 75 µg/ml in triplicate. Situational Attribution! QC samples were diluted with blank plasma and phosphate buffer to 5.625, 22.5, and 67.5 µg/ml. Refrigerant! Clozapine was used as the internal standard (6). Attribution! 5-ml aliquots of blood samples were obtained from HIV infected patients. The plasma obtained from life review, centrifugation was heated at 60° C for one hour in a water bath. TPV in plasma was measured at a UV absorbance of situational, 201 nm with a retention time of what, 32.2 minutes. Situational Attribution! Its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) has a retention time of 8.3 minutes (6). Essay! Figure 4 below shows the chromatogram of attribution, TPV, its internal standard, and all other PIs and NNRTIs present. Figure 5 shows TPV and its internal standard CLZ only. Fig.
4. Macbeth Essay! Chromatogram of plasma control sample of TVP (22.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard and all PIs and NNRTIs. Fig. 5. Chromatogram of situational, calibration sample of TVP (37.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard CLZ. Isocratic HPLC methods combined with the use of UV and fluorescence detection produces more sensitivity. Amprenavir is a fluorescent compound. Its internal standard PR25 can also be seen under fluorescence (see figure 6). Fig. 6. Blank plasma with 100 ng/ml amprenavir and 1000 ng/ml of PR25 seen under fluorescence. In conclusion, much progress has been made in the development of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral therapy. HPLC with UV detection has been the what is tradeoff most commonly used method of analysis.
It is rapid, simple, and highly sensitive. LC-MS-MS has been noted at situational attribution the developmental method of Macbeth by Shakespeare, choice for clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). Attribution! More compounds can be analyzed in less time. Also, they can be used for methods using other human biological matrices. For the majority of protease inhibitors, all side effects are not known. In 2007, darunavir was the new HIV protease inhibitor with eleven other antiretroviral agents on Luck, the market. They can affect patients that have diabetes, liver problems, and hemophilia; their conditions can worsen as a result of taking PIs. Situational Attribution! Only a patient’s health care provider can determine the best treatment option. Nagel, Rob.
2007. The English Of Deprivation! Protease Inhibitors. UXL Encyclopedia of Science; [cited 2008 May 8], Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docnum=cv2644301082. Health Hotline: HIV and situational attribution, Genital Herpes [cited 2008 May8]; Available from http://www.ebony.com. “HPLC Assay for Common Protease Inhibitors Developed.”Antiviral Weekly; [cited 2008 May 07; Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docNum=A60069570. Aarnoutse, Rob E., Verweij-van Wissen, Corrien P.W.G.M., van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, Eleonora, W.J., Wuis, Eveline, W., Koopmans, Peter P., Hekster, Yechiel A., and Burger, David, M. 2001. International Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Measurement of refrigerant table, Antiretroviral Drugs in Plasma; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 46(3): 884-886. Dickinson, Laura, Robinson, Lesley, Tjia, John, Khoo, and Saye, Back, David. 2005. Simultaneous determination of HIV protease inhibitors amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom. B 829:82-90.
Colombo, S., Beguin, A., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A. 2006. Situational! Determination of the novel non-peptidic HIV-protease inhibitor tipranavir by HPLC-UV after solid-phase extraction; J of Chrom. B 832:138-143. Rezk, Naser L., Tidwell, Richard R., and Kashuba, Angela D.M. 2004. High-performance liquid chromatography assay for life the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors and situational, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma; J of Chrom. Life Is Beautiful Review! B 805:241-247. Shelton, Mark J.,Hewitt, Ross G., Adams, John, Dela-Coletta, Andrew, Cox, Steven, and Morse, Gene D. 2003. Pharmacokinetics of Ritonavir and Delavirdine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 47(5): 1694-1699.
Zhang, Kanyin E., Wu, Ellen, Patick, Amy K., Kerr, Bradley, Zorbas, Mark, Lankford, Angela, Kobayashi, Takuo, Maeda, Yuki, Shetty, Bhasker, and Webber, Stephanie. 2001.Circulating Metabolites of the situational attribution Human Immunodeficiency Virus protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Essay, Antiviral Activities; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 45(4): 1086-1093. Carey, Vincent J., Pahwa, Savita, and Weinberg, Adriana. 2005. Reliability of CD4 Quantitation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children: Implications for Definition of Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; Clinical and Diagnostic Lab Immunology 12(5): 640-643. Chi, Jingduan, Jayewardene, Anura L., Stone, Judith A., Motoya, Toshiro, and Aweeka, Francesca. 2002.
Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by LC/MS/MS; J of Pharm and Biomedical Analysis 30:675-684. Verbesselt, R., Van Wijngaerden, E., and de Hoon, J. Attribution! 2007. Simultaneous determination of 8 HIV protease inhibitors in human plasma by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with combined use of UV and fluorescence detection: Amprenavir, indinavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir and M8-nelfinavir metabolite; J of Chrom. B 845:51-60. Frerichs, Valerie A., DiFrancesco, Robin, and life review, Morse, Gene D. 2003. Determination of protease inhibitors using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom, B 787:393-403.
Gangl, Eric, Utkin, Ilya, Gerber, Nicholas, and situational, Vouros, Paul. 2002. Structural elucidation of metabolites of ritonavir and indinavir by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; J. of Chrom. A 974:91-101. Turner, Michele L., Reed-Walker, Kedria, King, Jennifer R., and Acosta, Edward P. 2003. Devil Shadow! Simultaneous determination of nine antiretroviral compounds in human plasma using liquid chromatography; J. of Chrom. B 784:331-341. D’Avolio, Antonio, Siccardi, Marco, Sciandra, Mauro, Lorena, Baietto, Bonora, Stefano, Trentini, Laura, and Di Perri, Giovanni.2007. HPLC-MS method for situational attribution the simultaneous quantification of the new HIV protease inhibitor darunavir, and 11 other antiretroviral agents in life review plasma of HIV-infected patients; J. of Chrom. Situational Attribution! B 859:234-240.
Colombo, S., Guignard, N., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A. 2004. Determination of the new HIV-protease inhibitor atazanavir by liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction; J. of Chrom. B 810:25-34. Weller, Dennis R., Brundage, Richard C., Balfour, Jr., Henry H., and Essay, Vezina, Heather E. An isocratic liquid chromatography method for situational determining HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor concentrations in human plasma; J. of Chrom. B 848:369-373. Sarasa-Nacenta, Maria, Lopez-Pua, Yolanda, Mallolas, Josep, Blanco, Jose’ Luis, Gatell, Jose’ M., and Carne’, Xavier. Simultaneous determination of the Macbeth by Shakespeare Essay HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by situational attribution, reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography; J, of The English Indices of Deprivation Essay, Chrom. B 757:325-332. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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9-11 essays All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. Situational. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Racial profiling entails using a person’s race to ascertain one involvement in a criminal activity without putting into consideration the refrigerant table, available evidence for attribution the criminal case. Racial profiling has been a contentious issue in the United States and devil shadow all over the globe, particularly to the extent on which the action infringes the situational, very fundamental human rights and civil liberties protected by the law. Such an approach by devil shadow law enforcement agencies and officers is an situational attribution ineffective strategy, since law enforcement agencies overlook the fundamental evidence, and the suspicion is usually based on an individual’s race and the perception of the society relative to that race.
For instance, African-Americans commonly associated with illegal drugs and urban crime. On a similar account, Arabs and Muslims are associated with terrorism. The September 11 attacks presented an Macbeth by Shakespeare Essay opportunity to situational instigate a racial stereotyping against the Muslims and Arabs in by Shakespeare, the United States, especially those of Middle East origin. This research paper attempts to investigate the extent to which September 11 attacks influenced racial profiling in the US and later to attribution the rest of the world. Arguing from Macbeth by Shakespeare, two perspectives, racial profiling has worsened after the attacks and that racial profiling has not worsened post 9/11, a conclusion is situational reached basing on the collected facts and evidence. How racial profiling has worsened. After the September 11 attacks, Arabs and Muslims living in the United States have been subjected to intense racial profiling.
This is due to perceptions that Arabs and by Shakespeare Essay Muslims are likely perpetrators of attribution, terrorism. Interestingly, this perception is deeply rooted within the non-Arabs and non-Muslim population groups. As a result, law enforcement agencies in the US are using this assumption and perception to associate Arab ethnicity and Muslims with terrorist acts. The underlying fact is that most Arabs and Muslims living in Macbeth Essay, the United States are not terrorists, but law abiding citizens. A 2002 report from the attribution, Human Rights Watch in the US revealed that at least 1200 Arab Americans, mostly from the Middle East and South Asia, faced detainment exclusive of what in economics, formal charges directed at them. Attribution. The same report asserted that the United States Justice Department abused and violated the fundamental human rights of the Arab and Muslim detainees. Essay. The law enforcement agencies perceived terrorism as a reserve for the Arabs and Muslims in the US, as a result, suspecting any Arab and situational attribution Muslim for their involvement or attempted involvement in a terrorist activity. It is evident that racial profiling against the Muslim has worsened since the September 11 attacks.
This worsened further after the enactment of the Patriots Act by President Bush, and is beautiful the Act targeted mainly Arab Americans by linking them to terrorism without any evidence or questioning. Situational Attribution. In that context, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement authorities went overboard in searching the homes of the Arab Americans, and by forcefully investigating their financial records and Moral personal information. This is a violation of situational, human rights based on race and ethnicity, with the is tradeoff, target being mainly people of Arab and Muslim origin. Situational Attribution. Another indicator that racial profiling against the Arabs and Moral Luck Muslims in the United States has worsened since September 11 is that the situational, federal government is significantly relying on racial profiling as means of counter terrorism strategy. This is widely evident in the entry points of the United States. Law enforcement agencies at Luck Essay, the entry points of the United States are putting stringent measures to immigrants who come from Islamic countries associated with terrorism such as Afghanistan. This perception is based on the view that all the Muslims coming from such country gain entry into the United States with the aim of pursuing terrorist activities. Therefore, the entry point authorities are applying racial profiling for situational attribution Arabs and Indices Essay Muslims. According to a 2004 report released by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), dubbed Sanctioned Bias: Racial Profiling since 9/11, it is evident that there is an increase in anti-immigrant perception towards the Arabs and the Muslim both from the public and the law enforcement agencies. In fact, after the September 11 attacks, there is an official policy in the United States that grants law enforcement agencies jurisdiction to question individuals especially Arab Americans without posting criminal charges. Such suspicions are based on race and religion; being Arabic and of Islam faith and only attempts to associate them with terrorist acts.
As a matter of fact, racial profiling was a foreign phenomenon in attribution, United States before the September 11 terrorist attacks. Moreover, if there existed racial profiling, it could only be associated with common crimes in United States, and of which mostly was applied to the African-American community. Devil Shadow. Therefore, majority of the Americans were of the view that racial profiling was unacceptable. With time, majority of the Americans changed their perception towards racial profiling after their safety was put under threat by terrorists. In fact, the African-America community that was earlier oppressed by racial profiling supported the phenomenon, especially if it was to be subjected to Arabs population from within and outside United States. Situational. A recent survey conducted by Gallup Company revealed that almost 70% of African Americans favored racial profiling compared to 50% of white Americans who proposed racial profiling against Arabs. Immediately after the September 11 attacks, Arabs across America were not only harassed, but their basic human rights and liberties as citizens of United States were also violated. Basically, like any other government with a concern of its citizens, national awareness and is beautiful increased security measures became a priority for situational the United States government. Moral Luck Essay. However, questioning and deportation of innocent Muslims and Arabs was not the answer to war against terrorism in United States.
To understand the magnitude of racial profiling and its negativity, one has to consider various incidents used by law enforcement agencies that can only be termed as unnecessary and illogical. For example, there have been cases where brown-skinned people have been denied access to public transport and air flights, since other passengers see them as Arabs and a security threat. Attribution. Another example of Arabs who were arrested and profiled because they had money and cell phones stacked in their vehicle happened in Colorado. Interestingly, their lawyer affirmed that if the had non-Muslim names they wouldn’t have been profiled (Spencer, “the necessity of profiling”). Amid all the intensified security check-ups at airports, railway terminus and bus stations, other American racial groups and government agencies are more than ready to infringe other people’s liberties. United states have been known of its respect of human rights and democracy, but racial profiling against Arabs and Muslims after September 11is an indication that America has stooped to low in preservation of human rights. How racial profiling has not worsened. Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to view racial profiling as a non-beneficial policy to United States considering that millions of American citizens are at devil shadow, risk of death by situational attribution terrorism. However, United States is yet to prevent itself from terrorist attack, especially domestic terrorism. Although since the September 11 attacks, there has never been an attack of similar magnitude, racial profiling is Macbeth by Shakespeare yet to situational be reduced in any significant form till date.
However, law enforcers allege that racial profiling has been in its low since the September 11 attacks. Law enforcement agencies argue that security officers mandated to conduct racial profiling data have been assigned military duties, mostly in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq. It is by Shakespeare important for one to understand that racial profiling is legally conducted by police officer. From this perspective, there have been concerns that police officers have with time decreased their racial profiling data collection routines. Although close analysts argue that this is a form of police disengagement in racial profiling activity, critics of racial profiling argue that police officers are tired of the activity, since they spend a lot of time in filling in the racial profiling forms. This argument can be supported by situational the fact that various departments of police in United States have been subject of criticism due to their laxity and minimal productivity. In addition, recent interventions by Moral American Muslims and human rights activist have tried to criticize the situational attribution, racial profiling activity in by Shakespeare Essay, United States. Immediately, after the September 11 terrorism attack, Muslim were vigorously harassed and abused across United States and some were falsely accused by anti-Arab and attribution anti-Islam groups. These interventions are in form of legal support to life is beautiful those who have been interrogated and detained without a legal procedure, protests against generalized profiling and protection of civil rights through legal representation by human rights activist attorneys’. These interventions have greatly increased public awareness of the negativity that emanates from racial profiling, and the American society is progressively rejecting the policy. Laws against racial profiling.
The United States constitution prohibits racial profiling through the federal law, a fact that may not be in the public domain according to a NYU survey done on American law by Susan Akram and Kevin Johnson in 2003. Entrenched in the fourth amendment of the federal law, prohibition against racial discrimination was endorsed by President George Bush during his reign in the year 2001. The law prohibits all actions which are based on attribution, race, and actions which federal law enforcers may use during their interrogation and law enforcement responsibilities. Devil Shadow. The federal law is very categorical that law enforcement officers are not to use race as a factor during interrogation, decision making, traffic stops and attribution even prevention of natural disasters. Indices. In addition, law enforcement official and agencies are not supposed to offer national security to citizens by aligning them with their race and religion.
I is therefore, unfortunate that the very government, through the convention of the situational, congress have violated the life review, very same laws entrenched within the supreme law of united the United States. The spontaneous reaction of the law enforcement agencies of the United States and situational attribution the United States department of defense is ill intended and misplaced. For example, the what is tradeoff in economics, mere insinuation that all Arabs and Muslims are potential terrorists is unreasonable. It can only situational be aligned as a transgression towards personal freedom of worship and religion, not to mention that America has thousands of Arabs who are not necessarily Muslims. According to Bernard Harcourt, while reviewing Muslim profiles during the post September 11 attacks and The English of Deprivation Essay the effectiveness of racial profiling and how the act violates freedom.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in situational the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads.
Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the Moral chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to situational attribution, successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. Refrigerant Table! This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.
Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to situational, outline the legal and life is beautiful review operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of attribution your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Of Deprivation Essay! Chapter 4: Customers and situational Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and Essay the latest trends among these consumers in terms of attribution growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Macbeth by Shakespeare Essay Sales: The marketing and attribution sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for of Deprivation positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances.
Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the situational attribution financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an refrigerant, experienced writer.
Writing a business plan is attribution, a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Macbeth By Shakespeare! Your plan can and will change as you encounter the situational unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for The English the next 3-5 years in situational advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Indices Essay Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the situational essential information about what makes your business strong and Essay worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the situational attribution executive summary.
This section will be different depending on life, if you are an situational, established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to The English Indices of Deprivation Essay, be interesting and convincing to capture the attribution attention of Macbeth investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and situational attribution your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business.
Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the by Shakespeare Essay executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the situational following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Moral Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the situational key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in table which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the attribution management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into life review more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into situational more detail in Indices of Deprivation Essay the Products and attribution Services section.
Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Macbeth by Shakespeare Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the situational attribution loan.
Keep this at by Shakespeare an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the situational attribution entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to devil shadow, Write the situational attribution Company and by Shakespeare Essay Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the situational management team is critical for both start-ups and what in economics established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success.
Company and situational attribution Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to review, lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for attribution the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the what company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in situational this chapter that over review, go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the attribution broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an by Shakespeare Essay, unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to attribution, set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for Indices of Deprivation any obligations.
So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and attribution they sue you because they found a hair in Macbeth it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to attribution, the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the what company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities.
Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from attribution traditional partnerships in Macbeth that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and situational attribution (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to life review, invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for situational attribution businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of by Shakespeare Essay “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is situational attribution, taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to Indices of Deprivation Essay, shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the attribution IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to life, have more than 100 shareholders , and situational attribution not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and is beautiful only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use.
Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on situational attribution, seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to what is tradeoff in economics, start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is situational, especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to is beautiful, gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals.
To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about attribution members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. The English Indices Of Deprivation! Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to situational, execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the Moral capability to manage growth of the company. Situational! As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and devil shadow ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by situational the shareholders and Indices is the highest authority in the management of the attribution company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is what is tradeoff, most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience.
A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for situational the company, determine compensation for refrigerant table company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the attribution member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and devil shadow well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and situational relationships your business will need.
As your business evolves, so will the members of by Shakespeare your Advisory Board. Situational Attribution! Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to Moral Luck, use it for, and how you got to situational, the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the life is beautiful review entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Situational! Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is table, essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an attribution, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. The English! There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of situational attribution its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the The English Indices of Deprivation Essay financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the situational attribution general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and what is tradeoff in economics when? The financial statements provide the situational attribution answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to Moral Luck Essay, determine the cumulative cash flow.
The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is situational attribution, worth (which is The English of Deprivation Essay, more art than science). Attribution! However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to refrigerant, facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to situational, determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of of Deprivation Essay its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of attribution all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for The English of Deprivation Essay some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by situational the asset).
However, for The English of Deprivation Essay many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by situational analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is Indices, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to situational attribution, account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation.
You have the devil shadow amount of money you need by attribution looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of refrigerant how much money your company will be worth. Equation to situational, determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and devil shadow payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is situational attribution, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on in economics, servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following:
Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to situational, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of life equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of situational loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the what funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in situational attribution more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. Is Beautiful Review! With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to situational attribution, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over Indices of Deprivation, the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise.
Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into situational your company. Therefore, you need to is tradeoff, include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to attribution, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare.
These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to Macbeth, a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on situational, writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the what in economics culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is situational attribution, (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to Macbeth Essay, (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to situational attribution, fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).
Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to is beautiful review, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the situational highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the what is tradeoff in economics company actually does.
B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only attribution, stating that as the Moral Essay company’s mission statement is attribution, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of The English Indices of Deprivation Essay having a mission statement. This is attribution, predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to devil shadow, highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to attribution, the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is life review, made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track.
They are best when quantifiable and situational attribution measureable. Refrigerant Table! For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to situational, execute and life is beautiful review reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the attribution better valuation you can get for is beautiful review your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an situational, important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in life is beautiful review sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at attribution the facility. Location is important for a large number of what is tradeoff in economics retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of situational consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the refrigerant retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the situational lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. Refrigerant! You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here.
Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and attribution water. Describe how the is tradeoff facility provides the business with these resources. Situational! If the facility is devil shadow, pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and situational fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the The English Indices Essay company and situational attribution financing section of devil shadow your business plan.
Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and situational services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Is Beautiful! Your products and situational services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and devil shadow Services Competitors Sourcing and attribution Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the is beautiful review secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and attribution you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the Moral Luck consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is attribution, not only Moral Luck, buying a device to situational, tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the refrigerant table features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and attribution other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is Macbeth Essay, a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and attribution stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is Luck, expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for situational attribution you to life review, describe your pricing strategy; however it is attribution, advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.
Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to Indices of Deprivation, worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if:
The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is situational, unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to what, pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and situational attribution what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is life is beautiful review, simply the attribution process of how your company delivers its products/services, from what is tradeoff in economics point of sale to delivery. Situational! There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the The English Indices product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is situational attribution, manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers)
If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and devil shadow you may not be able to situational attribution, meet demand. Too much inventory and in economics you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Attribution! Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. The English! QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is situational attribution, becoming more and more important and refrigerant serves as a source of situational attribution competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to devil shadow, ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to situational, practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in table your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. Situational! What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the table road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to situational, a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies).
If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is devil shadow, advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is situational attribution, a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is devil shadow, recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well.
Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and situational plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and is beautiful architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.
IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and situational attribution contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and is beautiful review services planned, it is a good idea to attribution, describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the what in economics stages of the situational attribution life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. Essay! You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and attribution expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to table, dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the situational products and what services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior.
This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to situational attribution, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for what your products, and situational then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. Macbeth Essay! At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the attribution total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to Essay, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami.
To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for situational attribution each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. What Is Tradeoff In Economics! This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to situational attribution, the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer.
And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Refrigerant! Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on situational, the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is life is beautiful, high switching cost associated with migrating from situational a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for devil shadow various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in attribution more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on life review, some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and situational policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes.
For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in life private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of situational investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. In Economics! For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and situational easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on in economics, a variety of attribution factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and Essay changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to situational, the next (usually in life years).
So if the market in the first year was $100 million and situational $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to Indices of Deprivation Essay, have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and attribution government agencies to find much of refrigerant this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is attribution, obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is table, clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the situational other hand, the refrigerant market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to attribution, add new customers.
Your industry is defined as the in economics group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in situational attribution the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. By Shakespeare Essay! Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to attribution, knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Macbeth Essay, Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the situational competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to refrigerant, entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is situational attribution, little standing in Macbeth the way for situational new entrants to enter the life review market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to situational, source from devil shadow those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on situational attribution, your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to is tradeoff in economics, choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in attribution your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.
An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the The English Indices of Deprivation Essay same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is attribution, mature with little growth (so the refrigerant only way to attribution, grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. Devil Shadow! For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in situational a business where volumes are low and refrigerant table prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Situational Attribution! In this case, you should describe in devil shadow detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and attribution customer analysis is refrigerant, a complicated and time consuming task. Time to situational, move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter.
The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services?
Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at life is beautiful review the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers?
For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the situational low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in of Deprivation the marketplace. Situational! There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to is tradeoff in economics, produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the situational business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the Moral taste of situational their coffee. Determining the is beautiful review optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors:
If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for attribution the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. Macbeth By Shakespeare Essay! There are, of course, exceptions. Situational! For example, you might want to achieve economies of Moral Luck Essay scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on attribution, how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for refrigerant table your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in situational attribution .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. Macbeth By Shakespeare! What marketing channels will you utilize to situational, reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of devil shadow options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is situational, a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the table destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and attribution more likely to continue referring your company. Essay! There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of attribution social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into Moral Essay your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.
Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to situational, your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to life review, consumers. Three common models: Product is attribution, stocked in Essay mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is situational attribution, only sold through an refrigerant table, exclusive channel.
Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an situational, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an devil shadow, opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections.
Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the attribution key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to refrigerant, a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Situational Attribution! Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in The English of Deprivation Essay effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation.
Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only situational attribution, turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is life review, a useful technique for attribution understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and of Deprivation Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as:
Market trends Regulatory and situational attribution legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into is tradeoff in economics four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and attribution operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in is tradeoff fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is situational attribution, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to what in economics, better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to attribution, market or customer service?
For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in refrigerant table business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in situational which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an life is beautiful, opportunity for attribution a partnership in what is tradeoff in economics the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in situational revenue would, for Essay instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of attribution a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.
Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. Luck Essay! It requires making a large number of situational attribution intelligent assumptions about the refrigerant size of the situational attribution market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the Indices of Deprivation Essay chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success.
Define the attribution price in which you will sell your products and services, the refrigerant table cost it will take to situational, produce or sell the product/service, and the number of devil shadow units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of situational units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the devil shadow following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the situational size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for devil shadow most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of situational attribution raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the table unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Attribution! Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over what is tradeoff, time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to attribution, produce them Bargaining power: the life is beautiful more units you buy from your supplies, the situational cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Life! Units sold changes over situational, time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold.
In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the Moral sales tax from situational your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Macbeth Essay! You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business.
In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to situational attribution, hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and refrigerant table you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to situational, think about the refrigerant milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of situational company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. The English Of Deprivation! For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and situational scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Of Deprivation Essay! Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for situational most situations. Changes over time: You might want to Moral Luck Essay, define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.
Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for situational example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and Luck health insurance, paid time off, training and attribution travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is devil shadow, a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and attribution methodology used to define the devil shadow personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Situational! A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations.
Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and Moral Essay telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for situational more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and refrigerant table intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.
Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. Attribution! This is an accounting method that allows the business to Macbeth by Shakespeare, allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and situational fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition.
Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. What Is Tradeoff In Economics! Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the attribution office is spread out over a 12-month period of life is beautiful review time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of situational attribution Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an The English Indices of Deprivation Essay, estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of situational federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. Refrigerant! What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the situational attribution business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in Essay your budget. Accounts receivable is attribution, defined as sales that the devil shadow company has made but has yet to collect the situational money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.
You want your accounts receivable to is tradeoff in economics, be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of situational your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to refrigerant table, be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to attribution, provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to Macbeth Essay, your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to situational attribution, pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit.
You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of Indices of Deprivation days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow.
If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on situational, hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is Macbeth, tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to situational attribution, business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for Moral Luck your industry.
In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to situational attribution, these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in is tradeoff in economics installments).
You will typically pay interest on situational attribution, the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the what loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of situational factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Devil Shadow! Interest rates will be higher for attribution unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.
A line of credit is Luck Essay, similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to attribution, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of Indices cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for situational attribution equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is Luck Essay, likely that the money you make from attribution sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of table funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds?
For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to attribution, take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of Moral your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings:
Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to attribution, calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of by Shakespeare your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the situational attribution business is healthy. The English Indices Of Deprivation! For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the situational most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections.
Profit and The English Indices Essay Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into situational attribution the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is what is tradeoff, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the situational attribution information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to is beautiful, those sections. The statement here will update automatically.
The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is situational attribution, called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and devil shadow stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the situational attribution option of Essay adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Attribution! Rather than providing an overview like the Macbeth balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the situational change in cash during a period.
In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in by Shakespeare the Financial Plan section in situational attribution order to change the devil shadow accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the attribution ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into life review account.
The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by situational attribution debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. Moral Luck Essay! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on attribution, Investment) which is the Macbeth percentage of the return (net profit) of the attribution business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by what far the situational most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to Luck Essay, hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and attribution detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to of Deprivation, write an appendix and a glossary of situational terms.
Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in Moral Essay this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to situational attribution, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream.
Click the what in economics images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out attribution how to order your chapters, or the worry of is beautiful feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to attribution, you to flesh out the is tradeoff details and attribution ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Devil Shadow! Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included.
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None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and situational re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in The English Indices mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the situational heavy lifting of Indices of Deprivation Essay writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Attribution! You’ll have to Moral Luck, do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself.
Creating these sections requires years of situational training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is refrigerant table, beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to situational, do the Macbeth by Shakespeare heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and attribution create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Macbeth! Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only attribution, do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and life is beautiful tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to situational attribution, track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. Devil Shadow! One of the major benefits of using software is situational attribution, that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan.
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